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Encyclopedia > List of finance topics
Finance

Financial Markets
Bond market
Stock (Equities) Market
Forex market
Derivatives market
Commodity market
Spot (cash) Market
OTC market
Real Estate market
Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The bond market, also known as the debit, credit, or fixed income market, is a financial market where participants buy and sell debt securities usually in the form of bonds. ... A stock market is a market for the trading of company stock, and derivatives of same; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ... In finance, the exchange rate between two currencies specifies how much one currency is worth in terms of the other. ... The derivatives markets are the financial markets for derivatives. ... Chicago Board of Trade Futures market Commodity markets are markets where raw or primary products are exchanged. ... Template:The Spot Market The Spot Market or Cash Marketis a commodities or securities market in which goods are sold for cash and delivered immediately. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) trading is to trade financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, commodities or derivatives directly between two parties. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ...

Market Participants
Investors
Speculators
Institutional Investors
There are two basic financial market participant catagories, Investor vs. ... Investment is a term with several closely related meanings in finance and economics. ... Speculation is the buying, holding, and selling of stocks, commodities, futures, currencies, collectibles, real estate, or any valuable thing to profit from fluctuations in its price as opposed to buying it for use or for income - dividends, rent etc. ... An institutional investor is an investor who is an institution like a bank, insurance fund, retirement fund, or mutual fund manager. ...

Corporate finance
Structured finance
Capital budgeting
Financial risk management
Mergers and Acquisitions
Accounting
Financial Statements
Auditing
Credit rating agency
Domestic credit to private sector in 2005 Corporate finance is an area of finance dealing with the financial decisions corporations make and the tools and analysis used to make these decisions. ... Structured finance describes any non-standard way of raising money. ... The process of determining which potential long-term projects are worth undertaking, by comparing their expected discounted cash flows with their internal rates of return. ... Financial risk management is the practice of creating economic value in a firm by using financial instruments to manage exposure to risk, particularly credit and market risk. ... Acquisition redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Accounting scholarship be merged into this article or section. ... Historical financial statement Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal records of a business financial activities. ... Basic definition Audit is the examination of records and reports of a company, in order to check that what is provided is relevant and accurate. ... A credit rating agency (CRA) is a company that assigns credit ratings for issuers of certain types of debt obligations. ...

Personal finance
Credit and Debt
Employment contract
Retirement
Financial planning
Personal finance is the application of the principles of finance to the monetary decisions of an individual or family unit. ... Credit as a financial term, used in such terms as credit card, refers to the granting of a loan and the creation of debt. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... An employment contract is an agreement entered into between an employer and an employee at the commencement of the period of employment and stating the exact nature of their business relationship, specifically what compensation the employee will receive in exchange for specific work performed. ... Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely. ... A Financial Planner or Personal Financial Planner is a practicing professional who helps people to deal with various personal financial issues through proper planning, which includes but not limited to these major areas: tertiary education planning, retirement planning, investment planning, risk management and insurance planning, tax planning, estate planning and...

Public finance
Tax
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ...

Banks and Banking
Fractional-reserve banking
Central Bank
List of banks
Deposits
Loan
Money supply
For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Fractional-reserve banking refers to a financial system in which some fraction of the deposits can be used to finance profitable but illiquid investments. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of banks throughout the world. ... Bank deposits are the large part of the money supply. They come in different types depending on withdrawal restrictions. ... For other uses, see Loan (disambiguation). ... In macroeconomics, money supply (monetary aggregates, money stock) is the quantity of currency and money in bank accounts in the hands of the non-bank public available within the economy to purchase goods, services, and securities. ...

Financial regulation
Finance designations
Accounting scandals
Financial supervision is government supervision of financial institutions by regulators. ... There are a variety of Finance designations or Accreditations that can be earned, and awarded to those in the finance industry. ... Accounting scandals, or corporate accounting scandals are political and business scandals which arise with the disclosure of misdeeds by trusted executives of large public corporations. ...

History of finance
Stock market bubble
Recession
Stock market crash
A stock market bubble is a type of economic bubble taking place in stock markets when price of stocks rise and become overvalued by any measure of stock valuation. ... In macroeconomics, a Recession is a decline in any countrys Gross Domestic Product (GDP), or negative real economic growth, for two or more successive quarters of a year. ... A stock market crash is a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices across a significant cross-section of a stock market. ...

v d

Topics in finance include: Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ...

