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Encyclopedia > List of philosophies

Philosophies: particular schools of thought, styles of philosophy, or descriptions of philosophical ideas attributed to a particular group or culture - listed in alphabetical order. The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ...

Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Absolutism - Actual Idealism - Aesthetics - African philosophy - Agnosticism - Altruism - Anti-realism - Analytic philosophy - Ancient philosophy - Anomalous monism - Applied ethics - Aristotelianism - Atheism - Axiology Absolute truth can be interpreted in different ways based on its usage, just like truth. ... Actual Idealism was a form of idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a grounded idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of Immanuel Kant and the Absolute idealism of Georg Hegel. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without, and Gnosticism or gnosis, meaning knowledge) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims—particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality—is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism... For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... In philosophy, the term anti-realism is used to describe any position involving either the denial of the objective reality of entities of a certain type or the insistence that we should be agnostic about their real existence. ... Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. ... This page lists some links to ancient philosophy, although for Western thinkers prior to Socrates, see Pre-Socratic philosophy. ... Anomalous Monism is a philosophical thesis about the mind-body relationship. ... Applied ethics takes a theory of ethics, such as utilitarianism, social contract theory, or deontology, and applies its major principles to a particular set of circumstances and practices. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Axiology, from the Greek axia (αξια, value, worth), is the study of value or quality. ...


B

Bioethics - Buddhist philosophy {{}} Bioethics are the ethics of biological science and medicine. ... Buddhist philosophy is the branch of Eastern philosophy based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, a. ...


C

Charvaka - Chinese philosophy - Christian existentialism - Christian humanism - Christian philosophy - Collectivism - Compatibilism and incompatibilism - Computer ethics - Confirmation holism - Confucianism - Consequentialism - Continental philosophy - Critical rationalism - Cultural relativism - Cynicism - Czech philosophy Carvaka, also frequently transliterated as Charvaka, and also known as Lokayata, is a thoroughly materialist and atheist school of thought with ancient roots in India. ... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Christian humanism is the belief that human freedom and individualism are compatible with the practice of Christianity or intrinsic in its doctrine. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Filled with OR and completely unsourced. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Compatibilism is the belief that free will and determinism are in fact compatible and capable of co-existence (people who hold this belief are known as compatibilists). ... Computer ethics is a branch of practical philosophy which deals with how computing professionals should make decisions regarding professional and social conduct. ... Confirmation holism, also called epistemological holism is the claim that a scientific theory cannot be tested in isolation; a test of one theory always depends on other theories and hypotheses. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ... Consequentialism refers to those moral theories which hold that the consequences of a particular action form the basis for any valid moral judgment about that action. ... Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ... Critical rationalism is an epistemological philosophy advanced by Karl Raimund Popper, which is a logical generalization of his approach to science, falsificationism. ... Cultural relativism is the principle that an individual humans beliefs and activities are interpreted in terms of his or her own culture. ... This article is about the current understanding of the word cynicism. ... Czech philosophy has rarely had a continous history. ...


D

Daoism- Danish philosophy - Deconstruction - Deductive reasoning - Deism - Defeatism - Democratic transhumanism - Deontology - Determinism - Dialectical materialism - Digital philosophy - Dualism For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... The Danish philosophy has a long tradition as part of the Western philosophy. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Deductive reasoning is the kind of reasoning where the conclusion is necessitated by previously known premises. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... Defeatism is acceptance and content with defeat without struggle. ... Democratic transhumanism, a term coined by Dr. James Hughes in 2002, refers to the stance of transhumanists (humanists who support morphological freedom and the ethical use of human enhancement technologies) who espouse liberal, social or radical democratic political views. ... In moral philosophy, deontology is the view that morality either forbids or permits actions, which is done through moral norms. ... Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition and behavior, decision and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. ... According to many followers of the theories of Karl Marx (or Marxists), dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


E

Eastern philosophy - Eliminative materialism - Emergent materialism - Empiricism - Environmental ethics - Epicureanism - Epiphenomenalism - Epistemology - Ethics - Experimental philosophy - Existentialism - Externalism This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Eliminativists argue that our modern belief in the existence of mental phenomena is analogous to our ancient belief in obsolete theories such as the geocentric model of the universe. ... Emergent materialism asserts that we will never understand the mechanism of emergence: it will always seem to us like emergence is magical. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers the ethical relationship between human beings and the natural environment. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... Epiphenomenalism is a view in philosophy of mind according to which some or all mental states are mere epiphenomena (side-effects or by-products) of physical states of the world. ... It has been suggested that Meta-epistemology be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement which claims that individual human beings create the meanings of their own lives. ... Recently internalism and externalism have become part of the standard jargon of philosophical discourse, and have become central to certain important debates. ...


