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Encyclopedia > List of rulers of Hungary

This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád.

Contents

Kingdom of Hungary (896/1000-1848/1918/1944)

Affiliation Ruler Reigns of rulers Remarks
Arpads Árpád c. 895 -c. 907 is said to have led the proto-Magyars into Central Europe; he probably ruled together with Kursan
see remarks c.907- c. 955 The rulers during this time period are strongly disputed, mainly because Hungary consisted of several tribes led by various leaders. The only more or less sure fact is that Fajsz was the main leader around 948. The most frequent propositions of scholars are:
  • Szabolcs (c. 907 -?, non-dynastic), Fajsz/Fali (c. ? - 955, Arpads)
  • Tarhos (c. 907 - after 922, Arpads), Zoltán (after 922 - c. 947, Arpads), Fajsz/Fali (c. 947 - c. 955, Arpads)
  • Zoltán (c. 907 - c. 947, Arpads), Fajsz/Fali (c. 947 - c. 955, Arpads)
Arpads Taksony c.955-c.971
Arpads Geza c.971-997
Arpads St. Stephen (István) 997-1038 first king of Hungary (1001)
dynastic struggle 1038-1046
non dynastic Peter Urseolo 1038-1041, 1044-1046 (Géza's grandson)
non dynastic Sámuel Aba 1041-1044 (Husband of Géza's daughter)
Vatha pagan rising 1046-1047 ?
Arpads Andrew I 1047-1061 Árpád dynasty restored
Arpads Bela I 1061-1063
Arpads Solomon (Salamon) 1063-1074
Arpads Géza I 1074-1077
Arpads St. Ladislaus (László) 1077-1095 All Ladislaus' are spelled with "laus" as in 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, see talk page
Arpads Coloman or Kálmán 1095-1114 King of Hungary, & Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia
Arpads Stephen II 1114-1131
Arpads Béla II 1131-1141
Arpads Géza II 1141-1161
Arpads Stephen III 1161-1162
Arpads Ladislaus II 1162-1163
Arpads Stephen IV 1163
Arpads Stephen III, restored 1163-1172
Arpads Béla III 1172-1196
Arpads Emeric (Imre) 1196-1204
Arpads Ladislaus III 1204-1205
Arpads Andrew (András) II 1205-1235
Arpads Béla IV the Great 1235-1270 Mongol invasion
Arpads Stephen V 1270-1272
Arpads Ladislaus IV 1272-1290
Arpads Andrew III 1290-1301 last of Árpád dynasty
Premyslid Wenceslas (Vencel) III of Bohemia 1301-1305 Bohemian king, elected as King of Hungary
Wittelsbach Otto III of Bavaria 1305-1308
Angevin Charles (Károly) I 1308-1342 founded the Anjou line and established the Angevin dynasty in Hungary.
Angevin Louis I the Great (Nagy Lajos) 1342-1382 also king of Poland
Angevin Mary 1382-1395
Angevin Charles II 1385-1386 also King of Naples as Charles III, in opposition to Mary
Luxembourg Sigismund (Zsigmond) 1387-1437 also Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia
Habsburg Albert 1437-1439 son-in-law of the precedent, also German King and Albert V of Austria
Interregnum title dispute between Ulászló I and Ladislaus Posthumus
Jagiellon Ulászló I 1440-1444
Habsburg Ladislaus V Posthumus 1444-1457 also King of Bohemia
non dynastic Matthias Corvinus the Just (Igazságos Mátyás) 1458-1490
Jagiellon Ulászló II 1490-1516 also King of Bohemia
Jagiellon Louis II 1516-1526 also King of Bohemia; killed in the Battle of Mohács
Rival kings of Emperor Ferdinand and John Zápolya both claimed themselves as ruler of Hungary.
Habsburg Ferdinand (Ferdinánd) I 1526-1564 brother in law of Louis II, also Holy Roman Emperor. Ottoman invasion
Zápolya John Zápolya (Zápolya János) 1526-1540 Leader of groups of Hungarian nobles claiming no foreign ruler should be chosen King of Hungary. Claimed the throne with support of Hungarian nobles, and later the Ottoman Sultan. Ottoman invasion. (Zápolya is alternatively spelled as Szapolyai.)
Zápolya Isabel (Izabella) 1556-1559 After the death of his husband Zápolya János the areas was mainly controlled by nobles (with the lead of Fráter György), until the nobles recalled her with her child (II Zápolya Zsigmond) as Queen.
Zápolya John II Sigismund (Zsigmond) Zápolya 1540-1571 Son of precedents. King of Hungary and Prince of Transylvania (Erdély).
Hungary was effectively split into 3 parts: a Habsburg domain in the north and west, Ottoman domain in the center, and the Ottoman satellite Transylvania in the east after 1562.
Habsburg Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor 1563-1576
Habsburg Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor 1572-1608
Báthory Stephen Bathory 1571-1575 Prince of Transylvania
Báthory Christopher (Kristóf) Bathory 1575-1581 Prince of Transylvania and brother of precedent
Báthory Sigismund Bathory 1581-1597, August 1598- March 1599, 1599-1602 Prince of Transylvania and son of precedent. Abdicated three times, twice (1597, 1602), in favor of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II and once (1599) of his cousin Andrew Cardinal Bathory.
Báthory Andrew Cardinal Bathory 1599 Prince of Transylvania
non dynastic Stephen Bocskay 1604-1606 Governor(1604) and Prince (1605) of Transylvania
Rákóczy Sigismund Rákóczy 1607-1608 elected Prince of Transylvania
Habsburg Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor 1608-1619
Báthory Gabriel (Gábor) Bathory 1608-1613 Prince of Transylvania
non dynastic Gábor Bethlen 1613-1629 Prince of Transylvania
Habsburg Ferdinand II 1618-1637
Rákóczy George (György) I Rákóczy 1630-1648 elected Prince of Transylvania
Habsburg Ferdinand III 1625-1657
Habsburg Ferdinand IV 1647-1654
Rákóczy George II Rákóczy 1648-1657 Prince of Transylvania
Habsburg Leopold I 1655-1705
non dynastic Emeric Thököly (or Tökölli) 1660-1682 against Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I
Movements of Hungarian liberation as a result of a prolonged war against Turks. Habsburgs began colonization of Serbs (1690) and Germans (1682-1699) in Southern Hungary.
Habsburg Joseph I 1687-1711
Rákóczy Francis II Rákóczy head of liberation movement (1703-1711) and elected Ruling Prince of Transylvania
Habsburg Charles III 1711-1740
Large scale German settlements in Hungary (1720-1800)
Habsburg Maria Theresa (Mária Terézia) 1740-1780
Habsburg Joseph II 1780-1790
Habsburg Leopold II 1790-1792
Habsburg Francis 1792-1835
Habsburg Ferdinand V 1835-1848

