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Encyclopedia > List of states in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
A States
B States
C States
D States
E States
F States
G States
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S States
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U States
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This is the main page for the list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire, as alphabetized in the adjacent template, at any time within the empire's existence between 962 and 1806. This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter A: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter B: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter C: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter D: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter E: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter F: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter G: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter H: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter I: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter J: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter K: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter L: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter M: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter N: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter O: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter P: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter Q: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter R: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter S: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter T: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter U: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter V: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter W: Category: ... This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter Z: Category: ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Events February 2 - Pope John XII crowns Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


In the 18th century the Holy Roman Empire consisted of over 1800 separate immediate territories governed by distinct authorities. In 1792 there were approximately 150 secular territorial rulers with the status of Imperial Estate.

Contents

Table of states

Whilst any such list could never be truly definitive, nevertheless the list below attempts to be as comprehensive as possible.


It is not limited to feudal entities that possessed Reichsunmittelbarkeit, that is, under direct authority of the Holy Roman Emperor, but includes quite some other lordships, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs. The Reichsfreiheit or Reichsunmittelbarkeit (adjectives reichsfrei, reichsunmittelbar) was a special, privileged status a city or region could attain in the Holy Roman Empire. ...


There is also a separate list of Free Imperial Cities, as well as a list of participants in the Reichstag as of 1792. This is a list of Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire as of 1792: Aachen Aalen Augsburg Biberach Bopfingen Bremen Buchau Buchhorn Cologne (Köln) Dinkelsbühl Dortmund Esslingen am Neckar Frankfurt am Main Friedberg Gengenbach Giengen Goslar Hamburg Heilbronn Isny im Allgäu Kaufbeuren Kempten Leutkirch im... The Holy Roman Empire was one of the strangest political structures in the world. ...


Key

  • The "Circle" column shows the Imperial Circle (Reichskreis) that the state belonged to.
  • The "Bench" column shows where the state was represented in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag).
Circles Benches
Aust Austrian Circle EL Council of Electors, the exclusive elite formally electing the Holy Roman Emperor
Bav Bavarian Circle EC Spiritual Bench of the Council of Princes (individual voice)
Burg Burgundian Circle PR Secular Bench of the Council of Princes (individual voice)
El Rhin Electoral Rhenish Circle RP Rhenish prelates (Council of Princes)
Franc Franconian Circle SP Swabian prelates (Council of Princes)
Low Rhen Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle FC Franconian counts (Council of Princes)
Low Sax Lower Saxon Circle SC Swabian counts (Council of Princes)
Upp Rhin Upper Rhenish Circle WE Westphalian counts (Council of Princes)
Upp Sax Upper Saxon Circle WT Wetterau counts (Council of Princes)
Swab Swabian Circle RH Rhenish Bench of the Council of Imperial Cities
None "Circle-free" SW Swabian Bench of the Council of Imperial Cities

Note that in the "Circle" column, "n/a" denotes a state that had ceased to exist before the Reichsreform. A map of the Imperial Circles as at the beginning of the 16th century. ... An Imperial State or Imperial Estate (German singular: Reichsstand, plural: Reichsstände) was an entity in the Holy Roman Empire with a vote in the Reichstag or Imperial Diet. ... The Austrian Circle (in German, Österreichischer Reichskreis) was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The Bavarian Circle (in German, Bayerischer Reichskreis) was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Prince-Bishop was the title given bishops who held secular powers, beside their inherent clerical power. ... For other meanings, see Prince (disambiguation). ... A map of the Imperial Circles as at the beginning of the 16th century. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... A map of the Imperial Circles as at the beginning of the 16th century. ... A prelate is a member of the clergy having a special canonical jurisdiction over a territory or a group of people; usually, a prelate is a bishop. ... A map of the Imperial Circles as at the beginning of the 16th century. ... Germany. ... A map of the Imperial Circles as at the beginning of the 16th century. ... Franconia (German: Franken) is a historic region in modern Germany, which today forms three administrative regions of the German federal state of Bavaria: Lower Franconia (Unterfranken), Middle Franconia (Mittelfranken), and Upper Franconia (Oberfranken). ... A count is a nobleman in most European countries, equivalent in rank to a British earl, whose wife is also still a countess (for lack of an Anglo-Saxon term). ... A map of the Imperial Circles as at the beginning of the 16th century. ... Germany. ... A map of the Imperial Circles as at the beginning of the 16th century. ... Westphalia (German: Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Bielefeld, Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster, and Osnabrück and included in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. ... A map of the Imperial Circles as at the beginning of the 16th century. ... The Wetterau is a fertile undulating tract, watered by the Wetter, a tributary of the Main, in German region of Hesse, between the hilly province Oberhessen and the north-western Taunus mountains. ... A map of the Imperial Circles as at the beginning of the 16th century. ... The term Imperial City can refer to several cities: An Imperial Free City of the Holy Roman Empire, a city formally responsible to the emperor only Imperial City (Beijing), usually refers to the central section of the city of Bejing that is known for its collections of gardens, palaces, shrines... In 1495, an attempt was made at a Reichstag in the city of Worms to give the disintegrating Holy Roman Empire a new structure, commonly referred to as Imperial Reform (in German: Whether this reform can be considered successful depends on how one defines its goals; today, many scholars believe...


