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Encyclopedia > List of regions in the human brain
Neuropsychology
 
Topics

Brain-computer interfacesTraumatic Brain Injury
Brain regionsClinical neuropsychology
Cognitive neuroscienceHuman brain
NeuroanatomyNeurophysiology
PhrenologyCommon misconceptions
Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... // A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device. ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI), traumatic injuries to the brain, also called intracranial injury, or simply head injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage. ... Clinical neuropsychology is a subdiscipline of psychology that specialises in the clinical assessment and treatment of patients with brain injury or neurocognitive deficits. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... A human brain. ... Neuroanatomy is the anatomy of the nervous system. ... Neurophysiology is a part of physiology as a science, which is concerned with the study of the nervous system. ... Phrenology (from Greek: φρήν, phrēn, mind; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is a theory which claims to be able to determine character, personality traits and criminality on the basis of the shape of the head (i. ... A human brain. ...

Brain functions

arousalattention
consciousnessdecision making
executive functionslanguage
learningmemory
motor coordinationsensory perception
planningproblem solving
thought
Visual system Auditory system Olfactory system Gustatory system Somatosensory system Visual perception Motor cortex Brocas area (aka Language Area) Lateralization of brain function Phrenology Cybernetics Connectionism Modularity of mind Artificial intelligence Society of Mind Neuropsychology Electroencephalography Electrophysiology Magnetoencephalography Functional MRI Positron emission tomography Categories: | ... Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake. ... This article is about psychological concept of attention. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... Executive functions is a term synonymous with cognitive control, and used by psychologists and neuroscientists to describe a loosely defined collection of brain processes whose role is to guide thought and behaviour in accordance with internally generated goals or plans. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Explain the dystonias connected with motor coordination. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... For planning in AI, see automated planning and scheduling. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ...

People

Arthur L. BentonDavid Bohm
António DamásioPhineas Gage
Norman Geschwind • Elkhonon Goldberg
Donald O. Hebb • Kenneth Heilman
Muriel D. LezakBenjamin Libet
Rodolfo LlinásAlexander Luria
Brenda MilnerKarl Pribram
Oliver SacksRoger Sperry • H.M. • K.C.
Arthur Lester Benton, Ph. ... David Bohm. ... António Rosa Damásio, GOSE (IPA: ) (b. ... Phineas P. Gage (1823 – May 21, 1860) was a railroad construction foreman who suffered a traumatic brain injury when a tamping iron accidentally passed through his skull, damaging the frontal lobes of his brain. ... Norman Geschwind can be considered the father of modern behavioral neurology in America. ... Elkhonon Goldberg (1946) is a neuropsychologist and cognitive neuroscientist. ... Donald Olding Hebb (July 22, 1904-August 20, 1985) was an influential psychologist, particularly in the area of neuropsychology, where he sought to understand how the function of neurons contributed to psychological processes such as learning. ... Kenneth M. Heilman is an American behavioral neurologist. ... Muriel Deutsch Lezak is an American neuropsychologist best known for her book Neuropsychological Assessment, widely accepted as the standard in the field. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Rodolfo Llinás (born in Bogotá, Cundinamarca in 1934) is the Thomas and Suzanne Murphy Professor of Neuroscience and Chairman of the department of Physiology & Neuroscience at the NYU School of Medicine. ... Alexander Romanovich Luria Александр Романович Лурия (July 16, 1902-1977) was a famous Russian neuropsychologist. ... Dr. Brenda Milner CC (born 15 July 1918, Manchester England) has contributed extensively to the research literature on various topics in the field of clinical neuropsychology. ... Karl H. Pribram (born February 25, 1919 in Vienna, Austria) is a research professor of Psychology and Cognitive Science at Georgetown University, Washington DC. He trained as a neurosurgeon and became a professor at Stanford University, where he did pioneering work on the cerebral cortex. ... Oliver Sacks in 2005. ... Image:Roger W Sperry. ... HM (also known as H.M. and Henry M., born 1926 in Connecticut) is an anonymous memory-impaired patient who has been widely studied since the late 1950s and has been very important in the development of theories that explain the link between brain function and memory, and in the...