Since the first republic

The Revolutions of 1848 in Habsburg areas had particular impact on the Kingdom of Hungary. The Magyars wanted to establish a Hungarian state, while the Croats sought autonomous government and separation from Hungary.


The Hungarian Republic was proclaimed on 14 April 1849, with Louis Kossuth as Governor-President. On 13 August 1849, the Habsburgs reasserted their authority with the help of Russian troops.

Affiliation Ruler Reigns of rulers Remarks
Habsburg Francis Joseph I (Ferenc József) 2 December 1848- 21 November 1916
Habsburg Charles IV 21 November 1916 - 13 November 1918
Hungary declared complete independence from Austria on October 17, 1918 and formed the First Republic (as the 1849 state is not counted)
Károlyi Mihály 16 November 1918- 21 March 1919
Communist Sandor Garbai 21 March - 1 August 1919 Romania invades Hungary.
Acting Head of State Gyula Peidl 1 August - 6 August 1919
First Republic abolished.
Joseph August, Archduke of Austria 6 August - 23 October 1919 Regent
Istvan Friedrich 23 October - 24 November 1919
Karoly Huszar 24 November 1919 - 1 March 1920
Monarchy Restored
"Monarchy" Miklós Horthy 1 March 1920 - 15 October 1944 Acting as regent.
pro-Nazi Ferenc Szalasi 16 October 1944 - 28 March 1945 Hungary is occupied by Nazi Germany.
anti-Nazi government in opposition to March 1945 Béla Miklós 21 December 1944 - 2 February 1946 Hungary is occupied by the Red Army.
Second Hungarian Republic
Democrat Zoltán Tildy 2 February 1946 - 2 August 1948
Árpád Szakasits 2 August 1948- 26 April 1950
Renamed the "Hungarian Peoples Republic"
Communist Sándor Rónai 26 April 1950 - 14 August 1952
Socialist István Dobi 14 August 1952- 13 April 1967
Hungarian Revolt of 1956
Socialist Pál Losonczi 13 April 1967 - 25 June 1987
Socialist Károly Németh 25 June 1987 - 29 June 1988
Socialist Brunó Ferenc Straub 29 June 1988 - 18 October 1989
Third Hungarian Republic
Socialist Mátyás Szürös 18 October 1989 - 2 May 1990 Interim President
Democrat Árpád Göncz 2 May 1990 - 4 August 2000
Non-party Ferenc Mádl 4 August 2000-Present

General Secretaries of the Hungarian Communist/Socialist Workers' Party (1945-1989)

External links

  • https://secure.magyarorszag.hu/orszaginfo/tortenelem/uralkodokesallamfok/uralkodoallamfo.html

  Results from FactBites:
 
History of Hungary - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (7375 words)
Image:Kingdom of Hungary counties.svgFollowing the rise of resistance throughout the Hungarian kingdom, the rise of romantic nationalism among the various ethnicities, and foreign aggression from Prussia (1866), the Austrian leadership under Franz Joseph was desperate to calm the domestic political situation.
Hungary lost 84% of its timber resources, 43% of its arable land, and 83% of its iron ore. Because most of the country's pre-war industry was concentrated near Budapest, Hungary retained about 51% of its industrial population, 56% of its industry, 82% of its heavy industry, and 70% of its banks.
Hungary's transition to a Western-style democracy was one of the smoothest among the former Soviet bloc.
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