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Encyclopedia > List of historical Iranian architects

The following is a list of Iranian architects, or Mi'mars to be more exact. It would not be incorrect to consider a Mi'mar the Islamic oriental equivalent of the western architect. The same can be said about the classical words Banna, Mohandes, Ostad, and Amal, which appear in classical manuals and references of Islamic architecture. Islamic architecture is the entire range of architecture that has evolved from Islam as a social, cultural, political and religious phenomenon. ...


The Persian dictionay of Mo'in defines Mi'mar as:

  1. That who devises the design and plan of a building, and overlooks its construction.
  2. A Banna
  3. That who is responsible for the building, developing, and repairs of a structure or edifice (Emārat).

Needless to say, although many scholars do not recognize the Mimar and the Architect to historically be the same, they do agree that their responsibilities overlap extensively. In this list, they are taken to be the same.


The list is in chronological order, is not comprehensive, and selectively spans the Islamic age based on available records. There is little if any record of the numerous masters of architecture that built some of the early Islamic and pre-Islamic world's wonders of Iran. We do not know who built the palaces of Bishapur, Firouzabad, Persepolis, Susa, or the many other spectacular ancient edifices of Greater Iran. Sadly, no record of their names exists. Only the ruins of what they built give us a faint indication of what masters must have walked the face of this earth eons ago. City of Bishapur Bishapur (or Bishâpûr) is an ancient city situated south of modern Faliyan on the ancient road between Persis and Elam, which connected the Sassanid capitals Istakhr (very close to Persepolis) and Ctesiphon. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Firouzabad. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ...


Many of the structures remaining today possibly had more than one architect working on them. Only one is mentioned in the following list.

Contents


Pre-Islamic

Gōr city. The circular plan of Persian cities was a so called trademark of Parthian architecture and planning.
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Gōr city. The circular plan of Persian cities was a so called trademark of Parthian architecture and planning.
  • Epsay: Holy shrine of Bishapur, 271 CE.
  • Sheyda: Was a legendary master who built the magnificent Sassanid palace of Haft Gonbad of Bahram Gur, according to the poet Nizami Ganjavii.

Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... City of Bishapur Bishapur (or Bishâpûr) is an ancient city situated south of modern Faliyan on the ancient road between Persis and Elam, which connected the Sassanid capitals Istakhr (very close to Persepolis) and Ctesiphon. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...

First four centuries of The Islamic Era

Mashallah ibn Atharī, was an 8th century Persian astronomer. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: Several hundred killed after stampede in Baghdad A street map of Baghdad Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad For other meanings see Baghdad (disambiguation) Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. ... Nobakht Ahvazi (also spelled Naubakht in many a literature) and his sons were Astronomers from Ahvaz in Persia. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: Several hundred killed after stampede in Baghdad A street map of Baghdad Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad For other meanings see Baghdad (disambiguation) Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. ...

11th century

Borje Toghrol, Ray
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Borje Toghrol, Ray
  • Hasan Ibn Ali: Designed Borj-e lajim near Firuzkuh near Tehran in 1021CE.
  • Ahmad Ibn Omar: Designed Mil-e Radkan near Gorgan in 1015CE.
  • Ali Ibn Mohammad Ibn Hosein Ibn Shah ul-Bana: Built the Pir e Alamdar monument in Damghan in 1025CE.
  • Abdolmalek Naqqash Mohandes: Built The Kushk-e No-e Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi in 1035CE.
  • Ahmad Ibn Abi Ali Ibn Yunes: Built the "Urta Ghapu" in the city of Darband in 1043CE.
  • AbdolWahhab Qazvini Ibn Fakhr Avar: Built Borj-e Toghrul in 1054CE in Ray.
  • Abul Ma'ali Muhammad Ibn Bakr al-Zanjani: Built the Kharaqan Towers in Qazvin Province in 1053CE.
  • Ostad al-Rashid Ibn Abubakr: Built the Mosque of Maku in West Azerbaijan in 1078CE.
  • Abubakr: Built the Rananatan mosque in Turkmenia in 1081CE.

Ray may refer to: An electrical ray: see laser. ... Tehran is a metropolis of 14 million situated at the foot of the towering Alborz range. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Gorgan Gorgan (گرگان); Hyrcania ; Hyrcana (Old Persian Varkâna, land of wolves; modern Persian Gorgan): part of the ancient Persian empire, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of Turkmenistan). ... Darband is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ... Ray, is an old city of Iran. ... Qazvin province contains fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages. ... Region of the old Armenia c. ... West Azarbaijan (آذربایجان غربی in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Turkmenistan, once known as the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic is a country in Central Asia. ...