Other abbreviations used in the list are:

Abp. Archbishopric
Bp. Bishopric
Co. Countship (sometimes also called county)
D. Duchy
Ldg. Landgraviate
Mrg. Margraviate
Pr. Principality
RA Reichsabtei (Imperial abbacy, a monastery enjoying Reichsunmittelbarkeit)

In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop heading a diocese of particular importance due to either its size, history, or both, called an archdiocese. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... This page is about the European nobility; for the baseball term, see count (baseball). ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... A Landgraf (German Landgraf; French landgrave; Latin comes magnus, comes patriae, comes provinciae, comes terrae, comes principalis, lantgravius) or Landgrave was a count in Medieval Germany, who had feudal duty directly to the German King (or Emperor). ... Graf is a German noble title equal in rank to a count or an earl. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... A Reichsabt, literally Imperial Abbot or Abbot of the Empire, was an Abbot whose abbey was granted within the Holy Roman Empire the status of Reichsabtei (or Reichskloster), literally Imperial Abbey (or - Monastery), meaning that it enjoyed Reichsfreiheit, like an Imperial City, making him a prince of the church, with...

Definition of terms

  • Imperial Abbey Reichsabt: A Reichsabt, literally 'Imperial Abbot' or 'Abbot of the Empire', was an Abbot whose abbey was granted within the Holy Roman Empire the status of Reichsabtei (or Reichskloster), literally 'Imperial Abbey' (or - Monastery), meaning that it enjoyed Reichsunmittelbarkeit, like an Imperial City, making him a prince of the church, with the rank of a Prince of the Empire, like a prince-bishop.
  • Imperial Circle: An Imperial Circle (in German Reichskreis, plural Reichskreise) was a regional grouping of states of the Holy Roman Empire, primarily for the purpose of organising a common defence and of collecting imperial taxes, but also as a means of organisation within the Reichstag (Imperial Diet).
  • Imperial Diet Reichstag (institution): The Reichstag was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and Germany until 1945.
  • Imperial Estate: An Imperial State or Imperial Estate (German singular: Reichsstand, plural: Reichsstände) was an entity in the Holy Roman Empire with a vote in the Reichstag or Imperial Diet. Several states had no seats in the Empire, while some officials (such as the Hereditary Usher) were non-voting members; neither qualified as Imperial States.
  • Imperial Free City: In the Holy Roman Empire, an imperial free city (German: freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes (Fürsten) of the Empire, such as dukes or prince-bishops. Free cities also had independent representation in the Reichstag of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Imperial Immediacy Reichsfreiheit: The Reichsfreiheit or Reichsunmittelbarkeit (adjectives reichsfrei, reichsunmittelbar) was a privileged feudal and political status, a form of statehood, which a city, religious entity or feudal principality of minor lordship could attain within the Holy Roman Empire. It is translated as ==imperial immediacy==. An immediate city, abbey or territory was under the direct authority of the Holy Roman Emperor and the Imperial Diet, without any intermediary Liege lord(s). Advantages were that reichsfrei regions had the right to collect taxes and tolls themselves, and held juridical rights (including the Blutgericht, 'high' justice including capital punishment) themselves. De facto Reichsfreiheit corresponded to a semi-independence with a far-reaching autonomy.
  • Imperial Reform: In 1495, an attempt was made at a Reichstag in the city of Worms to give the disintegrating Holy Roman Empire a new structure, commonly referred to as Imperial Reform (in German: Reichsreform).
  • Imperial State: An Imperial State or Imperial Estate (German singular: Reichsstand, plural: Reichsstände) was an entity in the Holy Roman Empire with a vote in the Reichstag or Imperial Diet.
  • Mediatization: defined broadly, is the annexation of one monarchy by another monarchy in such a way that the ruler of the annexed state keeps his or her noble title, and sometimes a measure of power. Thus, for example, when a sovereign county is annexed to a larger principality, its reigning count might find himself subordinated to a prince, but would nevertheless remain a count, rather than be stripped of his title.
  • Prince of the Empire: A Prince of the Empire is any ruling Prince whose territory is a member of the Holy Roman Empire (not only German-speaking countries, but also many bordering and extensive neighbouring regions) and entitled to a voting seat (or in a collective voting unit, such as the Grafenbank) in Imperial Diet or Reichstag.
  • Prince-abbot: A Prince-abbott is a cleric who is a prince of the church (like a prince-bishop) in the sense of an ex-offico temporal lord of a feudal entity, known as prince-abbacy or abbey-principality, in an area that is ruled by the head of an abbey. The designated abbey may be a monastery or a convent. Thus, because of the possibility of it being a convent, an abbey-principality is one of the few cases in which the rule can be restricted to female incumbents, styled princess-abbess. In many cases they were prince of the empire of a Reichsabtei in or near Germany, with a seat in the Reichstag (imperial diet).
  • Prince-Bishop: A Prince-Bishop is a bishop who is a territorial prince of the church on account of one or more secular principalities, usually pre-existent nobiliary titles held concurrently with their inherent clerical office. If the see is an archbishopric, the correct term is prince-archbishop; the equivalent in the regular clergy is a prince-abbot.
  • Prince-elector: The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire (German: sing. Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Holy Roman Emperors.
  • Secularization: Secularization is a process of transformation as a society slowly migrates from close identification with the local institutions of religion to a more clearly separated relationship.

