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Encyclopedia > List of particles

This is a list of particles in particle physics, including currently known and hypothetical elementary particles, as well as the composite particles that can be built up from them. Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle not known to have substructure; that is, it is not made up of smaller particles. ...

For a chronological listing of subatomic particles by discovery date, see Timeline of particle discoveries.
A new particle is discovered: The first detection of the positron occurred in 1932 in a cloud chamber built by Carl D. Anderson. The track of the positron can be seen, going from top to bottom and curving to the right.

Contents

Helium atom (schematic) Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and two electrons (yellow). ... Timeline of subatomic particle discoveries. ... Image File history File links Cloud chamber, Wilson chamber - trail of a positron File links The following pages link to this file: Positron Cloud chamber ... Image File history File links Cloud chamber, Wilson chamber - trail of a positron File links The following pages link to this file: Positron Cloud chamber ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... Discovery of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson in a cloud chamber The cloud chamber, also known as the Wilson chamber, is used for detecting particles of ionizing radiation. ... Carl David Anderson (3 September 1905 – 11 January 1991) was a U.S. experimental physicist. ...

Elementary particles

Elementary particles are particles with no measurable internal structure; that is, they are not composed of other particles. They are the fundamental objects of quantum field theory. Elementary particles can be classified according to their spin, with fermions having half-integer spin and bosons integer spin. In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle not known to have substructure; that is, it is not made up of smaller particles. ... Quantum field theory (QFT) is the quantum theory of fields. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... In particle physics, bosons, named after Satyendra Nath Bose, are particles having integer spin. ...


Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the current understanding of the physics of elementary particles. All Standard Model particles except the Higgs boson have been observed. The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions For the Standard Model in Cryptography, see Standard Model (cryptography). ...


Fermions (half-integer spin)

Main article: Fermion
Quark structure proton: 2 up quarks and 1 down quark.
Quark structure proton: 2 up quarks and 1 down quark.

Fermions have half-integer spin; for all known elementary fermions this is ½. Each fermion has its own distinct antiparticle. Fermions are the basic building blocks of all matter. They are classified according to whether they interact via the color force or not. In the Standard Model, there are 12 types of elementary fermions: six quarks and six leptons. In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... Image File history File links Quark_structure_proton. ... Image File history File links Quark_structure_proton. ... Corresponding to most kinds of particle, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass and opposite charges. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... Quantum chromodynamics (abbreviated as QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction (color force), a fundamental force describing the interactions of the quarks and gluons found in hadrons (such as the proton, neutron or pion). ... For other uses, see Quark (disambiguation). ... In physics, a lepton is a particle with spin-1/2 (a fermion) that does not experience the strong interaction (that is, the strong nuclear force). ...


Quarks
Main article: Quark

Quarks interact via the color force. Their respective antiparticles are known as antiquarks. Quarks exist in six flavors: For other uses, see Quark (disambiguation). ... For each kind of particle, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass but opposite electromagnetic, weak, and strong charges, as well as spin. ... In particle physics, flavor is a property of a fermion that identifies it, a label that specifies the name of the particle. ...

The up quark is a first-generation quark with a charge of +(2/3)e. ... The down quark is a first-generation quark with a charge of -(1/3)e. ... The strange quark is a second-generation quark with a charge of -(1/3)e and a strangeness of −1. ... The charm quark is a second-generation quark with a charge of +(2/3)e. ... The bottom quark is a third-generation quark with a charge of -(1/3)e. ... The top quark is the third-generation up-type quark with a charge of +(2/3)e. ...

Leptons
Main article: Lepton

Leptons do not interact via the color force. Their respective antiparticles are known as antileptons. (The antiparticle of the electron is called the positron for historical reasons.) There are six leptons, listed here with its corresponding antiparticle: In physics, a lepton is a particle with spin-1/2 (a fermion) that does not experience the strong interaction (that is, the strong nuclear force). ... Corresponding to most kinds of particle, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass and opposite charges. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ...