Tests

Bender-Gestalt Test
Benton Visual Retention Test
Clinical Dementia Rating
Continuous Performance Task
Glasgow Coma Scale
Hayling and Brixton tests
Lexical decision task
Mini-mental state examination
Stroop effect
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Wisconsin card sorting task Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway. ... The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test or simply the Bender-Gestalt test is a psychological test first developed by child neuropsychiatrist Lauretta Bender. ... The Benton Visual Retention Test (or simply Benton Test) is an individually administered test for ages 8-adult that measures visual perception and visual memory . ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Continuous Performance Task, or CPT, is a psychological test that consists of a series of stimuli. ... The Glasgow Coma Scale is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable, objective way of recording the conscious state of a person, for initial as well as continuing assessment. ... The Hayling and Brixton tests[1] are neuropsychological tests of executive function created by psychologists Paul W. Burgess and Tim Shallice. ... A lexical decision task is a type of experiment in psycholinguistics. ... The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to assess cognition. ... Demonstration Say the color of these words as fast as you can: According to the Stroop effect, the first set of colors would have had a faster reaction time. ... Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale or WAIS is a general test of intelligence (IQ), published in February 1955 as a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue test (1939), standardised for use with adults over the age of 16. ... The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) is a neuropsychological test of set-shifting, i. ...

Tools

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Mind and Brain Portal
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Contents

Brain (neural tube)

For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... In the developing vertebrate nervous system, the neural tube is the precursor of the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord. ...

Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

The rhombencephalon (or hindbrain) is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates. ...

Myelencephalon

The myelencephalon is a developmental categorization of a portion of the central nervous system. ... The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... The interior district of the medulla oblongata is named the pyramid and lies between the anterior median fissure and the antero-lateral sulcus. ... A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial nerves. ... The inferior salivatory nucleus is one of the components of the glossopharyngeal nerve, which stimulates secretion from the parotid gland. ... The nucleus ambiguus (literally ambiguous nucleus) is a region of histologically disparate cells located just dorsal (posterior) to the inferior olivary nucleus in the lateral portion of the upper (rostral) medulla. ... The dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve (or posterior motor nucleus of vagus) is a cranial nerve nucleus for the vagus nerve that arises from the floor of the fourth ventricle. ... The hypoglossal nucleus extends the length of the medulla, and being a motor nucleus, is close to the midline. ... The solitary nucleus and tract are structures in the brainstem that carry and receive visceral sensation and taste from the facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X) cranial nerves, as well as the cranial part of the accessory nerve (XI). ...

Metencephalon

The metencephalon is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system. ... For other uses, see Pons (disambiguation). ... A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial nerves. ... The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear), and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the... The sensory trigeminal nerve nucleus is the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extends through the whole of the brainstem, midbrain to medulla. ... The abducens nucleus is the originating nucleus from which the abducens nerve emerges - a cranial nerve nucleus. ... The cranial nerve motor nucleus of the facial nerve is located in the lower pons. ... The vestibulocochlear nerve (also known as the auditory or acoustic nerve) is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves, and is responsible for transmitting sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain. ... The nuclei of the vestibular nerve. ... The cochlear nuclei consist of: (a) the dorsal cochlear nucleus, corresponding to the tuberculum acusticum on the dorso-lateral surface of the inferior peduncle; and (b) the ventral or accessory cochlear nucleus, placed between the two divisions of the nerve, on the ventral aspect of the inferior peduncle. ... The Superior salivary nucleus (or superior salivatory nucleus) of the facial nerve is a visceromotor cranial nerve nucleus located in the pontine tegmentum. ... The paramedian pontine reticular formation, or PPRF, is a brain region, without clearly defined borders, in the center of the pons. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor control. ... Part of the structure of animal brains, the cerebellar vermis is a narrow, wormlike structure between the hemispheres of the cerebellum. ... The cerebellum can be divided in three main parts, the central cerebellar vermis and the left and right cerebellar hemispheres. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ...

Mesencephalon (midbrain)

In biological anatomy, the mesencephalon (or midbrain) is the middle of three vesicles that arise from the neural tube that forms the brain of developing animals. ... The tectum is the dorsal part of the midbrain, derived in embryonic development from the alar plate of the neural tube. ... The paired inferior colliculi together with the superior colliculi form the eminences of the corpora quadrigemina. ... The superior colliculus is part of the brain that sits below the thalamus and surrounds the pineal gland in the mesencephalon of vertebrate brains. ... The mesencephalic duct, also known as the aqueduct of Silvius or the cerebral aqueduct, contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is within the mesencephalon (or midbrain) and connects the third ventricle in the thalamus (or diencephalon) to the fourth ventricle, which is between the pons and cerebellum. ... The cerebral peduncle, by most classifications, is everything in the mesencephalon except the tectum. ... The midbrain tegmentum is part of the midbrain extending from the substantia nigra to the cerebral aqueduct. ... The ventral tegmentum or the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is part of the midbrain, lying close to the substantia nigra and the red nucleus. ... The red nucleus is a structure in the rostral midbrain involved in motor coordination. ... The cerebral peduncle, by most classifications, is everything in the mesencephalon except the tectum. ... Pretectum is a structure located in the forebrain. ...