A Reichsabt, literally Imperial Abbot or Abbot of the Empire, was an Abbot whose abbey was granted within the Holy Roman Empire the status of Reichsabtei (or Reichskloster), literally Imperial Abbey (or - Monastery), meaning that it enjoyed Reichsfreiheit, like an Imperial City, making him a prince of the church, with... A Reichsabt, literally Imperial Abbot or Abbot of the Empire, was an Abbot whose abbey was granted within the Holy Roman Empire the status of Reichsabtei (or Reichskloster), literally Imperial Abbey (or - Monastery), meaning that it enjoyed Reichsfreiheit, like an Imperial City, making him a prince of the church, with... The Reichsfreiheit or Reichsunmittelbarkeit (adjectives reichsfrei, reichsunmittelbar) was a special, privileged status a city or region could attain in the Holy Roman Empire. ... A map of the Imperial Circles as at the beginning of the 16th century. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... An Imperial State or Imperial Estate (German singular: Reichsstand, plural: Reichsstände) was an entity in the Holy Roman Empire with a vote in the Reichstag or Imperial Diet. ... In the Holy Roman Empire, an imperial free city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes (Fürsten) of... The Reichsfreiheit or Reichsunmittelbarkeit (adjectives reichsfrei, reichsunmittelbar) was a special, privileged status a city or region could attain in the Holy Roman Empire. ... In 1495, an attempt was made at a Reichstag in the city of Worms to give the disintegrating Holy Roman Empire a new structure, commonly referred to as Imperial Reform (in German: Whether this reform can be considered successful depends on how one defines its goals; today, many scholars believe... An Imperial State or Imperial Estate (German singular: Reichsstand, plural: Reichsstände) was an entity in the Holy Roman Empire with a vote in the Reichstag or Imperial Diet. ... Mediatization, defined broadly, is the annexation of one monarchy by another monarchy in such a way that the ruler of the annexed state keeps his or her noble title, and sometimes a measure of power. ... Fürst (plural Fürsten) is a German title of nobility, usually translated into English as Prince; however this translation can be misleading, since a Fürst usually ranks below a Duke. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Prince-Bishop was the title given bishops who held secular powers, beside their inherent clerical power. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Secularization or secularisation is a process of transformation as a society slowly migrates from close identification with the local institutions of religion to a more clearly separated relationship. ...