For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... For other uses, see Neutrino (disambiguation). ... Antineutrinos, the antiparticles of neutrinos, are neutral particles produced in nuclear beta decay. ... The muon (from the letter mu (μ)--used to represent it) is an elementary particle with negative electric charge and a spin of 1/2. ... The tau lepton (often called the tau or occasionally the tauon) is a negatively charged elementary particle with a lifetime of 3×10−13 seconds and a high mass of 1777 MeV (compared to 939 MeV for protons and 0. ...

Bosons (integer spin)

Main article: Boson

Bosons have whole number spins. The fundamental forces of nature are mediated by gauge bosons, and mass is hypothesized to be created by the Higgs boson. According to the Standard Model (and string theory, in the case of the graviton) the elementary bosons are: In particle physics, bosons, named after Satyendra Nath Bose, are particles having integer spin. ... A fundamental interaction is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained by another more fundamental interaction. ... Gauge bosons are bosonic particles which act as carriers of the fundamental forces of Nature. ... The Higgs boson is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ... The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions For the Standard Model in Cryptography, see Standard Model (cryptography). ... Interaction in the subatomic world: world lines of pointlike particles in the Standard Model or a world sheet swept up by closed strings in string theory String theory is a model of fundamental physics, whose building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects called strings, rather than the zero-dimensional point... This article is about the hypothetical particle. ...

Name Charge (e) Spin Mass (GeV) Force mediated Existence
Photon 0 1 0 Electromagnetism Confirmed
W± ±1 1 80.4 Weak nuclear Confirmed
Z0 0 1 91.2 Weak nuclear Confirmed
Gluon 0 1 0 Strong nuclear Confirmed
Graviton 0 2 0 Gravity Unconfirmed
Higgs 0 0 >112 See below Unconfirmed

The Higgs boson (spin-0) is necessitated by electroweak theory primarily to explain the origin of particle masses. Following a process known as the Higgs mechanism, the Higgs boson, and the other fermions in the Standard Model acquire mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of the SU(2) gauge symmetry. It should be noted that in some theories, the Higgs mechanism, which explains the origin of mass, does not require the existence of a Higgs boson. It is also the only Standard Model particle not yet observed; note that the graviton is not a standard model particle. Assuming that the Higgs boson exists, it is expected to be discovered at the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator under construction at CERN. The elementary charge (symbol e or sometimes q) is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the negative of the electric charge carried by a single electron. ... A GEV (or Ground Effect Vehicle) is vehicle that takes advantage of the aerodynamic principle of ground effect (or Wing-in-ground). ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... In physics, the W and Z bosons are the elementary particles that mediate the weak nuclear force. ... The weak nuclear force or weak interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. ... In physics, the W and Z bosons are the elementary particles that mediate the weak nuclear force. ... The weak nuclear force or weak interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. ... In particle physics, gluons are subatomic particles that cause quarks to interact, and are indirectly responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei. ... The strong nuclear force or strong interaction (also called color force or colour force) is a fundamental force of nature which affects only quarks and antiquarks, and is mediated by gluons in a similar fashion to how the electromagnetic force is mediated by photons. ... This article is about the hypothetical particle. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... The Higgs boson is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ... The Higgs boson is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ... In physics, the electroweak theory presents a unified description of two of the four fundamental forces of nature: electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force. ... The Higgs mechanism, also called the Higgs-Kibble mechanism or Anderson-Higgs mechanism, was originally proposed in 1964 by Robert Brout and Francois Englert, independently by Gerald Guralnik, Carl Hagen and Tom Kibble, and also by Peter Higgs, following ealier work by Yoichiro Nambu on the structure of the vaccuum. ... Spontaneous symmetry breaking in physics takes place when a system that is symmetric with respect to some symmetry group goes into a vacuum state that is not symmetric. ... The Higgs mechanism, also called the Higgs-Kibble mechanism or Anderson-Higgs mechanism, was originally proposed in 1964 by Robert Brout and Francois Englert, independently by Gerald Guralnik, Carl Hagen and Tom Kibble, and also by Peter Higgs, following ealier work by Yoichiro Nambu on the structure of the vaccuum. ... This article is about the hypothetical particle. ... The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle accelerator and collider located at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland (). Currently under construction, the LHC is scheduled to begin operation in May 2008. ... For the DC Comics Superhero also called Atom Smasher, see Albert Rothstein. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ...