Prosencephalon (forebrain)

In the anatomy of vertebrates, the prosencephalon is a part of encephalon, or brain. ...

Diencephalon

The diencephalon is the region of the brain that includes the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. ...

epithalamus

The epithalamus is a dorsal posterior segment of the diencephalon (a segment in the middle of the brain also containing the hypothalamus and the thalamus) which includes the habenula, the stria medullaris and the pineal body. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... The habenular nuclei are a group of small nuclei which are part of the diencephalon. ...

third ventricle

The third ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ...

thalamus

The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος = bedroom, chamber, IPA= /ˈθæləməs/) is a pair and symmetric part of the brain. ... The anterior nuclei of thalamus (or anterior nuclear group) are collection of nuclei at the rostral end of the dorsal thalamus. ... The medial dorsal nucleus is a a large nucleus in the thalamus. ... The midline nuclear group (or midline thalamic nuclei) a region of the thalamus consisting of the following nuclei: paraventricular nucleus of thalamus (nucleus paraventricularis thalami) - not to be confused with paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus paratenial nucleus (nucleus parataenialis) reuniens nucleus (nucleus reuniens) rhomboidal nucleus (nucleus commissuralis rhomboidalis) subfascicular nucleus (nucleus... The lateral nuclear group is a collection of nuclei on the lateral side of the thalamus. ... The pulvinar is the caudal-most nucleus of the thalamus that is conventionally divided into oral, inferior, lateral, and medial subnuclei. ... The ventral nuclear group is a collection of nuclei on the ventral side of the thalamus. ... The Ventral anterior nucleus receives neuronal inputs from the basal ganglia which includes the substantia nigra and the globus pallidus. ... The ventral lateral nucleus receives neuronal inputs from the basal ganglia which includes the substantia nigra and the globus pallidus. ... The ventral posterior nucleus is the somato-sensory relay nucleus in thalamus of the brain. ... The metathalamus is a composite structure of the thalamus, consisting of the medial geniculate nucleus and the lateral geniculate nucleus. ... The medial geniculate nucleus is a nucleus of the thalamus that acts as a relay for auditory information. ... The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus is a part of the brain, which is the primary processor of visual information, received from the retina, in the CNS. Schematic diagram of the primate lateral geniculate nucleus. ... The thalamic reticular nucleus is part of the ventral thalamus that forms a capsule around the thalamus laterally. ...

hypothalamus (limbic system) (HPA axis)

The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... The limbic system is a historically defined set of brain structures that support a variety of functions including emotion and memory. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress. ... The preoptic area is a region of the hypothalamus. ... The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a region of the brain, located in the hypothalamus, that is responsible for controlling endogenous circadian rhythms. ... The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle. ... The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain. ... The Anterior hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. ... The preoptic area is a region of the hypothalamus. ... The Lateral hypothalamus is a part of the hypothalamus. ... The preoptic area is a region of the hypothalamus. ... The Dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. ... The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (sometimes referred to as the ventromedial hypothalamus) has four subdivisions: anterior (VMHa), dorsomedial (VMHdm), ventrolateral (VMHvl), and central (VMHc). ... The arcuate nucleus is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence. ... The Lateral hypothalamus is a part of the hypothalamus. ... The mammillary bodies (mamillary bodies) are a pair of small round bodies, located on the undersurface of the brain, that form part of the limbic system. ... The posterior nucleus of the hypothalamus is one of the many nuclei that make up the hypothalamic region of the brain. ... The Lateral hypothalamus is a part of the hypothalamus. ... Visual pathway with optic chiasm circled The optic chiasm (from the Greek χλαζειν to mark with an X, after the letter Χ chi) is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross, those parts of the right eye which see things on the right side being connected to the... The Subfornical organ is one of the circumventricular organs of the brain and is involved in thirst-regulation. ... The Periventricular nucleus is a composite structure of the hypothalamus. ... An infundibulum (Latin for funnel; plural, infundibula) is a funnel-shape cavity or organ. ... The tuber cinereum is a hollow madda of gray substance situated between the corpora mammillaria behind, and the optic chiasma in front. ... The mammillary bodies (Latin: corpus mamillare) are a pair of small round bodies in the brain forming part of the limbic system. ...