Notes column

In the "Notes" column, it is interesting to show, in capsule form, the a) territorial development of the different states or polities (acquisition or loss of possessions, union of rulers or dynasties, etc.); b) royal or noble dynasties, including their various branches, which ruled over territories or polities; c) transmission of succession rights (marriage, female succession, conquest, cession, pledge, etc.); d) attributes of "statehood" (right to mint coins, holding markets and fairs, entering into treaties and pacts, appointment of civil officials, etc.) and e) the size of territory and population of the various polities whenever data is available.


State of the Empire (Reichsstand)

The following excerpt from François Velde's Unequal and Morganatic Marriages in German Law provides an excellent overview on what a "State of the Empire" is.


"The special status of these families manifested itself in the constitution of the Empire as it evolved in the 16th c. (Please see first a general presentation of the constitution of the Holy Roman Empire.) To the status of territorial ruler corresponded a seat and vote in one of the colleges of the Reichstag, the Imperial Diet. In the late 16th c., the multiplication of votes due to territorial fragmentation led to reforms. After the Diet held at Augsburg in 1582, the list of votes remained fixed, notwithstanding further territorial divisions. Furthermore, the right to vote became attached to a land, rather than to a person or family (of course, land was inheritable within families). A member of the Diet with seat and vote (individual or shared) was called a Reichsstand, or state of the Empire.


"At some point (Abt 1911, 103 n2 cites various possible dates, from the turn of the 16th c. to 1653 to the 18th c.), the definition of Hochadel became congruent with being a Reichsstand (adjective: reichsständisch). The reason is that the Emperor, as 'fons nobilitatium,' had the power to create new princes, counts and barons of the Empire, a power which he began to use more frequently. The existing princes, counts and barons were obviously loathe to see the value of their title diminished. The members of the Diet complained and, after 1582, it became the rule that such new princes and counts would not of right have a seat at the Diet. Furthermore, in 1653 the Electoral Capitulation included strict rules on the process by which the Emperor could create new states of the Empire. In particular, any new member had to possess an immediate territory of sufficient size, and had to be accepted by his peers (princes or counts).


"Thus a distinction emerged between families that were part of the Diet in 1582 : the 'old princely' and 'old comital' (altfürstliche, altgräfliche) families -- families who were admitted to the Diet between 1582 and 1803:


the 'new princely' (neufürstliche) and 'new comital' (neugräfliche) families -- families or individuals who received the title of Reichsfreiherr, Reichsgraf or Reichsfürst but were not admitted to the Diet.


"Only the first two groups were part of the Hochadel. Those in the third group were titular counts and princes but in no way accepted as part of the Hochadel.


"Thus it would seem that having a seat and vote in the Reichstag would be a clear criterion for belonging to the Hochadel. But there were further complications:


"In principle, the possession of a territory was a pre-condition for admission in the Diet. However, in the second half of the 18th century a number of counts sat on the counts' benches without any such territory. They were called "personalists" because they had been admitted on a personal basis (ad personam), and some jurists did not consider them to be part of the upper nobility (for example, Pütter 1795, 143).


"Possession of a large immediate territory was a condition for entry, but not a condition for remaining in the Diet. It happened that territories became subjected to another state of the Empire, thus losing immediate status; yet the owner remained in the Diet. Examples include XXX.


"Consequently, whereas, in the 16th century, it was fairly easy to say who was in the upper nobility and who wasn't, it had become more difficulty by the turn of the 19th century.


"Three concepts came into play:

  • immediate status (Reichsunmittelbarkeit),
  • sovereignty over a territory (Landeshoheit),
  • seat and vote at the Diet (Reichsstandschaft).

"The three were 'usually' related, in that the sovereign of a territory was a state of the Empire, and a state of the Empire usually had sovereignty over an immediate territory; but there were exceptions both ways. Various authors emphasized one or a combination of these elements. Thus, Runde (1791) required all three; Pütter emphasized sovereignty; Gönner and Leist emphasized seat and vote at the Diet (in distinction with the imperial knighthood, see below). Among 19th century authors, the main division was between those who required all three criteria , and those who considered Reichsstandschaft to be the sole criterion (Hohler, Klüber, Zoepf, Rehm).


"Using the second, slightly broader concept, at the end of the 18th century the high nobility consisted of those families which had seat and vote at the Imperial Diet, with title of either prince or count (the last baronial family died out in 1775), numbering about 25 princely (fürstliche) and 80 comital (gräfliche) families."


Grouped lists

The following lists are going to be included into the table above.


Ecclesiastical orders

Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta) is an organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide care for poor and sick...