12th century

The Kharāghān twin towers, built in 1053 CE, Qazvin Province.
The Kharāghān twin towers, built in 1053 CE, Qazvin Province.
  • Mohammad Ibn Ali: Built the Dawlat Abad Minaret in Balkh in 1107CE.
  • AbdolHosein: Built the Robat or Caravanserai of Sharaf in Khorasan in 1152CE.
  • Ahmad Ibn Ismail: Built the Mosque of Gar near Isfahan in 1120CE.
  • Ali Ibn Uthman Ibn Ahmad Neishaburi: Built Maqbareh-i Shiravan.
  • Mohammad Ibn Aziz: Built the tomb of Sanjar in Turkmenia in 1127CE.
  • Muhammad Ibn Bandan al-Bana Ibn al-Mohsen: Built Gonbad-e Sorkh-e Maragheh in 1146CE.
  • Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Mahmud: Built Maghbareh-i baba Khatam in 1154CE.
  • Heydar Ali: Built the Congregation mosque of Ardestan, Isfahan, in 1158CE.
  • Muhammad Mimar: Built the Madrasah Badgheis in northern Afghanistan in 1174CE.
  • Imam Jamalideen Babviyeh Rafe'i: Built the Rampart of Qazvin in 1176CE.
  • Hasan Ibn Piruz al-Maraghei: Built the DiveRigi mosque near Sivas in Turkey in 1179CE.
  • Mohammad Ibn Rostam Ibn Ali Ibn Mohammad Ibn Hosein Ibn Hosein: Buil the Ghadamgah of Imam Rida in farasheh Taft, Khorasan in 1182CE.
  • Abu Mansur: Built the Seh-gonbad tomb in Urmia in 1183CE.
  • Muhammad Ibn al-Kateb al-Gilani: Built the Rampart of the city of Darband in 1183CE.
  • Ahmad Ibn Muhammad: Built Gonbad-e Kabud monument, where the mother of Hulegu is buried, in 1195CE.
  • Ibn Bahram: Built the tomb of Amir Shahanshah in Turkey in 1195CE.
  • Yusef Ibn Ali ibn Muhammad: Built the tomb of Khuraneq in Yazd in 1198CE.

Download high resolution version (770x606, 462 KB)Kharaghan twin towers, Qazvin province, 1067 AD, Iran. ... Download high resolution version (770x606, 462 KB)Kharaghan twin towers, Qazvin province, 1067 AD, Iran. ... Events June 18 - Battle of Civitate - 3000 horsemen of Norman Count Humphrey rout the troops of Pope Leo IX Good harvests in Europe Malcolm Canmore invades Scotland. ... Qazvin province contains fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages. ... Mosque in Aswan, Egypt, with minarets. ... Balkh is now a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some 46 miles (74 km) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... A caravanserai (also spelt caravansarai, caravansary) or khan (the usual term in Arab countries) was a roadside inn where caravans could rest and recover from the days journey. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Isfahan or Esfahān can refer to either a city or a province in Iran (Persia): Isfahan (city) Isfahan (province) Isfahan (rugs) Isfahan is the name of a song by the Jazzist Duke Ellington Ispahan a kind of rose and an older pronunciation of the citys name. ... Turkmenistan, once known as the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic is a country in Central Asia. ... Maragheh or Maraghah is a town in the province of Azerbaijan in Iran, on the Safi River. ... Rampart may mean: A type of defensive wall consisting of a low earthen embankment topped by a parapet or palisade. ... Qazvin may refer to: Qazvin (city) Qazvin province Note: Qazvin province was created in 1996; older references to Qazvin are invariably to the city. ... Sivas is the provincial capital of Sivas Province in Turkey. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Map of Iran showing location of Urmia Urmia, Uromieh, Uromiyeh, Oroomieh, Orumiyeh, or Orumiye (ارومیه in Persian), previously Rezaieh or Rezaiyeh (رضائیه), is a city (1991 pop. ... Rampart may mean: A type of defensive wall consisting of a low earthen embankment topped by a parapet or palisade. ... Darband is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217–8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... The city of Yazd, as seen from the tall minarets of its 12th century mosque. ...

