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Encyclopedia > List of leaders of the Soviet Union

An approximately chronological list of leaders of the Soviet Union (heads of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and President of the Soviet Union). The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, Tseka, was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). ... The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991. ...


The formal structure of power in the Soviet Union consisted of three main branches that gave rise to three top positions.


The first position of importance was that of the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, informally translated as President of the Soviet Union. Theoretically it was the highest position, since the Supreme Soviet was an interim organ of the Congress of Soviets, the latter being the supreme power of people, according to the Constitution of the Soviet Union. The President of the Soviet Union was the largely ceremonial Head of State of the USSR from 1990 to 1991. ... The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1993. ... The Soviet Union was governed by three versions of its Constitution, following the 1918 Soviet Constitution which established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the immediate predecessor of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ...


The head of the government was the Premier of the Soviet Union. This was the most important position in Lenin's time. Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Narodnykh Komissarov SSSR) (1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Председатель Совета Министров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Ministrov SSSR) (1946-1991), who...


In practice, the leader of the Communist Party used to occupy another position, which led to confusion in the West as to who the number one person in the USSR was: Lenin, Stalin, Malenkov and Khrushchev preferred the post of the premier, while Brezhnev and his successors preferred that of the president (called Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and transformed to President of the Soviet Union in 1990).

Name Title Period Supreme Ruler
Vladimir Lenin Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars[1]. Informally, leader of the Bolsheviks since their inception. October 26, 1917 - January 21, 1924 December 30, 1922 - January 21, 1924
Joseph Stalin General Secretary of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks April 3, 1922 - March 5, 1953 1927 - March 5, 1953
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR May 6, 1941 - March 5, 1953
Georgy Malenkov Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR March 5, 1953 - February 8, 1955
Nikita Khrushchev First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union September 7, 1953 - October 14, 1964 September 7, 1953 - October 14, 1964
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR March 27, 1958 - October 14, 1964
Leonid Brezhnev First Secretary of the CPSU October 14, 1964 - April 8, 1966 October 14, 1964 - November 10, 1982
General Secretary of the CPSU April 8, 1966 - November 10, 1982
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR May, 1960 - October 14, 1964
and
June 16, 1977 - November 10, 1982
Yuri Andropov General Secretary of the CPSU November 12, 1982 - February 9, 1984 November 12, 1982 - February 9, 1984
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR June 16, 1983 - February 9, 1984
Konstantin Chernenko General Secretary of the CPSU February 13, 1984 - March 10, 1985 February 13, 1984 - March 10, 1985
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR April 11, 1984 - March 10, 1985
Mikhail Gorbachev General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union March 11, 1985 - August 24, 1991 March 11, 1985 - December 25, 1991
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR October 1, 1988 - May 25, 1989
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR[2] May 25, 1989 - March 15, 1990
President of the Soviet Union[3] March 15, 1990 - December 25, 1991
  1. ^ The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was only created in 1922. From August 1917, after the February Revolution, the state name was the Russian Republic, and after the October Revolution from 1918 to 1922 its name was the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (the RSFSR continued after 1922 as one of 15 republics in the USSR).
  2. ^ Office of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet renamed to Chairman of the Supreme Soviet.
  3. ^ On March 15, 1990 the office of the President of the Soviet Union was created and executive power was transferred from the office of the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet. Although the Chairman's office remained, it was now that of a parliamentary speaker, not a head of state.

The post of General Secretary was created in April 1922 but did not come to signify the party leader or leader of the country until after Stalin won the struggle with Trotsky and Kamenev to succeed Lenin (1925). The title was informal between 1934 and 1953, since it was officially abolished by the XVII Party Congress, and was called First Secretary between September 1953 and April 1966. The "Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet" was the equivalent of President of the state while "Chairman of the Council of Ministers" and "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars" were equivalent to Premier or Prime Minister. Lenin redirects here. ... Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Narodnykh Komissarov SSSR) (1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Председатель Совета Министров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Ministrov SSSR) (1946-1991), who... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Narodnykh Komissarov SSSR) (1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Председатель Совета Министров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Ministrov SSSR) (1946-1991), who... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Georgy (Georgii) Maximilianovich Malenkov (Russian: , his first name then surname pronounced GHYOR-ghee mah-leen-KOF; January 8 [O.S. December 26, 1901] 1902 – January 14, 1988) was a Soviet politician, Communist Party leader and close collaborator of Joseph Stalin. ... Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Narodnykh Komissarov SSSR) (1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Председатель Совета Министров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Ministrov SSSR) (1946-1991), who... This article is about the day. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Khrushchev redirects here. ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Brezhnev redirects here. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just fifteen months later. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Soviet redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None ( Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total ( 1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (sometimes called First Secretary) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Lenins death in 1924. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist intellectual. ... Categories: People stubs | Old Bolsheviks | Soviet politicians | Exonerated Soviet death sentences | Russian Jews ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991. ... Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Narodnykh Komissarov SSSR) (1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Председатель Совета Министров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Ministrov SSSR) (1946-1991), who...


On March 14, 1990, the newly created (1989) Congress of People's Deputies voted to end the Communist party's control over the government and elected Gorbachev President of the Soviet Union. is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ...


Leaders of post-Soviet independent states

For details of the leaders of the 15 independent states that replaced the Soviet Union, see the following articles:

President of Armenia is the title of the head of state of Armenia since its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. ... The country of Azerbaijan is a presidential republic, with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government. ... Leaders of Byelorussian SSR De-facto leaders were first secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Byelorussia (CPB) Nikolay Patolichev (1950 - 1953) Mikhail Zimyanin (1953 --?) Nikolay Patolichev (? --- 1956) Kirill Mazurov Tikhon Kiselev Petr Masherov Efrem Sokolov Presidents of Republic of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko (July 20, 1994 -- ) ... Politics of Estonia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Estonia is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The President of Georgia (ge: საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი) is the head of the state and commander-in-chief of Georgia. ... List of Presidents of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev (1990 - present) See also Politics of Kazakhstan Categories: Stub | Kazakhstan ... The President of Kyrgyzstan is the head of state and the highest official of the Kyrgyz Republic. ... See also: Lists of office-holders Categories: | ... The following is a list of Lithuanian rulers — grand dukes, kings, and presidents — when Lithuania was a sovereign state or was regarded as a separate entity (i. ... The President of Moldova is elected every four years, and has been since 1992. ... The President of Tajikistan is the Head of State and highest position within the Government of Tajikistan. ... Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Turkmenistan local long form: none local short form: Turkmenistan former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic Data code: TX Government type: republic Capital: Ashgabat Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, Turkmenistan declared its independence on October 27, 1991. ... Mariyinsky Palace The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of the state of Ukraine and acts in its name. ... List of Presidents of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov (1991 - present) Last election See also Politics of Uzbekistan Categories: | | ...

See also

Rulers of Kievan Rus List of Russian rulers (1533-1917) List of Chairmen of the Provisional Government (1917) List of leaders of the Soviet Union (1917-1991) List of Presidents of Russia (1991- ) Categories: | | ... The History of the Soviet Union begins with the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... // This position was held by four people at once. ...

External links

  • Heads of State and Government of the Soviet Union (1922-1991)

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: List of leaders of the Soviet Union (3333 words)
An approximately chronological listing of Soviet leaders (heads of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and President of the Soviet Union).
The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the Soviet Union in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991.
Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР) (1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Председатель Совета Министров СССР) (1946-1991), who...
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