Livonian territories

The Livonian Confederation was a loosely organized alliance in present-day Estonia and Latvia that existed from 1228 to 1560s. ... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Archbishops of Riga (1202) 1255-1561 were the secular rulers of Riga, the capital of Livonia (now known as Latvia). ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Bishopric of Dorpat was a medieval principality 1234-1558 in what are now Tartu, Põlva, Võru and Jõgeva counties in Estonia. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... The Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek (German: Bistum Ösel-Wiek, Estonian: Saare-Lääne piiskopkond) was a semi-independent principality in what is now Saare and Lääne counties of Estonia. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ...

Territories of Old Princely Families

  • Holstein-Gottorp
    • Holstein-Gottorp-Oldenburg
  • Holstein-Glückstadt

Holstein-Gottorp or Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp was a duchy consisting of areas within Schleswig and Holstein, in present-day Denmark and Germany. ...

Italian territories

  • Mantua
  • Milan
  • Modena and Reggio
    Duke of Modena, Reggio, Mirandola, Massa, Carrara and Guastalla, etc
    1452: Duchy of Modena and Reggio
    1796-1814: French occupation

Mantua (in Italian Mantova, in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo language Mantua) is an important city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province with the same name. ... The Duchy of Milan was a state in northern Italy from 1395 to 1797. ... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Reggio is the name of two Italian towns: Reggio Emilia, in the North, sometimes called Reggio nell Emilia or, in ancient times, Reggio di Lombardia or Reggio di Modena Reggio Calabria, in the South (also called Reggio di Calabria) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists...

Territories of New Princely Families

The Princely House of Thurn und Taxis is a German family that was a key player in the postal (mail) services in Europe in the 16th century and is well known as owners of breweries and builders of countless castles. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

See also

The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... An Imperial State or Imperial Estate (German singular: Reichsstand, plural: Reichsstände) was an entity in the Holy Roman Empire with a vote in the Reichstag or Imperial Diet. ... In 1495, the Holy Roman Empire was divided into Imperial Circles (in German: Reichskreise). ... The Holy Roman Empire was one of the strangest political structures in the world. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The term Prince of the church is nowadays used nearly exclusively for Roman Catholic Cardinals. ... Prince-Bishop was the title given bishops who held secular powers, beside their inherent clerical power. ...

References

In English

  • The Arenberg Archives and Cultural Centre. "The Dukes of Arenberg". [1]. Retrieved June 26, 2006.
  • Austrian Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture. "aeiou: The Annotable, Elektronic, Interactive, Osterreich (Austria), Universal Information System". [2]. Retrieved June 23, 2006.
  • "Austrian and German Mediatized Houses, 1871-1919". [3]. Retrieved July 4, 2006.
  • "Braunschweig - Brunswick. A history". [4]. Retrieved July 6, 2006.
  • Cahoon, Benjamin M. (2000-2006). "Europe Index" in WorldStatesmen.org. [5]. June 26, 2006.
  • Cawley, Charles (2006). "Medieval Lands: A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families" in Foundation of Medieval Genealogy. [6]. Retrieved June 23, 2006.
  • Dotor, Santiago (2004). "Historical Flags (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany)" in FOTW: Flags of the World Web Site. [7]. Retrieved July 3, 2006.
  • "Freiburg's History for Pedestrians" (2006). [8]. Retrieved June 26, 2006.
  • Graz, Thomas. "Thomas's Glassware Tour to Central Europe: Old Glasses from Old Europe" in German History Ring. [9]. Retrieved June 20, 2006.
  • Hilkens, Bob (2000). "States and Regents of the World: An Alphabetical Listing of States and Territories and their Regents in the 19th and 20th Centuries". [10]. Retrieved June 27, 2006.
  • "History of the House of Sayn". [11]. Retrieved July 13, 2006.
  • Kane, Ed (2000). "Castle Directory: Alphabetical Listing of German Castles and Fortifications". [12]. Retrieved July 28, 2006.
  • The History Files: Kingdoms of Europe. Retrieved July 9, 2006 (Updated 25 February 2007).
  • "Lippe(-Detmold): Chronology of Lippe" in Genealogy.net. [13]. Retrieved June 25, 2006.
  • Martinsson, Örjan. "Historical Atlas: Europe". [14]. Retrieved July 14, 2006.
  • "Medieval German Counties". [15]. Retrieved July 9, 2006.
  • "Milestones in Pomeranian History, with particular attention to Lauenburg and Buetow". [16]. Retrieved June 26, 2006.
  • Pantel, Mike (2000). "The History of Baden-Wurttemberg". [17]. Retrieved June 25, 2006.
  • Principality of Liechtenstein. "Liechtenstein at a Glance: History". [18]. Retrieved June 25, 2006.
  • Reitwiesner, William Addams (1998). "One of the major questions about the Mediatized Houses is the word 'Mediatized'. What does it mean?". [19]. Retrieved July 1, 2006.
  • Rozn, Val (1999-2003). "The German Reigning Houses: Titles, territories, regnal chronologies". [20]. Retrieved June 9, 2006.
  • Rozn, Val (2002). "The Imperial Nobility and the Constitution of the Holy Roman Empire". [21]. Retrieved July 16, 2006.
  • Rozn, Val (2002). "The Last Years of the Ancient Empire". [22]. Retrieved June 24, 2006
  • Sainty, Guy Stair. "European Royal Houses". [23]. Retrieved June 23, 2006.
  • Sainty, Guy Stair. "The Knights of Saint John in Germany". [24]. Retrieved July 1, 2006.
  • "Schaumburg-Lippe" in Genealogy.net. [25]. Retrieved June 25, 2006.
  • "Sovereigns in Germany". [26]. Retrieved June 22, 2006.
  • Velde, Francois (2005). "The Holy Roman Empire". [27]. Retrieved June 23, 2006.
  • Velde, Francois (2005). "Unequal and Morganatic Marriages in German Law" [28]. Retrieved Jue 26, 2006.
  • Voss, Hans Peter. "History of Schleswig Holstein". [29]. Retrieved July 3, 2006.