13th century

The city of Yazd, as seen from the tall minarets of its 12th century mosque.
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The city of Yazd, as seen from the tall minarets of its 12th century mosque.
  • Moslem: Built the Caravanserai of Sangbast in Khorasan in 1202CE.
  • Muhammad Rigi: Built Mil-e Radkan in Ghuchan in 1203CE.
  • Ahmad Ibn Bakr Marandi: Built the tomb of Keikavus in 1219CE.
  • Saeed Ibn Jafar al-Bana: Built a tower in Firouzabad, Fars.
  • Muahammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Alavi: Built the Congregation mosque of Bunaft in Yazd in 1234CE.
  • Ostad Zeinuddin Abu Rasheed: Built Hisar Khalaj in Baku in 1234CE.
  • Ostad Enayatollah Ibn Nizamulddin Mimar Isfahani: Built the Gonbad-e Sabz in Kerman in 1242CE.
  • Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Uthman al-Bana al-Tusi: Built the Madrasah of Sir Chali in Konya in 1242CE.
  • Nizamuddin ibn Ostad Ali ibn Ali ibn Najjar: Built the Imamzadeh Seyd Jafar in Damghan in 1264CE.
  • Badreddin Tabrizi: Built the tomb of Rumi in Konya in 1273CE.
  • Zinul-abedin Mimar: Built the Congregation mosque of Urmia in 1276CE.
  • Ostad Ali ibn Hosein Ali al-Ghazi: Built the Tomb of Sheikh Yusef Sarvestani in Fars in 1280CE.
  • Muhammad al-Hosein al-Mohandes al-bana Damghani: Built the tower of Burj-e Kashaneh in Bistam in 1299CE.

Download high resolution version (400x637, 361 KB)The city of Yazd, Iran. ... Download high resolution version (400x637, 361 KB)The city of Yazd, Iran. ... A caravanserai (also spelt caravansarai, caravansary) or khan (the usual term in Arab countries) was a roadside inn where caravans could rest and recover from the days journey. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Firouzabad. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... The city of Yazd, as seen from the tall minarets of its 12th century mosque. ... Baku (Azeri: Bakı, Russian: Баку) is the capital of Azerbaijan. ... External links Iran Chamber Societys page on Kerman Tourist information on Kerman Photos of historic sites in Kerman Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Konya (also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically known as Iconium, Greek: Ικόνιον) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi or Jalal al-Din Muhammad Balkhi Rumi (also known as Mowlavi or Moulana, meaning my guide in Iran, Central and South Asia or Mevlana meaning our guide in Turkey) (September 30, 1207 - December 17, 1273 CE) was a Persian poet and Sufi mystic, who was... Konya (also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically known as Iconium, Greek: Ικόνιον) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... Map of Iran showing location of Urmia Urmia, Uromieh, Uromiyeh, Oroomieh, Orumiyeh, or Orumiye (ارومیه in Persian), previously Rezaieh or Rezaiyeh (رضائیه), is a city (1991 pop. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...

14th century

Arg e Ali-Shah, Tabriz, Iran
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Arg e Ali-Shah, Tabriz, Iran
Ba Yazid Bastami, Bastam, Shahrood, Iran
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Ba Yazid Bastami, Bastam, Shahrood, Iran
  • Ostad Ali Haji al-Sanai al-Semnani: Built the Forumad mosque of Jajaram in Khorasan in 1319CE.
  • Muhammad Shah Naqqash: Built the tomb of Pir-e Bakran in Isfahan in 1302CE.
  • Sayyed Ali Shah: Built the Dome of Soltaniyeh in Zanjan in 1303CE also a UNESCO world heritage site.
  • Masoud Kermani: Built the Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabi'eh Khatun in Ashtarjan, Isfahan, in 1306CE.
  • Heydar Yabadr: Built the Mihrab of the Congregation mosque of Isfahan in 1310CE.
  • Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Bana: Built the Congregation mosque of Ashtarjan, Isfahan, in 1314CE.
  • Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Ibitalib Mohandes Bana al-Damghani and his brother Haji: Built the tomb of Ba Yazid Bastami in 1323 CE.
  • Ostad Muhammad ibn Jamal Ahmad: Built the Burj-i Dozal tower near Tabriz.
  • Abu Taleb Damghani: Built Imamzadeh Jafar in Isfahan in 1324CE.
  • Muhammad ibn Umar al-Sheikh: Built the northern Iwan of Madraseh-i Imami in Isfahan in 1324CE.
  • Ali Qazvini: Built the Congregation mosque of varamin in 1321CE.
  • Ali ibn Ibrahim: Built the mosque of Tajang, Yazd, 1328CE.
  • Ostad Aghajan ibn Damavandi: Built the Imamzadeh Abdollah in Damavand in 1329CE.
  • Haji Muhammad al-Bana Savoji: Built the Caravanserai of Seen in Isfahan in 1330CE.
  • Khajeh Hosein ibn Seifuddin Mahmud ibn Taj Khajeh: Built the Congregation mosque of Marand in 1339CE.
  • Falaki Tabrizi: Built Arg-e Alishah in 1337CE.
  • Mafakhir an-Najjar Ustad Hasan ibn Jamal Ahmad Shir Gir: Built Imamzadeh Ghasem Azna in 1337CE.
  • Sayyed Ali Amir Hosein al-Bukhari: Built Bogh'eh Mir Muhamad in Kharg island in 1339CE.
  • Shokrollah: Built Congregation Mosque of Kerman, in 1348CE.
  • Ustad Shamsiddin: Built the tomb of Shu-juk Beiga, sister of Tamerlane in Samarkand in 1370CE.
  • Khajeh Hosein-e Shirazi: Built The Khaja Ahmad Yasavi Mosque in Turkmenia in 1396CE.
  • Ustad Shirazi Mimar: Built the Caravanserai of Dehbeed in Fars in 1384CE.
  • Ustad Arif ibn Ustad Musa Jibal: Built The haji Sheikhleh Emarate in Shiravan in 1384CE.
  • Ustad Ghashtasb ibn Musa: Built the public bath of Haji Zainuddin Damghani in sharvanshahan in 1387CE.