subthalamus(HPA axis)

The subthalamus, or ventral thalamus, is part of the diencephalon. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress. ... The zona incerta is a small region of gray matter that is part of the subthalamus. ...

pituitary gland (HPA axis)

| Latin = hypophysis, glandula pituitaria | GraySubject = 275 | GrayPage = 1275 | Image = Gray1180. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress. ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ...

Telencephalon (cerebrum) Cerebral hemispheres

Red:Frontal lobe

red:frontal lobe
orange:parietal lobe
yellow:occipital lobe
green: temporal lobe
blue:cerebellum
black:brainstem The telencephalon (te-len-seff-a-lon) is the technical name for a large region within the brain which is attributed many functions, which some groups would class as unique features which make humans stand out from other species. ... The human brain as viewed from above, showing the cerebral hemispheres. ... Image File history File links Brainlobes. ... {{Infobox Brain| Name = Frontal lobe | Latin = lobus frontalis | GraySubject = 189 | GrayPage = 821 | Map = Cerebrum map| MapPos = | MapCaption = Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain, containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor control. ... The brain stem is the lower part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. ...

White matter

White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ... The corona radiata surround an ovum or unfertilized egg cell, and consist of two or three strata (layers) of follicular cells. ... The internal capsule is an area of white matter in the brain that separates the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the lenticular nucleus. ... The external capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. ... The extremem capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. ... Figure one illustrates significant language areas of the brain. ... The uncinate fasciculus passes across the bottom of the lateral fissure, and unites the gyri of the frontal lobe with the anterior end of the temporal lobe. ...

Subcortical

This article is about part of the human brain. ... The limbic system is a historically defined set of brain structures that support a variety of functions including emotion and memory. ... The limbic system is a group of brain structures that are involved in various emotions such as aggression, fear, pleasure and also in the formation of memory. ... In anatomy of animals, the paleopallium is a region within the telencephalon in brain. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Accessory olfactory system (AOS) is one of the two olfactory systems commonly found in vertebrates. ... The Lateral hypothalamus is a part of the hypothalamus. ... For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). ... The limbic system is a historically defined set of brain structures that support a variety of functions including emotion and memory. ... The limbic system is a group of brain structures that are involved in various emotions such as aggression, fear, pleasure and also in the formation of memory. ... In anatomy of animals, the archipallium the oldest region of the brains pallium. ... The dentate gyrus is part of the hippocampal formation. ... Daigram of hippocampal regions. ... The claustrum is a thin layer of grey matter lying between the extreme capsule and external capsule in the brain. ... The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei in the brain interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. ... Coronal slices of human brain showing the basal ganglia, the striatum and pallidum globus pallidus: external segment (GPe), subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus: internal segment (GPi), and substantia nigra (SN). ... In anatomy of animals, the archipallium the oldest region of the brains pallium. ... The putamen is a structure in the middle of the brain, forming the striatum together with the caudate nucleus. ... Grays Fig. ... The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the septum), is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... The globus pallidus (Latin for pale body) is a sub-cortical structure in the brain. ... The lentiform nucleus or lenticular nucleus describes the putamen and the globus pallidus within the basal ganglia. ... The putamen is a structure in the middle of the brain, forming the striatum together with the caudate nucleus. ... Coronal slices of human brain showing the basal ganglia, globus pallidus: external segment (GPe), subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus: internal segment (GPi), and substantia nigra (SN). ... The substantia nigra, (Latin for black substance, Soemering) or locus niger is a heterogeneous portion of the midbrain, separating the pes (foot) from the tegmentum (covering), and a major element of the basal ganglia system. ...

Rhinencephalon (paleopallium)

In animal anatomy, the rhinencephalon is a part of the brain involved with olfaction. ... In anatomy of animals, the paleopallium is a region within the telencephalon in brain. ... The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors. ... In anatomy of animals, the piriform cortex, or pyriform cortex is a region in the brain. ... The anterior olfactory nucleus is a cranial nucleus for the olfactory nerve. ... The olfactory tract is a narrow white band, triangular on coronal section, the apex being directed upward. ... The Anterior Commissure (precommissure) is a bundle of white fibers, connecting the two cerebral hemispheres across the middle line, and placed in front of the columns of the fornix. ...