F

Falsificationism - Fatalism - French materialism - Functionalism This page discusses how a theory or assertion is falsifiable (disprovable opp: verifiable), rather than the non-philosophical use of falsification, meaning counterfeiting. ... It has been suggested that Theological fatalism be merged into this article or section. ... French materialism combined the associationist psychology and Empiricism of John Locke with the Totality of Isaac Newton to create a complex world view in diametrical opposition to the Cartesian dualist world view. ... Functionalism is a term with several senses: For functionalism in sociology, see Functionalism (sociology). ...


G

German idealism - German philosophy - Greek philosophy German idealism was a philosophical movement in Germany in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... German philosophy, here taken to mean philosophy in German language, has been extremely diverse, and central to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from Leibniz through Kant and Hegel to contemporary philosophers such as Jürgen Habermas. ... Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ...


H

Hedonism - Hermeneutics - Heterophenomenology - Hindu philosophy - Historical materialism - Holism - Humanism - Humanistic naturalism - Hasidism This article does not cite any sources. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... According to Dennett, heterophenomonology (phenomenology of another not oneself), is the process in which you take the vocal sounds emanating from the subjects’ mouths (and your own mouth) and interpret them! He goes on to assert that the total set of details of heterophenomenology, plus all the data we... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term (he referred it as philosophical materialism, a term he used to distinguish it from what he called popular materialism). Historical... Whole redirects here. ... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities... Humanistic naturalism places the emphasis upon a naturalistic outlook based upon the scientific method of reasoning, qualified by a complementary emphasis upon the humanities. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ...


I

Idealism - Individualism - Indian philosophy - Indonesian philosophy - Induction / Inductionism - Innatism - Instrumentalism - Internalism - Intraphilism- Intuitionism - Irrealism - Islamic philosophy This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... This article contains information that has not been verified. ... Induction or inductive reasoning, sometimes called inductive logic, is the process of reasoning in which the premises of an argument support the conclusion, but do not ensure it. ... Inductionism is the scientific philosophy where laws are induced from sets of data. ... Innatism is a philosophical doctrine introduced by Plato in the socratic dialogue Meno which holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a tabula rasa at birth. ... In the philosophy of science, instrumentalism is the view that concepts and theories are merely useful instruments whose worth is measured not by whether the concepts and theories are true or false (or correctly depict reality), but by how effective they are in explaining and predicting phenomena. ... Recently internalism and externalism have become part of the standard jargon of philosophical discourse, and have become central to certain important debates. ... In the philosophy of mathematics, intuitionism, or neointuitionism (opposed to preintuitionism), is an approach to mathematics as the constructive mental activity of humans. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ...


J

Jainism - Japanese philosophy - Jewish philosophy - Just war theory Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... A blend of Confucianism, neo-Confucianism, Buddhism, Shinto and Daoism Routledge encyclopedia Categories: Japan-related stubs ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... Just War theory is the attempt to distinguish between justifiable and unjustifiable uses of organized armed forces. ...


K

Kantianism - Korean philosophy Kantianism is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher born in Königsberg, Germany (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... There has been a continuous history of philosophy in Korea, that goes back more than two thousand years. ...


L

Legalism - Libertarianism - Logic / Informal logic - Logical atomism - Logical positivism - Logicism Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ... In philosophical debates about free will and determinism, libertarianism is generally held to be the combination of the following beliefs: that free will is incompatible with determinism that human beings do possess free will, and that determinism is false All libertarians subscribe to the philosophy of incompatibilism which states that... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Informal logic is the study of arguments as presented in ordinary language, as contrasted with the presentations of arguments in an artificial (technical) or formal language (see formal logic). ... Logical Atomism is a philosophical belief that originated in the early 20th century with the development of Analytic philosophy. ... Logical positivism grew from the discussions of Moritz Schlicks Vienna Circle and Hans Reichenbachs Berlin Circle in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Logicism is one of the schools of thought in the philosophy of mathematics, putting forth the theory that mathematics is an extension of logic and therefore some or all mathematics is reducible to logic. ...