Hypothetical particles

Supersymmetric theories predict the existence of more particles, none of which have been confirmed experimentally as of 2007: This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Other theories predict the existence of additional bosons: A photino is a subatomic particle, the fermion WIMP superpartner of the photon predicted by supersymmetry. ... In supersymmetry, it is proposed that every fermion should have a partner boson, known as its Superpartner. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... A gluino is a subatomic particle, the fermion superpartner of the gluon predicted by supersymmetry. ... In supersymmetry, it is proposed that every fermion should have a partner boson, known as its Superpartner. ... In particle physics, gluons are subatomic particles that cause quarks to interact, and are indirectly responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei. ... The gravitino is the hypothetical supersymmetric partner of the graviton, as predicted by theories combining general relativity and supersymmetry, i. ... In supersymmetry, it is proposed that every fermion should have a partner boson, known as its Superpartner. ... This article is about the hypothetical particle. ... In theoretical physics, supergravity (supergravity theory) refers to a field theory which combines the two theories of supersymmetry and general relativity. ... In particle physics, the neutralino is a hypothetical particle and part of the doubling of the menagerie of particles predicted by supersymmetric theories. ... Quantum superposition is the application of the superposition principle to quantum mechanics. ... In supersymmetry, it is proposed that every fermion should have a partner boson, known as its Superpartner. ... In astrophysics and cosmology, dark matter refers to hypothetical matter of unknown composition that does not emit or reflect enough electromagnetic radiation to be observed directly, but whose presence can be inferred from gravitational effects on visible matter. ... In particle physics, chargino refers to a charged superpartner, i. ... A sterile particle does not have any charge known to us. ... The Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND) was a scintillation counter at Los Alamos National Laboratory that measured the number of neutrinos being produced by a reactor. ... In particle physics, a slepton is a hypothetical bosonic partner of a lepton whose existence is implied by supersymmetry. ... In particle physics, a squark is a hypothetical boson partner of a quark whose existence is implied by supersymmetry. ...

Mirror particles are predicted by theories that restore Parity symmetry. The Higgs boson is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ... Spontaneous symmetry breaking in physics takes place when a system that is symmetric with respect to some symmetry group goes into a vacuum state that is not symmetric. ... This article is about the hypothetical particle. ... Quantum gravity is the field of theoretical physics attempting to unify quantum mechanics, which describes three of the fundamental forces of nature, with general relativity, the theory of the fourth fundamental force: gravity. ... In theoretical physics, a graviscalar is a particle that emerges as an excitation of the metric tensor (i. ... In theoretical physics, a graviphoton is a particle that emerges as an excitation of the metric tensor (i. ... The axion is an exotic subatomic particle postulated by Peccei-Quinn theory to resolve the strong-CP problem in quantum chromodynamics (QCD). ... In particle physics, the Peccei-Quinn theory is the most famous proposed solution to the strong CP problem, involving new particles called axions. ... In particle physics, the strong CP problem is the puzzling question why Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) does not seem to break the CP-symmetry. ... The axino is a hypothetical elementary particle predicted by some theories of particle physics. ... In theoretical physics, a supermultiplet is formally a group representation of a supersymmetry algebra. ... In particle physics, the X and Y bosons are hypothetical elementary particles analogous to the W and Z bosons, but corresponding to a new type of force, such as the forces predicted by grand unified theory. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Unified field theory. ... In physics, a magnetic photon is a hypothetical particle predicted by certain extensions of electromagnetism to include magnetic monopoles. ... In particle physics, majorons are a type of Goldstone boson that theoretically mediates the neutrino mass violation of lepton number in certain high energy collisions such as Where two electrons collide to form two W bosons and the majoron J. Majorons were originally formulated in four dimensions but are now... For other uses, see Neutrino (disambiguation). ... In theoretical physics, the seesaw mechanism is a mechanism to generate very small numbers from reasonable numbers and very large numbers. ... In physics, mirror matter, also called shadow matter or Alice matter, is a hypothetical counterpart to regular matter suggested by Tsung Dao Lee and Chen Ning Yang [1] in 1956, when it was discovered that nature violates P-symmetry. ... In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the simultaneous flip in the sign of all spatial coordinates: A 3×3 matrix representation of P would have determinant equal to –1, and hence cannot reduce to a rotation. ...