Contents

Fundamental financial concepts

Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... In economics and finance, arbitrage is the practice of taking advantage of a price differential between two or more markets: a combination of matching deals are struck that capitalize upon the imbalance, the profit being the difference between the market prices. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... An estimation of the CAPM and the Security Market Line (purple) for the Dow Jones Industrial Average over the last 3 years for monthly data. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is a substub, the first step on the way to becoming a full article. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... In finance, default occurs when a debtor has not met its legal obligations according to the debt contract, e. ... Consumer debt is consumer credit which is outstanding. ... Debt consolidation entails taking out one loan to pay off many others. ... Debt Settlement, also known as Debt Arbitration or Debt Negotiation, is an approach to debt reduction. ... Credit counseling (known in the United Kingdom as debt counselling) is a process offering education to consumers about how to avoid incurring debts that cannot be repaid. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... Friday, February 17, 2006 marked the first of a multi-part series for The Oprah Winfrey Show, where Oprah challenged Americans to get out of debt. ... The debt-snowball method of debt repayment is a form of debt management that is most often applied to repaying revolving credit — such as credit cards. ... In finance, the discounted cash flow (or DCF) approach describes a method to value a project, company, or financial asset using the concepts of the time value of money. ... In brief, financial capital is money used by entreprenuers and businesses to buy what they need to make their products (or provide their services). ... Funding or financing is to provide capital (funds), which means money for a project, a person, a business or any other private or public institutions. ... Computation of corporate finance problems, standard portfolio problems, option pricing and applications, and duration and immunization. ... An entrepreneur (a loanword from French introduced and first defined by the Irish economist Richard Cantillon) is a person who operates a new enterprise or venture and assumes some accountability for the inherent risks. ... Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations or revitalizing mature organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response to identified opportunities. ... Fixed income analysis is analysing fixed income products to find out if they are fairly valued, or not. ... Gap Financing is a term mostly associated with mortgage or property loans. ... In finance, a hedge is an investment that is taken out specifically to reduce or cancel out the risk in another investment. ... Basis risk in finance is the risk associated with imperfect hedging using futures. ... An interest rate is the price a borrower pays for the use of money he does not own, and the return a lender receives for deferring his consumption, by lending to the borrower. ... The risk-free interest rate is the interest rate that it is assumed can be obtained by investing in financial instruments with no risk. ... This article is about yield curves as used in finance. ... In the context of interest rate derivatives, a short rate model is a mathematical model that describes the future evolution of interest rates by describing the future evolution of the short rate. ... For other senses of this word, see interest (disambiguation). ... In contrast to a nominal interest rate, the period of time after that the interest is credited coincides with the basic time unit (normally one year). ... A nominal interest rate is the interest rate as stated - that is, not adjusted for compounding. ... In accounting and finance, the accrual basis of an interest calculation is a convention whereby an interest amount is calculated from the principal, expressed in units of a specified currency, and a percentage, and an agreed start and end date. ... NOTE: this is not Fishers equation in differential equations The Fisher equation in financial mathematics and economics estimates the relationship between nominal and real interest rates under inflation. ... In economics, crowding out theoretically occurs when the government expands its borrowing to finance increased expenditure, or cuts taxes (i. ... Annual Percentage Rate (APR) is an expression of the effective interest rate that the borrower will pay on a loan, taking into account one-time fees and standardizing the way the rate is expressed. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Invest redirects here. ... This article is about economics. ... Reserves of foreign exchange and gold in 2006 A pile of 12. ... Leverage is using given resources in such a way that the potential positive or negative outcome is magnified. ... In finance, a long position in a security, such as a stock or a bond, or equivalently to be long a security, means the holder of the position owns the security and will profit if the price of the security goes up. ... Market liquidity is a business or economics term that refers to the ability to quickly buy or sell a particular item without causing a significant movement in the price. ... In finance, a margin is collateral that the holder of a position in securities, options, or futures contracts has to deposit to cover the credit risk of his counterparty. ... In economics, mark to market is the act of assigning a value to a position held in a tradeable financial instrument based on the current market price for that instrument. ... In financial markets, market impact is the effect that a market participant has when it buys or sells an asset. ... A medium of exchange is an intermediary used in trade to avoid the inconveniences of a pure barter system. ... Microcredit is the extension of very small loans (microloans) to the unemployed, to poor entrepreneurs and to others living in poverty who are not considered bankable. ... For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ... This article is about monetary coins. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... For other uses, see Counterfeit (disambiguation). ... In finance, a portfolio is a collection of investments held by an institution or a private individual. ... Capital Market Line Modern portfolio theory (MPT) proposes how rational investors will use diversification to optimize their portfolios, and how a risky asset should be priced. ... A reference rate is any publicly available quoted number or value that is used by the parties to a financial contract. ... Reset also known as fixing is a generic concept in the financial market, meaning the determination and recording of a reference rate, usually in order to calculate the settlement value of a periodic payment schedule between two parties. ... In finance, the return on investment (ROI) or just return is a calculation used to determine whether a proposed investment is wise, and how well it will repay the investor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The investment performance is the total return of an investment (either a given asset or a portfolio of assets) during a given period (one year for example). ... Relative investment performance (or relative return) is a mode of portfolio management that tries to get a close but better performance than a market index. ... The concept of right-financing was coined by English Political Economist Dr. Peter Middlebrook to highlight the importance of adopting the appropriate policy, institutional and financial support mechanisms to maximize sustainable returns on both public and private investments over time. ... For the Parker Brothers board game, see Risk (game) For other uses, see Risk (disambiguation). ... For non-business risks, see risk or the disambiguation page risk analysis. ... Financial institutions, such as banks or insurance companies are required to hold cash reserves as a cushion against default. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A Spectral risk measure is a risk measure given as a weighted average of outcomes (which are standardly assumed to be equiprobable) where bad outcomes are included with larger weights. ... Definition In economics and finance, the Value at risk, or VaR, is a measure used to estimate how the value of an asset or of a portfolio of assets will decrease over a certain time period (usually over 1 day or 10 days) under usual conditions. ... Scenario analysis is a process of analyzing possible future events by considering alternative possible outcomes (scenarios). ... In finance, short selling or shorting is the practice of selling securities the seller does not then own, in the hope of repurchasing them later at a lower price. ... Speculation involves the buying, holding, and selling of stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, collectibles, real estate, derivatives or any valuable financial instrument to profit from fluctuations in its price as opposed to buying it for use or for income via methods such as dividends or interest. ... Day trading refers to the practice of buying and selling financial instruments within the same trading day such that all positions will usually (not necessarily always) be closed before the market close of the trading day. ... A position trader is one who takes a long term stance in the futures market. ... Look up spread in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A standard of deferred payment is the accepted way (in a given market) to settle a debt. ... To act as a store of value, a commodity, a form of money or financial capital must be able to be reliably saved, stored, and retrieved - and be predictably useful when it is so retrieved. ... A time horizon is a fixed point of time in the future at which point certain processes will be evaluated or assumed to end. ... The time value of money is the premise that an investor prefers to receive a payment of a fixed amount of money today, rather than an equal amount in the future, all else being equal. ... In finance, discounting is the process of finding the current value of an amount of cash at some future date, and along with compounding cash from the basis of time value of money calculations. ... The present value of a single or multiple future payments (known as cash flows) is the nominal amounts of money to change hands at some future date, discounted to account for the time value of money, and other factors such as investment risk. ... Future value measures what money is worth at a specified time in the future assuming a certain interest rate. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Discounted cash flow. ... The internal rate of return (IRR) is a capital budgeting method used by firms to decide whether they should make long-term investments. ... Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR) is a financial measure used to determine the attractiveness of an investment. ... An annuity (from Latin annus, a year), is an investment that provides a defined series of payments in the future in exchange for an up-front sum of money. ... // A perpetuity is an annuity that has no definite end, or a stream of cash payments that continues forever. ... A unit of account is a standard numerical unit of measurement for the market value of goods, services, and other transactions. ... Volatility most frequently refers to the standard deviation of the change in value of a financial instrument with a specific time horizon. ... The yield of a financial instrument, usually a debt instrument, is the rate of return the holder earns on that instrument. ... The US dollar yield curve as of 9 February 2005. ...