Lateral ventricles

The ventricular system is a fluid conducting system within the brain. ...

Cerebral cortex (neopallium)

For other uses, see Cortex. ... The neopallium (Latin for new mantle) is a part of the brain of mammals. ... {{Infobox Brain| Name = Frontal lobe | Latin = lobus frontalis | GraySubject = 189 | GrayPage = 821 | Map = Cerebrum map| MapPos = | MapCaption = Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. ... The primary motor area is a group of networked cells in mammalian brains that controls movements of specific body parts associated with cell groups in that area of the brain. ... Lateral surface of the brain with Brodmanns areas numbered. ... Brodmann area 4 of human brain. ... The primary motor area is a group of networked cells in mammalian brains that controls movements of specific body parts associated with cell groups in that area of the brain. ... “Prefrontal” redirects here. ... The premotor cortex is an area of motor cortex in the frontal lobe of the brain, located in front of the primary motor cortex and behind the prefrontal cortex. ... Grays FIG. 726– Lateral surface of left cerebral hemisphere, viewed from the side. ... Superior frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... Middle frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... Inferior frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... Lateral surface of the brain with Brodmanns areas numbered. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... // Human Brodmann area 8, or BA8, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The term Brodmann area 12 refers to a subdivision of the cerebral cortex of the guenon defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture. ... 24 - ventral anterior cingulate (area cingularis anterior ventralis). ... // Human Brodmann area 25 (BA25) is an area in the cerebral cortex of the brain and delineated based on its cytoarchitectonic characteristics. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This area is known as pregenual area 33, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... // Where is it? Brodmann area 46, or BA46, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... Where is it? Brodmann area 47, or BA47, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... The primary auditory cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ... The inferior temporal gyrus is placed below the middle temporal sulcus, and is connected behind with the inferior occipital gyrus; it also extends around the infero-lateral border on to the inferior surface of the temporal lobe, where it is limited by the inferior sulcus. ... Superior temporal gyrus of the human brain. ... The location in the brain of the middle temporal gyrus Middle temporal gyrus is a gyrus in the brain on the Temporal lobe. ... Function of Inferior Temporal Gyrus The Inferior Temporal Gyrus, also known as Brocas area, carries out many tasks, and is mainly responsible for its task in phoenetical analysis for reading. ... The fusiform gyrus is part of the temporal lobe. ... The parahippocampal gyrus (or hippocampal gyrus) is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus. ... Lateral surface of the brain with Brodmanns areas numbered. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... On the left side of the brain is an area called Brodmann’s area 22, that help generate and help the understanding of individual words, and on the right side of the brain it helps tell the difference between melody, pitch, and sound intensity. ... The term area 27 of Brodmann-1909 refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined cortical area that is a rostral part of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS of the guenon (Brodmann-1909). ... You have new messages. ... // Human This area is known as perirhinal area 35, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined hippocampal region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as ectorhinal area 36, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined temporal region of cerebral cortex. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The primary auditory cortex the region of the brain which is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ... The primary auditory cortex the region of the brain which is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... The postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... The lateral postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... ... The precuneus is a structure in the brain positioned above the cuneus and located in the parietal lobe. ... Lateral surface of the brain with Brodmanns areas numbered. ... The postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... The postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... The postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... The primary sensory areas are the main cerebral areas that receive sensory information from thalamic nerve projections. ... Brodmann area 5 is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Brodmann area 23 (BA23) is a region in the brain corresponding to some portion of the posterior cingulate cortex. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... This area is known as granular retrolimbic area 29, and it refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as dorsal posterior cingulate area 31, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Brodmann area 40, or BA40, is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain, containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. ... Brodmann area 17 (primary visual cortex) is shown in red in this image which also shows area 18 (orange) and 19 (yellow) The primary visual cortex (usually called V1) is the most well-studied visual area in the brain. ... Cuneus (Latin for wedge; plural, cunei), the architectural term applied to the wedge-shaped divisions of the Roman theatre separated by the scalae or stairways; see Vitruvius v. ... Lateral surface of the brain with Brodmanns areas numbered. ... Brodmann area 17 (primary visual cortex) is shown in red in this image which also shows area 18 (orange) and 19 (yellow) The primary visual cortex (usually called V1) is the most well-studied visual area in the brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Brodmann area 19 is shown in yellow in this image which also shows ares 17 (red) and 18 (orange) Brodmann area 19, or BA19, is part of the occipital lobe cortex in the human brain. ... The insular cortex (also often referred to as just the insula) is a structure of the human brain. ... The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cortex. ... Brodmann area 25 (BA25) is an area in the cerebral cortex of the brain and delineated based on its cytoarchitectonic characteristics. ... Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex and includes Brodmanns area 24 (ventral ACC) and 32 (dorsal ACC). ... The Cingulum is a collection of nerve fibres following a long, arcuate course superior to and around to posterior to the Corpus callosum. ... The retrosplenial region is a brain area part of the cingular cortex. ... Lateral surface of the brain with Brodmanns areas numbered. ... Brodmann area 23 (BA23) is a region in the brain corresponding to some portion of the posterior cingulate cortex. ... 24 - ventral anterior cingulate (area cingularis anterior ventralis). ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... This area is known as granular retrolimbic area 29, and it refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as agranular retrolimbic area 30, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as dorsal posterior cingulate area 31, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