Magnetic monopole is a generic name for particles with non-zero magnetic charge. They are predicted by some GUT theories. In physics, a magnetic monopole is a hypothetical particle that may be loosely described as a magnet with only one pole (see electromagnetic theory for more on magnetic poles). ...


Tachyon is a generic name for hypothetical particles that travel faster than the speed of light and have an imaginary rest mass. A tachyon (from the Greek (takhús), meaning swift, fast) is any hypothetical particle that travels at superluminal velocity. ...


The preon was a suggested substructure for both quarks and leptons, but modern collider experiments have all but disproven their existence. In particle physics, preons are postulated point-like particles, conceived to be subcomponents of quarks and leptons. ... A collider is a type of a particle accelerator with two opposite beams of the particles. ...


Composite particles

Hadrons

Hadrons are defined as strongly interacting composite particles. Hadrons are either: A hadron, in particle physics, is a subatomic particle which experiences the nuclear force. ... The strong interaction or strong force is today understood to represent the interactions between quarks and gluons as detailed by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). ...

Quark models, first proposed in 1964 independently by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig (who called quarks "aces"), describe the known hadrons as composed of valence quarks and/or antiquarks, tightly bound by the color force, which is mediated by gluons. A "sea" of virtual quark-antiquark pairs is also present in each hadron. In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... Combinations of three u, d or s-quarks with a total spin of 3/2 form the so-called baryon decuplet. ... In particle physics, bosons, named after Satyendra Nath Bose, are particles having integer spin. ... Mesons of spin 1 form a nonet In particle physics, a meson is a strongly interacting boson, that is, it is a hadron with integral spin. ... In physics, the quark model is a classification scheme for hadrons in terms of their valence quarks, i. ... Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929 in Manhattan, New York City, USA) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles. ... George Zweig was originally trained as a particle physicist under Richard Feynman and later turned his attention to neurobiology. ... For other uses, see Quark (disambiguation). ... Quantum chromodynamics (abbreviated as QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction (color force), a fundamental force describing the interactions of the quarks and gluons found in hadrons (such as the proton, neutron or pion). ... In particle physics, gluons are subatomic particles that cause quarks to interact, and are indirectly responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei. ...


Notice that mesons are composite bosons, but not composed of bosons. All hadrons, including mesons, are composed of quarks (which are fermions).


Baryons (fermions)

A combination of three u, d or s-quarks with a total spin of 3/2 form the so-called baryon decuplet.
A combination of three u, d or s-quarks with a total spin of 3/2 form the so-called baryon decuplet.
For a detailed list, see List of baryons.

Ordinary baryons (composite fermions) contain three valence quarks or three valence antiquarks each. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (999x817, 86 KB) Decupleto bariônico. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (999x817, 86 KB) Decupleto bariônico. ... Baryon decuplet: Spin=3/2 Baryon octet: Spin=1/2 This is a list of baryons. ... Combinations of three u, d or s-quarks with a total spin of 3/2 form the so-called baryon decuplet. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ...

  • Nucleons are the fermionic constituents of normal atomic nuclei:
    • Protons, composed of two up and one down quark (uud)
    • Neutrons, composed of two down and one up quark (ddu)
  • Hyperons, such as the Λ, Σ, Ξ, and Ω particles, which contain one or more strange quarks, are short-lived and heavier than nucleons. Although not normally present in atomic nuclei, they can appear in short-lived hypernuclei.
  • A number of charmed and bottom baryons have also been observed.