M

Marxism - Materialism - Medieval philosophy - Mereological nihilism - Meta-philosophy - Metaphysics - Metaethics - Medieval philosophy - Modernism - Monism - Moral absolutism - Moral objectivism - Moral realism - Moral relativism - Moral skepticism Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... Philosophy seated between the seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Europe and the Middle East in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman... Mereological nihilism (also called compositional nihilism, or what some philosophers just call nihilism) is the position that objects with proper parts do not exist (not only objects in space, but also objects existing in time do not have any temporal parts), and only basic building blocks without parts exist (e. ... Meta-philosophy (philosophy of philosophy) is the study of the subject, matter, methods and aims of philosophy. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... In philosophy, ethics is commonly divided into two branches, normative ethics and meta-ethics. ... Philosophy seated between the seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Europe and the Middle East in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... Moral absolutism is the belief that there are absolute standards against which moral questions can be judged, and that certain actions are right or wrong, devoid of the context of the act. ... It has been suggested that Moral realism be merged into this article or section. ... Moral realism is the view in philosophy that there are objective moral values. ... In philosophy, moral relativism is the position that moral or ethical propositions do not reflect objective and/or universal moral truths, but instead make claims relative to social, cultural, historical or personal circumstances. ... In meta-ethics, moral skepticism is a theory which maintains either that ethical claims are generally false, or else that we cannot sufficiently justify any ethical claims, and must therefore maintain doubt about whether they are true or false. ...


N

Naturalism - Neo-Hegelianism - Neo-Kantianism - Neoplatonism - Neo-Scholasticism - Neuroethics - New Wittgenstein - Neutral monism - Nihilism - Nominalism Naturalism is any of several philosophical stances, typically those descended from materialism and pragmatism, that reject the validity of explanations or theories making use of entities inaccessible to natural science. ... Neo-Hegelianism is a school (or schools) of thought associated and inspired by the works of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, a German idealist philosopher active around the year 1800. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kantianism. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... Neo-Scholasticism is the development of the Scholasticism of the Middle Ages during the latter half of the nineteenth century. ... Neuroethics is most commonly understood to be the bioethics subcategory concerned with neuroscience and neurotechnology. ... The New Wittgenstein is a set of affiliated interpretations of the work of philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. ... Neutral monism, in philosophy, is the metaphysical view that nature consists of one kind (hence monism) of primal stuff, which in itself is neither mental nor physical, but is capable of mental and physical aspects or attributes. ... This article is about the philosophical position. ... In philosophy, nominalism is the theory that abstract terms, general terms, or universals do not represent objective real existents, but are merely names, words, or vocal utterances (flatus vocis). ...


O

Objective idealism - Objectivism - Ontology - Optimism Objective idealism is an idealistic metaphysics that postulates that there is in an important sense only one perceiver, and that this perceiver is one with that which is perceived. ... Objectivism is the philosophical system developed by Russian-American philosopher and writer Ayn Rand. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... “Positive Attitude” redirects here. ...