Accounting (financial records)

Accountancy (profession)[1] or accounting (methodology) is the measurement, statement or provision of assurance about financial information primarily used by managers, investors, tax authorities and other decision makers to make resource allocation decisions within companies, organizations, and public agencies. ... Following is a list of accounting topics. ... Financial accountancy (or financial accounting) is the branch of accountancy concerned with the preparation of financial statements for decision makers, such as stockholders, suppliers, banks, government agencies, owners, and other stakeholders. ... Historical financial statement Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal records of a business financial activities. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In financial accounting, a cash flow statement is a financial statement that shows a companys incoming and outgoing money (sources and uses of cash) during a time period (often monthly or quarterly). ... An Income Statement, also called a Profit and Loss Statement (P&L), is a financial statement for companies that indicates how Revenue (money received from the sale of products and services before expenses are taken out, also known as the top line) is transformed into net income (the result after... Basic definition Audit is the examination of records and reports of a company, in order to check that what is provided is relevant and accurate. ... Management accounting is concerned with the provisions and use of accounting information to managers within organizations, to provide them with the basis in making informed business decisions that would allow them to be better equipped in their management and control functions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Actuarial topics

This page represents a collection of topics which relate to Actuarial Science. ...

Institutional setting

Financial services companies

Financial institutions In financial economics, a financial institution acts as an agent that provides financial services for its clients. ...

For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... This is a list of banks throughout the world. ... // Government Bank of Canada (Central Bank) Business Development Bank of Canada “Big six” banks Royal Bank of Canada Toronto-Dominion Bank Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Bank of Montreal Bank of Nova Scotia National Bank of Canada Many of these banks have diversified into financial services that used to be... Hong Kong maintains a three-tier system of deposit-taking institutions, licensed banks, restricted licence banks and deposit-taking companies. ... This is a list of banks with operations in Singapore. ... This is a list of some of the major banking company mergers since 1930 in the U.S. ^ SunTrust to buy National Commerce Financial. ... In international trade, a bank, operating for the exporter in the exporters country, the bank which handles letters of credit for foreign banks. ... This is a list of central banks. ... A commercial bank is a type of financial intermediary and a type of bank. ... Community development banks (CDBs) are a special kind of bank designed to spur serve the residents of and spur economic development in low to moderate income (LMI) areas. ... A mutual savings bank is a financial institution chartered by a state or federal government to provide a safe place for individuals to save and to invest those savings in mortgages, loans, stocks, Bonds and other securities. ... In finance, a custodian bank, or simply custodian, refers to a financial institution responsible for safeguarding a firms or individuals financial assets. ... In relation to American Depositary Receipts (or ADRs), a depository bank is a U.S. bank that issues depository receipts. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics. ... In banking, a merchant bank is a traditional term for an Investment Bank. ... Microcredit is the extension of very small loans (microloans) to the unemployed, to poor entrepreneurs and to others living in poverty who are not considered bankable. ... A mutual bank is a bank owned by the depositors. ... A mutual savings bank is a financial institution chartered by state or federal government to: (1) provide a safe place for individuals to save and (2) invest those savings in mortgages loans, stocks, bonds and other securities. ... The term national bank has several meanings: especially in developing countries, a bank owned by the state an ordinary private bank which operates nationally (as opposed to regionally or locally or even internationally) In the past, the term national bank has been used synonymously with central bank, but it is... An offshore bank account is a bank located outside the country of residence of the depositor, typically in a low tax jurisdiction (or tax haven) that provides financial and legal advantages. ... Private banks are banks which are not incorporated, and hence the entirety of their assets is