Some hints at the existence of exotic baryons have been found recently; however, negative results have also been reported. Their existence is uncertain. In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In particle physics, a hyperon is any subatomic particle which is a baryon (and hence a hadron and a fermion) with non-zero strangeness, but with zero charm and zero bottomness. ... The strange quark is a second-generation quark with a charge of -(1/3)e and a strangeness of −1. ... A Hypernucleus is a nucleus which contains at least one hyperon in addition to nucleons. ... The charm quark is a second-generation quark with a charge of +(2/3)e. ... The bottom quark is a third-generation quark with a charge of -(1/3)e. ... Ordinary baryons are bound states of 3 quarks. ...

  • Pentaquarks consist of four valence quarks and one valence antiquark.

A pentaquark is a subatomic particle consisting of a group of five quarks (compared to three quarks in normal baryons and two in mesons), or more specifically four quarks and one anti-quark. ...

Mesons (bosons)

Mesons of spin 0 form a nonet
Mesons of spin 0 form a nonet
For a detailed list, see List of mesons.

Ordinary mesons (composite bosons) contain a valence quark and a valence antiquark, and include the pion, kaon, the J/ψ, and many other types of mesons. In quantum hadrodynamic models, the strong force between nucleons is mediated by mesons. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (909x655, 69 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of particles List of mesons ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (909x655, 69 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of particles List of mesons ... A list of mesons. ... Mesons of spin 1 form a nonet In particle physics, a meson is a strongly interacting boson, that is, it is a hadron with integral spin. ... In particle physics, bosons, named after Satyendra Nath Bose, are particles having integer spin. ... In particle physics, pion (short for pi meson) is the collective name for three subatomic particles: Ï€0, Ï€+ and π−. Pions are the lightest mesons and play an important role in explaining low-energy properties of the strong nuclear force. ... In particle physics, Kaons (also called K-mesons and denoted K) are a group of four mesons distinguished by the fact that they carry a quantum number called strangeness. ... Spark-chamber trace of a ψ to J/ψ decay at SLAC The J/ψ is an elementary particle, namely a flavor-neutral meson consisting of a charm quark and a charm anti-quark. ...


Exotic mesons may also exist. Positive signatures have been reported for all of these particles at some time, but their existence is still somewhat uncertain. Identities and classification of possible tetraquark mesons. ...

  • Tetraquarks consist of two valence quarks and two valence antiquarks.
  • Glueballs are bound states of gluons with no valence quarks.
  • Hybrids consist of one or more valence quark-antiquark pairs and one or more real gluons.

A tetraquark is a subatomic particle composed of four quarks. ... In particle physics, a glueball is a particle containing no valence quarks. ... Hybrids consist of one or more valence quark-antiquark pairs and one or more real gluons. ...

Atomic nuclei

A semi-accurate depiction of the helium atom. In the nucleus, the protons are in red and neutrons are in purple. In reality, the nucleus is also spherically symmetrical.
A semi-accurate depiction of the helium atom. In the nucleus, the protons are in red and neutrons are in purple. In reality, the nucleus is also spherically symmetrical.

Atomic nuclei consist of protons and neutrons. Each type of nucleus contains a specific number of protons and a specific number of neutrons, and is called a nuclide or isotope. Nuclear reactions can change one nuclide into another. See Isotope table (complete) for a list of isotopes. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Helium (disambiguation). ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A nuclide (from lat. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... In nuclear physics, a nuclear reaction is a process in which two nuclei or nuclear particles collide to produce products different from the initial particles. ... This isotope table shows all of the known isotopes of the chemical elements, arranged with increasing atomic numbers (proton numbers) from left to right and increasing neutron numbers from top to bottom. ...


Atoms

Atoms are the smallest neutral particles into which matter can be divided by chemical reactions. An atom consists of a small, heavy nucleus surrounded by a relatively large, light cloud of electrons. Each type of atom corresponds to a specific chemical element, of which 111 have been officially named. Refer to the periodic table for an overview. Atoms consist of protons and neutrons within the nucleus. Within these particles, there are smaller particles still which are then made up of even smaller particles still. For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... “The Periodic Table” redirects here. ...