Neural pathways

A neural pathway is a neural tract connecting one part of the nervous system with another, usually consisting of bundles of elongated, myelin insultated neurons, known collectively as white matter. ... Figure one illustrates significant language areas of the brain. ... The cerebral peduncle, by most classifications, is everything in the mesencephalon except the tectum. ... The corpus callosum is a structure of the mammalian brain in the longitudal fissure that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres. ... The corticospinal or pyramidal tract is a massive collection of axons that travel between the cerebral cortex of the brain, and the spinal cord. ... The mesocortical pathway is a neural pathway which connects the ventral tegmentum to the cortex, particularly the frontal lobes. ... The mesolimbic pathway is one of the neural pathways in the brain that link the ventral tegmentum in the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens in the limbic system. ... The nigrostriatal pathway is a neural pathway which connects the substantia nigra with the striatum. ... The tuberoinfundibular pathway is a neural pathway which runs between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ... The raphe nuclei (Latin for the bit in a fold or seam) is a moderately sized cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem, and releases serotonin to the rest of the brain. ...

Cerebrospinal systems

// Traditionally, the term neural network had been used to refer to a network or circuitry of biological neurons. ...

Neuronal systems

The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The peripheral nervous system (PNS) can be divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). ... The somatic nervous system is that part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements through the action of skeletal muscles, and also reception of external stimuli. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... Autonomic nervous system innervation, showing the sympathetic and parasympathetic (craniosacral) systems, in red and blue, respectively The parasympathetic nervous system is one of three divisions of the autonomic nervous system. ... The enteric nervous system (ENS) is an interdependent part of the autonomic nervous system. ... The nerves of the small intestines are derived from the plexuses of parasympathetic nerves around the superior mesenteric artery. ... Part of the enteric nervous system, Auerbachs plexus (or myenteric plexus) exists between the longitudinal and circular layers of muscularis externa in the gastrointestinal tract and provides motor innervation to both layers and secretomotor innervation to the mucosa. ...

Cognitive systems

Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Senses Senses are a UK based alternative rock band from Coventry. ... The human eye is the first element of a sensory system: in this case, vision, for the visual system. ... Olfaction (also known as olfactics) refers to the sense of smell. ... In animal anatomy, the rhinencephalon is a part of the brain involved with olfaction. ... The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ... The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing. ... Sounds and noises are only separated by the experience of the listener. ...

Volitive systems

Look up Volition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses of Muscle, see Muscle (disambiguation). ... In human anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a neural network located in the brain that is part of the motor system involved in the coordination of movement. ... The corticospinal or pyramidal tract is a massive collection of axons that travel between the cerebral cortex of the brain, and the spinal cord. ...

Nerves

A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers or axons, which includes the glia that ensheath the axons in myelin. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The brain stem is the lower part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. ... Cranial nerves Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain in contrast to spinal nerves which emerge from segments of the spinal cord. ... The terminal nerve, or cranial nerve zero, was discovered by German scientist Gustav Fritsch in 1878 in the brains of sharks. ... The olfactory nerve is the first of twelve cranial nerves. ... This article is about the anatomical structure. ... The oculomotor nerve () is the third of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The fourth of twelve cranial nerves, the trochlear nerve controls the function of the superior oblique muscle, which rotates the eye away from the nose and also moves the eye downward. ... The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear), and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the... The sixth of twelve cranial nerves, the abducens nerve is a motor nerve that innervates the lateral rectus muscle and therefore controls each eyes ability to abduct (move away from the midline). ... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The vestibulocochlear nerve (also known as the auditory or acoustic nerve) is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves, and is responsible for transmitting sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain. ... The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve cranial nerves. ... The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ... In anatomy, the accessory nerve is a nerve that controls specific muscles of the neck. ... The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve (XII). ...