Tabriz City Hall, built in 1895, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Isfahan or Esfahān can refer to either a city or a province in Iran (Persia): Isfahan (city) Isfahan (province) Isfahan (rugs) Isfahan is the name of a song by the Jazzist Duke Ellington Ispahan a kind of rose and an older pronunciation of the citys name. ... Soltaniyeh, situated in the Province of Zanjan, some 240 km to the north-west from Tehran, used to be the capital of Ilkhanid rulers of Persia in the 14th century. ... Zanjan Province ... UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations system established in 1946. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain range, lake, desert, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated for the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage committee. ... Mihrab (in Persian مهراب or محراب, in Arabic ألمحراب pl. ... Tabriz City Hall, built in 1895, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... Isfahan or Esfahān can refer to either a city or a province in Iran (Persia): Isfahan (city) Isfahan (province) Isfahan (rugs) Isfahan is the name of a song by the Jazzist Duke Ellington Ispahan a kind of rose and an older pronunciation of the citys name. ... An Iwan is a large, vaulted chamber with a monumental arched opening on one side. ... Isfahan or Esfahān can refer to either a city or a province in Iran (Persia): Isfahan (city) Isfahan (province) Isfahan (rugs) Isfahan is the name of a song by the Jazzist Duke Ellington Ispahan a kind of rose and an older pronunciation of the citys name. ... Varamin is a city located in the south of Tehran Province, Iran. ... The city of Yazd, as seen from the tall minarets of its 12th century mosque. ... Mount Damavand (In Persian: دماوند), a dormant volcano, is the highest point in Iran (Persia). ... A caravanserai (also spelt caravansarai, caravansary) or khan (the usual term in Arab countries) was a roadside inn where caravans could rest and recover from the days journey. ... Marand is among major cities in East Azerbaijan province of Iran. ... Arg e Ali-Shah, Tabriz, Iran. ... External links Iran Chamber Societys page on Kerman Tourist information on Kerman Photos of historic sites in Kerman Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Samarkand (Samarqand or Самарқанд in Uzbek, in Persian سمرقند) (population 400,000) is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan, capital of Samarqand Province. ... Turkmenistan, once known as the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic is a country in Central Asia. ... A caravanserai (also spelt caravansarai, caravansary) or khan (the usual term in Arab countries) was a roadside inn where caravans could rest and recover from the days journey. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...