P

Pacifism - Pakistani philosophy - Pancritical rationalism - Panpsychism - Pantheism - Perennial philosophy - Perfectionism - Peripatetic - Personalism - Perspectivism - Pessimism - Phenomenalism - Phenomenology - Philosophical Satanism - Philosophy of art - Philosophy of action - Philosophy of biology - Philosophy of business - Philosophy of Common Sense - Philosophy of copyright - Philosophy of economics - Philosophy of education - Philosophy of history - Philosophy of language - Philosophy of law - Philosophy of mathematics - Philosophy of mind - Philosophy of nature - Philosophy of neuroscience - Philosophy of perception - Philosophy of physics - Philosophy of psychology - Philosophy of sex - Philosophy of science - Philosophy of social science - Philosophy of space and time - Philosophy of religion - Philosophy of war - Physicalism - Platonic realism - Platonism - Pluralism - Political philosophy - Positivism - Postanalytic philosophy - Post-structuralism - Posthumanism - Post-modernism - Pragmatism - Praxis school - Presentism - Process philosophy - Property dualism - Pseudophilosophy - Pyrrhonian skepticism - Pythagoreanism Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Pancritical rationalism (PCR) is a development of critical rationalism and panrationalism originated by William Warren Bartley in his book The Retreat to Commitment. ... Panpsychism, in philosophy, is either the view that all parts of matter involve mind, or the more holistic view that the whole universe is an organism that possesses a mind. ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... The Perennial Philosophy (Latin philosophia perennis) is the idea that a universal set of truths common to all people and cultures exists. ... Thomas Hurka, a neo-Aristotelean, in his aptly titled book, Perfectionism, provides an introductory answer to what is perfectionism: “This moral theory starts from an account of the good life, or the intrinsically desirable life. ... Peripatetic means wandering. The Peripatetics were a school of philosophy in ancient Greece. ... Personalism is the school of thought that consists of three main principles, and which can broadly be qualified as species of Humanism : Only people are real (in the ontological sense), Only people have value, and Only people have free will. ... Perspectivism is the philosophical view that all perception takes place from a specific perspective. ... Pessimists see the world as uninviting and cruel. ... In epistemology and the philosophy of perception, phenomenalism is the view that physical objects do not exist as things in themselves but only as perceptual phenomena or sensory stimuli (e. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Satanism Associated organizations The Church of Satan First Satanic Church Prominent figures Anton LaVey | Blanche Barton | Peter H. Gilmore | Peggy Nadramia | Karla LaVey Associated concepts Left-Hand Path | Objectivism | Pentagonal Revisionism | Suitheism | Survival of the fittest | Might is Right Books and publications The Satanic Bible | The Satanic Rituals | The Satanic... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... Philosophy of action is chiefly concerned with human action, intending to distinguish between activity and passivity, voluntary, intentional, culpable and involuntary actions, and related question. ... Philosophy of biology (also called, rarely, biophilosophy) is a subfield of philosophy of science, which deals with epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical issues in the biological and biomedical sciences. ... // Definition and scope The philosophy of business considers the fundamental principles that underlie the formation and operation of a business enterprise; the nature and purpose of a business, for example, is it primarily property or a social institution; its role in society; and the moral obligations that pertain to it. ... One meaning of the term common sense (or as an adjective, commonsense) on a strict construction of the term, is what people in common would agree; that which they sense in common as their common natural understanding. ... // Overview The philosophy of copyright has several aspects. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Learning Theories The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, process, nature and ideals of education. ... Philosophy of History is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Philosophy of language is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language. ... Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ... // Philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics. ... A Phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, was the precursor of what is now called natural science, especially physics. ... Neurophilosophy is the interdisciplinary study of neuroscience and philosophy. ... The philosophy of perception concerns how mental processes and symbols depend on the world internal and external to the perceiver. ... Philosophy of physics is the study of the fundamental, philosophical questions underlying modern physics, the study of matter and energy and how they interact. ... Philosophy of psychology typically refers to a set of issues at the theoretical foundations of modern psychology. ... Philosophy of sex is the part of applied philosophy studying sex and love. ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... Philosophy of social science is the scholarly elucidation and debate of accounts of the nature of the social sciences, their relations to each other, and their relations to the natural sciences (see natural science). ... Philosophy of space and time is the branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology, epistemology, and character of space and time. ... Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification ( or rebuttal) of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... The term physicalism was coined by Otto Neurath, in a series of early 20th century essays on the subject, in which he wrote According to physicalism, the language of physics is the universal language of science and, consequently, any knowledge can be brought back to the statements on the physical... Platonic realism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals after the Greek philosopher Plato who lived between c. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Pluralism is used, often in different ways, across a wide range of topics: In science, the concept often describes the view that several methods, theories or points of view are legitimate or plausible, see Scientific pluralism. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... // Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. ... Postanalytic philosophy describes a detachment from the mainstream philosophical movement of analytic philosophy, which is the predominant school of thought in English-speaking countries. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive movement characterized by its criticism of Western philosophy. ... Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ... Praxis school was a Marxist humanist philosophical movement that originated in Zagreb and Belgrade in the SFRY, during the 1960s. ... In philosophy, presentism is the belief that neither the future nor the past exists. ... Process philosophy identifies metaphysical reality with change and dynamism. ... Property dualism is a philosophy of mind, and a subbranch of emergent materialism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pyrrhonian skepticism was a school of skepticism founded by Pyrrho in 1st century Alexandria and recorded by Sextus Empiricus in the 3rd century. ... Bust of Pythagoras Pythagoreanism is a term used for the esoteric and metaphysical beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were much influenced by mathematics and probably a main inspirational source for Plato and platonism. ...