In Other Languages

  • Bursik, Heinrich (1998). "Die Herrschaft Hohenberg und die Markgrafschaft Burgau". [30]. For Google-translated English version [31]. Retrieved July 9, 2006.
  • "Das Fürstenhaus Bentheim-Tecklenburg". [32]. For Google-translated English version, see [33]. Retrieved July 11, 2006.
  • Höckmann, Thomas (2006). "Territorial arrangement of North Rhine-Westphalia 1789". (Translation from the original in German through Google Search). [34]. (Excellent articles and links about the States of the Holy Roman Empire). Retrieved June 26, 2006.
  • "Mittelalterliche Genealogie im Deutschen Reich bis zum Ende der Staufer". [35]. Retrieved June 23, 2006.
  • Ortwein, Friedrich J. "Die Herren zu Rappoltstein" (The Lords of Rappoltstein)". [36]. (For English translation: [37]). Retrieved June 25, 2006.
  • "Die Reichsstände". [38]. Retrieved July 8, 2006.
  • Wember, Heinz. "Die Genealogie (Genealogy) von Montfort: Bludenz, Bregenz, Feldkirch, Heiligenberg, Herrenberg, Langenargen, Pfullendorf, Rheinegg, Rothenfels, Sargans, Tettnang, Tosters, Tübingen, Vaduz, Wasserburg, Werdenberg, Zollern". [39]. Retrieved June 23, 2006.
  • List of imperial circles of 1532
  • List of states of the Holy Roman Empire of 1521

Maps and Illustrations

  • Höckmann, Thomas (2006). "Historical maps - Germany at the end of the 18th century". [40]. Retrieved June 26, 2006.
  • Westermann, Großer Atlass zu Weltgeschichte (in German; exquisite detailed maps)

Other Sources


  Results from FactBites:
 
First Reich (5369 words)
The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also '''The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation''' was a political conglomeration of land s in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
The Holy Roman Empire was an attempt to resurrect the Western Roman Empire in western Europe, which was established in 800 when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Roman Emperor on Christmas Day, though the empire and the imperial office did not become formalized for some decades.
The term ''Roman Empire'' was used in 1034 to denote the lands under Conrad II, and ''Holy Empire'' in 1157.
BIGpedia - Roman Empire - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (7870 words)
Roman titles of power were adopted by successor states and other entities with imperial pretensions, including the Frankish kingdom, the Holy Roman Empire, the first and second Bulgarian empires (see List of Bulgarian monarchs), the Russian/Kiev dynasties (see czars), and the German Empire (see Kaiser).
The Empire was parted again among his three surviving sons.The Western Roman Empire was divided among the eldest son Constantine II and the youngest son Constans.
The Holy Roman Empire, an attempt to resurrect the Empire in the West, was established in 800 when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Roman Emperor on Christmas Day, though the empire and the imperial office did not become formalized for some decades.
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