15th century

Goharshad mosque built in 1418 CE by the orders of Goharshad, wife of Shah Rukh.
Goharshad mosque built in 1418 CE by the orders of Goharshad, wife of Shah Rukh.
  • Muhammad ibn Mahmud al-Isfahani: Built the Gur-i Amir, tomb of Tamerlane, in Samarkand in 1403CE.
  • Sayyed Ali ibn Sayyed Kamaluddin Banna Amuli: Built the Burj-i Sultan Zainul-abideen in Sari in 1406CE.
  • Ghavameddin Shirazi: Built the Goharshad mosque in 1417 CE.
  • Hasan Jafar Ustad Mimar Bashi: Built the Imamzadeh Abdollah tomb in Bafq.
  • Muhammad ibn Ghadir aka Ajor-tarash: Built the Darb-i Imam mosque in Isfahanin 1427CE.
  • Pasha ibn Bakshah Jamshid: Built the Emarat Shah Balu in the village of Ahu Dasht Natel Rastaq in 1435CE.
  • Ustad Haji Ahmad: Built The Ghal'eh Ghar Khalar in Darband in 1437CE.
  • Khajeh Mahmud Haj Zein Jame' Shirazi: Built the Mazar-e Sheikh Ahmad Jam complex in Khorasan in 1439CE.
  • Abdolqadir Isfahani: Built the mosque of Dabbagh-khaneh in Ankara in 1443CE.
  • Ustad Hasan ibn Ali Husein Bana Amuli: Built three extant structures in the village of Kajur in around 1443CE.
  • Ustad Ghitheddin Shirazi: Built the Congregation mosque of Khargerd in Khorasan in 1443CE.

Goharshad mosque, Mashad. ... Goharshad mosque, Mashad. ... The interior of Goharshad Mosque exhibits the superb work of Persian craftsmen. ... Akhangan tomb, where Gohar-Taj is buried. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Samarkand (Samarqand or Самарқанд in Uzbek, in Persian سمرقند) (population 400,000) is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan, capital of Samarqand Province. ... This article is about the garment worn by Indian and Bangladeshi women. ... The interior of Goharshad Mosque exhibits the superb work of Persian craftsmen. ... Isfahan or Esfahān can refer to either a city or a province in Iran (Persia): Isfahan (city) Isfahan (province) Isfahan (rugs) Isfahan is the name of a song by the Jazzist Duke Ellington Ispahan a kind of rose and an older pronunciation of the citys name. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Ankara from the Atakule Tower, looking N-NE Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after İstanbul. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ...

16th century

  • Ostad Hosein Khorasani: Re-built the tomb of Sheikh Abdol-Samad in Natanz in 1514CE.
  • Ibrahim ibn Ustad Ismail banna Isfahani: Responsible for Isfahan Congregation Mosque in 1531CE.
  • Sani'ullah Mimar-i Yazdi: Built the Congregation mosque of Yazd in 1539CE.

Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... The city of Yazd, as seen from the tall minarets of its 12th century mosque. ...

17th century

18th century

  • Ostad baqer Isfahani: Built the Minarat of Kashan's Congregation mosque, 1779.

Tabatabaei House, early 1800s, Iran. ...

19th century

Abasian House In Kashan
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Abasian House In Kashan
  • Ustad Ali Maryam: Built the Tabatabaei House and Borujerdi-ha House and Timcheh Amin al-dowleh in Kashan in the mid 19th century.

Tabatabaei House, early 1800s, Iran. ... Tabatabaei House, early 1800s, Iran. ...

The modern era

inside Iran

  • Mohsen Foroughi (law college)
  • Hooshang Seyhoon (Ibn sina monument/Nader shah Monument/Baba Taher Monument)
  • Abdolaziz Farmanfarmayan (university of tehran mosques and technical college/Azadi sport complex/Niavaran Palace)
  • Kamran Diba (Tehran musuem of contemporary arts/Niavaran garden and cultural complex/[1],[2])
  • Hadi Mirmiran (First place in most 1990s major competitions/The only architect won a medal of honor in art after reveloution)
  • Mohammad-Karim Pir Nia
  • Parviz Kalantari
  • Heydar Ghiai (Iran's Senate House)
  • Nader Ardalan (Tehran managment school)

outside Iran

 The factual accuracy of this article is disputed.
Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Steven Holl (born 1947, Bremerton, Washington) is an American academic architect best known for the 1988 Kiasma Contemporary Art Museum in Helsinki, Finland and the controversial 2003 Simmons Hall at MIT. Holl graduated from the University of Washington in 1970, established his offices in New York City in 1976, and... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is an emerging global religion founded by Baháulláh, a nineteenth-century Iranian exile. ... There are currently seven Baháí Houses of Worship around the world, although Baháí communities own many properties where they plan for Houses of Worship to be constructed as the Baháí community grows and develops. ...

External links

References used

For a full comprehensive list of Iranian architects from antiquity up to the modern age, refer to:

  • Mimaran-i Iran by Zohreh Bozorg-nia. 2004. ISBN 964-7483-39-2
  • Persian Gardens and Garden Pavilions by Donald N. Wilber, Elisabeth B. MacDougall. ISBN 0884020827
  • The Timurid architecture of Iran and Turan by Lisa Golombek and Donald Wilber, Princeton University Press, 1988. ISBN: 0691035873

See also


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