Q

R

Rationalism - Realism - Reconstructivism - Reductionism - Reductive materialism - Reformational philosophy - Relativism - Religious humanism - Reliabilism - Romanian philosophy - Romanticism - Russian philosophy In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Look up realism, realist, realistic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homines 1622. ... Reductive materialism (Identity Theory) claims that there is no independent, autonomous level of phenomena in the world that would correspond to the level of conscious mental states. ... Reformational philosophy is a movement pioneered by Herman Dooyeweerd and D. H. Th. ... For the physics theory with a similar name, see Theory of Relativity. ... Religious humanism, is an integration of religious rituals with humanistic philosophy that centers on human needs, interests, and abilities. ... Reliabilism, a category of theories in the philosophical discipline of epistemology, has been advanced both as a theory of knowledge and of justified belief (as well as other varieties of so-called positive epistemic status). ... Romanian philosophy is a name covering either a) the philosophy done in Romania or by Romanians, or b) an ethnic philosophy, which expresses at a high level the fundamental features of the Romanian spirituality, or which elevates to a philosophical level the Weltanschauung of the Romanian people, as deposited in... Romantics redirects here. ... Russian philosophy is a broad field, little known to most non-Russians, dominated by religious and humanistic figures such as Vladimir Soloviev and social or political philosophers such as Mikhail Bakunin. ...


S

Scholasticism - Secular humanism - Semantic holism - Singularitarianism - Skepticism - Social philosophy - Solipsism - Sophism - Stoicism - Structuralism - Subjective idealism - Subjectivism - Supervenience - Surrealism Synoptic philosophy Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice, and specifically rejects the supernatural and the spiritual as warrants of moral reflection and decision-making. ... Semantic holism is a doctrine in the philosophy of language to the effect that a certain part of language, be it a term or a complete sentence, can only be understood through its relations to a (previously understood) larger segment of language. ... Singularitarianism is a moral philosophy based upon the belief that a technological singularity — the technological creation of smarter-than-human intelligence — is possible, and advocating deliberate action to bring it into effect and ensure its safety. ... Philosophical scepticism (UK spelling, scepticism) is both a philosophical school of thought and a method that crosses disciplines and cultures. ... Social philosophy is the philosophical study of interesting questions about social behavior (typically, of humans). ... Solipsism is the philosophical idea that My mind is the only thing that exists. Solipsism (Latin: solus, alone + ipse, self) is an epistemological or metaphysical position that knowledge of anything outside the mind is unjustified. ... Sophism (gr. ... A restored Stoa in Athens. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... Subjective idealism is a theory in the philosophy of perception. ... Subject (philosophy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In philosophy, supervenience is a well-defined dependency relation between higher-level (. mental) and lower-level (. physical) properties. ... Max Ernst. ... Synoptic philosophy comes from the Greek words sun-optikos, (“seeing everything together,”) and together with the word philosophy, means the love of wisdom emerging from a coherent understanding of everything together. ...


T

Taoism - Teleology - Theism - Transcendentalism - Transhumanism - (Neo) Trinitarianism - Type physicalism Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Teleology (telos: end, purpose) is the philosophical study of design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in nature or human creations. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... Posthuman Future, an illustration by Michael Gibbs for The Chronicle of Higher Educations look at how biotechnology will change the human experience, has become one of the secular icons representing transhumanism. ... Type physicalism (also known as Type Identity Theory, Type-Type theory or just Identity Theory) is the theory, in the philosophy of mind, which asserts that mental events are type-identical to the physical events in the brain with which they are correlated. ...


U

Utilitarian Bioethics - Utilitarianism It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into bioethics. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ...


V

Value-pluralism - Value theory - Verificationism - Virtue ethics - Vitalism This article is about the philosophical concept of value-pluralism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In philosophy, epistemic theories of truth are attempts to analyse the notion of truth in terms of epistemic notions such as belief, acceptance, verification, justification, perspective and so on. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vitalism is the doctrine that vital forces are active in living organisms, so that life cannot be explained solely by mechanism. ...


W

Western philosophy Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ...


Z

Zen Buddhism - A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. ...

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With the number of mailing lists expected to grow to 80 to 100 and the membership of some of the lists expected to be in the hundreds of addresses, the choice of mailing list server software is critical to the efficient operation of the Artemis mailing lists.
To select the best mailing list server package for the Artemis mailing lists, this document presents the results of an in-depth survey of the three leading freely available mailing list servers: ListProc v6.0c, Majordomo v1.93, and SmartList v3.10.
The software currently in use for several Artemis mailing lists, MReply, was eliminated early due to it's lack of several basic features needed for the Artemis environment, notably digest and moderated list support and performance.
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