available to meet the liabilities of the bank. ... A savings bank is a financial institution whose primary purpose is accepting savings deposits. ... Swiss banks are world-renowned for their stability, privacy and protection of clients. ... A bank holding company is a company that owns two or more banks. ... A building society is a financial institution, owned by its members, that offers banking and other financial services, especially mortgage lending. ... A clearing house (or clearinghouse) is an organization affiliated with a securities or derivatives exchange that completes the transactions on that exchange by seeing to validation, delivery, and settlement. ... A commercial lender offers loans backed by hard collateral. ... A community development financial institution, or CDFI, is a unique entity established to provide credit, financial services, and other services to underserved markets or populations. ... A credit rating agency (CRA) is a company that assigns credit ratings for issuers of certain types of debt obligations. ... A credit union is a cooperative financial institution that is owned and controlled by its members. ... The diversified financial services segment includes a range of consumer and commercially-oriented companies offering a wide variety of products and services, including various lending products (such as home equity loans and credit cards), insurance, and securities and investment products. ... An Edge Act Corporation is one chartered by the Federal Reserve of the U.S. to engage in international banking operations. ... Export Credit Agencies and Investment Insurance Agencies, commonly known as ECAs, are institutions which act as finance companies for private domestic entities who conduct business abroad. ... A financial advisor is a professional who renders investment advice and financial planning services to individuals and businesses. ... The term financial intermediary may refer to an institution, firm or individual who performs intermediation between two or more parties in a financial context. ... A Financial Planner or Personal Financial Planner is a practicing professional who helps people to deal with various personal financial issues through proper planning, which includes but not limited to these major areas: tertiary education planning, retirement planning, investment planning, risk management and insurance planning, tax planning, estate planning and... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... // Montreal Exchange Winnipeg Commodity Exchange Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) Chicago Butter and Egg Board, precursor to the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) Chicago Climate Exchange Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) Commodity Exchange (COMEX), now a division of NYMEX Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) International Monetary Market (IMM), part... The government sponsored enterprises (GSEs) are a group of financial services corporations created by the United States Congress. ... Hard money lenders are lending companies offering a specialized type of real-estate backed loan. ... Independent Financial Advisers or IFAs are professionals who offer unbiased advice on financial matters to their clients and recommend suitable financial products from the whole of the market. ... An industrial loan company (ILC) or industrial bank is a financial institution in the United States that lends money, and may be owned by non-financial institutions. ... Insurance is a system to alleviate financial losses by transferring risk of loss from one entity to another. ... An investment adviser is an individual or firm that advises their client on investment matters on a professional basis. ... An investment company is a company whose main business is holding securities of other companies purely for investment purposes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Large and Complex Financial Institutions, or LCFI, is a polite term for the Bulge Bracket banks. ... This article deals with U.S. mutual funds. ... Non-bank financial companies (NBFCs) also known as a non-bank or a non-bank bank, are financial institutions that provide banking services without meeting the legal definition of a bank, i. ... Prime Brokerage is the generic name for a bundled package of services offered by investment banks to hedge funds. ... A retail broker is a brokerage firm that caters to the average investor or, in other words, the retail sector of investors - as opposed to the institutional sector of investors. ... A savings and loan association is a financial institution which specializes in accepting savings deposits and making mortgage loans. ... A Stock broker sells or buys stock on behalf of a customer. ... This is a list of stock exchanges. ... A trust company is normally owned by one of three types of structures; an independent partnership, a bank, or a law firm, each of which specialize in being a trustee of various kinds of trusts, and managing estates. ...