Molecules

Molecules are the smallest particles into which a non-elemental substance can be divided while maintaining the physical properties of the substance. Each type of molecule corresponds to a specific chemical compound. Molecules are composites of one or more atoms. See list of compounds for a list of molecules. 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... The original list from this page has been split into the following three lists, as the number of compounds became too long. ...


Condensed matter

The field equations of condensed matter physics are remarkably similar to those of high energy particle physics. As a result, much of the theory of particle physics applies to condensed matter physics as well; in particular, there are a selection of field excitations, called quasi-particles, that can be created and explored. These include: Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. ... In physics, a quasiparticle refers to a particle-like entity arising in certain systems of interacting particles. ...

Normal modes of vibration progression through a crystal. ... In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... This page is about the quasiparticle. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... For the following two reasons the electron hole was introduced into calculations: If an electron is excited into higher state it leaves a hole in its old state. ... In physics, the plasmon is the quasiparticle resulting from the quantization of plasma oscillations just as photons and phonons are quantizations of light and sound waves, respectively. ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... This article is in need of attention. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... In solid-state physics, a polaron is formed when a moving charge (typically an electron or a hole) in a crystal with some ionic character polarizes (by its electric field) the lattice around it. ... There is a place named Magnon (pronunciation: ma-nyon) in Gabon, see Magnon, Gabon A magnon is a collective excitation of the electrons spin structure in a crystal lattice. ...

Other

  • A WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle) is any one of a number of particles that might explain dark matter (such as the neutralino or the axion).
  • The pomeron, used to explain the elastic scattering of hadrons and the location of Regge poles in Regge theory.
  • The skyrmion, a topological solution of the pion field, used to model the low-energy properties of the nucleon, such as the axial vector current coupling and the mass.
  • A goldstone boson is a massless excitation of a field that has been spontaneously broken. The pions are quasi-Goldstone bosons (quasi- because they are not exactly massless) of the broken chiral isospin symmetry of quantum chromodynamics.
  • A goldstino is a Goldstone fermion produced by the spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry.
  • An instanton is a field configuration which is a local minimum of the Euclidean action. Instantons are used in nonperturbative calculations of tunneling rates.
  • A dyon is a hypothetical particle with both electric and magnetic charges
  • A geon is an electromagnetic or gravitational wave which is held together in a confined region by the gravitational attraction of its own field energy.
  • A UHECR is an ultra-high energy cosmic ray (probably a proton) falling well beyond the GZK cutoff, the energy limit beyond which virtually no cosmic rays should be detected.
  • A spurion is the name given to a "particle" inserted mathematically into an isospin-violating decay in order to analyze it as though it conserved isospin.
  • An inflaton is the generic name for an unidentified scalar particle responsible for the cosmic inflation.