Neurocrine systems

The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... The limbic system is a historically defined set of brain structures that support a variety of functions including emotion and memory. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress. ...

Vascular systems

For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The circle of Willis (also called the cerebral arterial circle or arterial circle of Willis) is a circle of arteries that supply blood to the brain. ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ... The blood-brain barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels in the central nervous system, and most parts of the central nervous system itself. ...

Dural meningeal system

The meninges (singular meninx) is the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ... The dura mater (from the Latin hard mother), or pachymeninx, is the tough and inflexible outermost of the three layers of the meninges surrounding the brain. ... The Arachnoid mater is one of the three layers of the meninges, interposed between the dura mater and the pia mater and separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid space. ... [www. ... The epidural space is a part of the human spine which is very close to the spinal cord, lying just outside the dura mater. ... The subdural space (or subdural cavity) is an artificial space created by the separation of the arachnoid mater from the dura mater as the result of trauma or pathologic process. ... The ventricular system is a set of structures in the brain continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that contain the brain. ... The third ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ... The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ... The ventricular system is a fluid conducting system within the brain. ... The anterior horn is the anterior division of the lateral ventricle of the brain. ... The posterior horn (posterior cornu, dorsal horn, spinal dorsal horn) of the spinal cord is the dorsal (more towards the back) grey matter of the spinal cord. ... The interpeduncular cistern (basal cistern) is a wide cavity where the arachnoid extends across between the two temporal lobes. ... The Pontine cistern is a considerable space on the ventral aspect of the pons. ... The cisterna magna (or cerebellomedullary cistern) is a large cistern between the cerebellum and medulla. ...

Organization

Anatomical regions are listed vertically beneath Brain according to typical hierarchies. Functional, connective and developmental regions are listed horizontally in (italicized subscript). Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... // medulla oblongata medullary pyramids Medullary cranial nerve nuclei Inferior salivatory nucleus Nucleus ambiguus Dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve Hypoglossal nucleus Solitary nucleus pons Respiratory centres pneumotactic centre apneustic centre Pontine cranial nerve nuclei chief or pontine nucleus of the trigeminal nerve sensory nucleus (V) motor nucleus for the trigeminal nerve... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Functional and connective regions defined as systems are categorized at cerebrospinal systems. // medulla oblongata medullary pyramids Medullary cranial nerve nuclei Inferior salivatory nucleus Nucleus ambiguus Dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve Hypoglossal nucleus Solitary nucleus pons Respiratory centres pneumotactic centre apneustic centre Pontine cranial nerve nuclei chief or pontine nucleus of the trigeminal nerve sensory nucleus (V) motor nucleus for the trigeminal nerve...


Related topic

A human brain. ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... Autonomic nervous system innervation, showing the sympathetic and parasympathetic (craniosacral) systems, in red and blue, respectively The parasympathetic nervous system is one of three divisions of the autonomic nervous system. ... The peripheral nervous system (PNS) can be divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). ... The somatic nervous system is that part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements through the action of skeletal muscles, and also reception of external stimuli. ... The enteric nervous system (ENS) is an interdependent part of the autonomic nervous system. ... The human eye is the first element of a sensory system: in this case, vision, for the visual system. ...

External links

  • High-Resolution Cytoarchitectural Primate Brain Atlases
  • View information on various brain regions: images, name in seven languages, location, etc.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Brain (3476 words)
Human consciousness involves both the extended capacity of the modern neocortex in particular as well as profoundly developed prototypical structures of the brain stem.
Brain stem structures are almost completely enveloped by the cerebellum and telencephalon, with the medulla oblongata projecting through the foramen magnum to merge with the spinal cord.
Further, the molecular and cell biological examination of brain pathology is hindered by the scarcity of appropriate samples for study, the (usual) inability to biopsy the brain from a living person suffering from a malady, and an incomplete description of the brain's microanatomy.
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