In astrophysics, WIMPs, or weakly interacting massive particles, are hypothetical particles serving as one possible solution to the dark matter problem. ... In astrophysics and cosmology, dark matter refers to hypothetical matter of unknown composition that does not emit or reflect enough electromagnetic radiation to be observed directly, but whose presence can be inferred from gravitational effects on visible matter. ... In particle physics, the neutralino is a hypothetical particle and part of the doubling of the menagerie of particles predicted by supersymmetric theories. ... The axion is an exotic subatomic particle postulated by Peccei-Quinn theory to resolve the strong-CP problem in quantum chromodynamics (QCD). ... In physics, the Pomeron is a force-carrying particle postulated in 1961 to explain energy behavior of soft hadronic collisions at high energies. ... In scattering theory and in particular in particle physics, elastic scattering is one of the specific forms of scattering. ... In physics, Regge theory is a phenomenological theory of strong interactions at high energies, named for Tullio Regge. ... In physics, Regge theory is phenomenological theory of strong interactions at high energies, named for Tullio Regge. ... In theoretical physics, a skyrmion, named for Tony Skyrme, is a homotopically nontrivial classical solution of a nonlinear sigma model with a non-trivial target manifold topology i. ... In particle physics, pion (short for pi meson) is the collective name for three subatomic particles: π0, π+ and π−. Pions are the lightest mesons and play an important role in explaining low-energy properties of the strong nuclear force. ... In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ... In particle and condensed matter physics, Goldstone bosons (also known as Nambu-Goldstone bosons) are bosons that appear in models with spontaneously broken symmetry. ... Spontaneous symmetry breaking in physics takes place when a system that is symmetric with respect to some symmetry group goes into a vacuum state that is not symmetric. ... In particle physics, pion (short for pi meson) is the collective name for three subatomic particles: π0, π+ and π−. Pions are the lightest mesons and play an important role in explaining low-energy properties of the strong nuclear force. ... A phenomenon is said to be chiral if it is not identical to its mirror image (see Chirality (mathematics)). The spin of a particle may be used to define a handedness for that particle. ... Isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a physical quantity which is mathematically analogous to spin. ... Quantum chromodynamics (abbreviated as QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction (color force), a fundamental force describing the interactions of the quarks and gluons found in hadrons (such as the proton, neutron or pion). ... The Goldstino is a proposed supersymmetric partner of Goldstone bosons. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In physics, a dyon is a hypothetical particle with both electric and magnetic charges. ... In theoretical general relativity, a geon is an electromagnetic or gravitational wave which acts as a coherent object due to the gravitational attraction of its own field energy. ... Unsolved problems in physics: Why is it that some cosmic rays appear to possess energies that are theoretically too high? In high-energy physics, an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) is a cosmic ray (subatomic particle) which appears to have extreme kinetic energy, far beyond both its rest mass... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... The Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit (GZK limit) is a theoretical upper limit on the energy of cosmic rays from distant sources. ... The inflaton is the generic name of the unidentified scalar field (and its associated particle), that may be responsible for an episode of inflation in the very early universe. ... In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation is the idea that the nascent universe passed through a phase of exponential expansion that was driven by a negative-pressure vacuum energy density. ...

Classification by speed

  • A tardyon or bradyon travels slower than light and has a non-zero rest mass.
  • A luxon travels at the speed of light and has no rest mass.
  • A tachyon (mentioned above) is a hypothetical particle that travels faster than the speed of light and has an imaginary rest mass.

A tardyon or bradyon is a particle that travels slower than light. ... A luxon is a particle that always travels at the speed of light. ... A tachyon (from the Greek (takhús), meaning swift, fast) is any hypothetical particle that travels at superluminal velocity. ...

See also

A fictional chemical element is a chemical element, isotope or (sub)atomic particles that exist only in works of fiction (usually fantasy or science fiction). ... This isotope table shows all of the known isotopes of the chemical elements, arranged with increasing atomic numbers (proton numbers) from left to right and increasing neutron numbers from top to bottom. ... The original list from this page has been split into the following three lists, as the number of compounds became too long. ... “The Periodic Table” redirects here. ... The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions For the Standard Model in Cryptography, see Standard Model (cryptography). ... Accelerons are hypothetical subatomic particles postulated at the University of Washington to relate the newfound mass of the neutrino to the dark energy conjectured to be accelerating the expansion of the universe. ...

References

  • S. Eidelman et al. (2004). ""Review of Particle Physics"". Physics Letters B 592: 1.  (All information on this list, and more, can be found in the extensive, annually-updated review by the Particle Data Group)
  • Joseph F. Alward, Elementary Particles, Department of Physics, University of the Pacific
  • Elementary particles, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

  Results from FactBites:
 
List of particles - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1550 words)
A new particle is discovered: The first detection of the positron occurred in 1932 in a cloud chamber built by Carl D. Anderson.
An elementary particle is a particle with no measurable internal structure, that is, it is not a composite of other particles.
List of compounds for a list of molecules.
subatomic particle: Definition and Much More From Answers.com (1772 words)
Particle physics and nuclear physics concern themselves with the study of these particles, their interactions, and matter made up of them which do not aggregate into atoms.
These particles include atomic constituents such as electrons, protons, and neutrons (protons and neutrons are composite particles, made up of quarks), as well as other particles such as photons and neutrinos which are produced copiously in the sun.
Among the standard model particles the existence of the Higgs boson remains to be verified— this is seen as the primary physics goal of the accelerator called the Large Hadron Collider in CERN.
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