Banking terms

Anonymous banking is where the banks of certain countries are used for holding money or assets, based on the voluntary or statutory level of privacy the banks provide. ... Outdoor ATMs may be free-standing, like this kiosk, or built into the side of banks or other buildings An automatic teller machine, automated teller machine (ATM) or cash machine is an electronic device that allows a banks customers to make cash withdrawals and check their account balances without... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... There are several ways that a government, in coordination with the countries commercial banks, can increase or decrease the money supply of a country. ... For other uses, see Loan (disambiguation). ... Pre-Qualification Evaluating a set of standardized borrower and property (or other collateral) risk based pricing factors. ... In lending, pre-approval has two meanings: 1. ... Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ...

Financial regulation

Corporate governance is the set of processes, customs, policies, laws and institutions affecting the way in which a corporation is directed, administered or controlled. ... Financial supervision is government supervision of financial institutions by regulators. ... Bank regulations are a form of government regulation which subject banks to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, aiming to uphold the soundness and integrity of the financial system. ... A banking license is a prerequisite for a financial institution that wants to provide banking services. ...

Designations and accreditation

The Certified Financial Planner (CFP®) designation is a certification mark for financial planners conferred by the Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards. ... Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) is a professional designation offered by the CFA Institute (formerly known as AIMR) to financial analysts who complete a series of three examinations and work for at least four years in the investment decision making process. ... The CFA Institute, headquartered in the USA at Charlottesville, Virginia and formerly known as the Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMR), awards the prestigious Chartered Financial Analyst(CFA) designation. ... The Canadian Securities Institute (CSI) is the educational body of the IDA (Investment Dealers Associations of Canada) in charge of the preparation of profesionals to work in the Canadian financial industry. ... Independent Financial Advisers or IFAs are professionals who offer unbiased advice on financial matters to their clients and recommend suitable financial products from the whole of the market. ... The Chartered Insurance Institute is a United Kingdom based professional organisation for those working in the insurance and financial services industry. ...

Fraud

A forex scam is any trading scheme used to defraud individual traders by convincing them that they can expect to gain an unreasonably high profit by trading in the foreign exchange market. ... Insider trading is the trading of a corporations stock or other securities (e. ... In economics, the legal origins theory states that many aspects of a countrys economic state of development are the result of their legal system, most of all where a particular country received its law from. ... A petition mill is a fraud in which the perpetrator poses as a financial advisor, sometimes as a credit counselor or paralegal, filing hastily-prepared bankruptcy documents in the name of victims who come to the advisor as clients. ... A Ponzi scheme is a fraudulent investment operation that involves paying abnormally high returns (profits) to investors out of the money paid in by subsequent investors, rather than from net revenues generated by any real business. ...

Industry bodies

The International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) is a trade organization of participants in the market for over-the-counter derivatives. ... NASD executive office on K Street in downtown Washington, D.C. The National Association of Securities Dealers, also known as the NASD, is the regulatory body primarily responsible for the regulation of persons involved in the securities industry in the United States. ...

Regulatory bodies

BIS Headquarters in Basel The Bank for International Settlements (or BIS) is an international organization of central banks which exists to foster cooperation among central banks and other agencies in pursuit of monetary and financial stability. It carries out its work through subcommittees, the secretariats it hosts, and through its... Canadian securities regulation governs the securities traded in Canada by properly licensed investment dealers on behalf of private and public investors in an open financial market. ...

United Kingdom

The Financial Services Authority (FSA) is an independent non-departmental public body and quasi-judicial body that regulates the financial services industry in the United Kingdom. ...

European Union

  • European Securities Committee (EU)
  • Committee of European Securities Regulators (EU)

The European Securities Committee (ESC) advises the European Commission in the field of securities. ...

United States

The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is an independent agency of the United States Government, created by Congress in 1974. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board, often referred to simply as the MSRB makes rules regulating dealers who deal in municipal bonds, municipal notes, and other municipal securities. ... The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (or OCC) was established by the National Currency Act of 1863 and serves to charter, regulate, and supervise all national banks and the federal branches and agencies of foreign banks in the United States. ... The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, commonly referred to as the SEC, is the United States governing body which has primary responsibility for overseeing the regulation of the securities industry. ...

United States legislation

Two separate United States laws are known as the Glass-Steagall Act. ... The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, also known as the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act, Pub. ... Before the signing ceremony of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, President George Bush meets with Senator Paul Sarbanes, Secretary of Labor Elaine Chao and other dignitaries in the Blue Room at the White House on July 30, 2002. ... // Congress enacted the Securities Act of 1933 (the “1933 Act,” the Truth in Securities Act or the Federal Securities Act) 48 Stat. ... The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 was a sweeping piece of legislation in the United States regulating the participants in the financial markets. ... The Investment Advisers Act of 1940 codified at 15 U.S.C. Â§ 80b-1 through 15 U.S.C. Â§ 80b-21, was created to regulate the actions of investment advisers (also spelled advisors) as defined by the law. ... In the United States, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56), known as the USA PATRIOT Act or simply the Patriot Act, is an Act of Congress which President George W. Bush signed into law...

Financial markets

Market and instruments

The capital market is the market for securities, where companies and the government can raise long-term funds. ... For security (collateral), the legal right given to a creditor by a borrower, see security interest A security is a fungible, negotiable instrument representing financial value. ... In finance, financial markets facilitate: The raising of capital (in the capital markets); The transfer of risk (in the derivatives markets); and International trade (in the currency markets). ... The primary is that part of the capital markets that deals with the issuance of new securities. ... IPO redirects here. ... Aftermarket (Music), Master psuedoname of projects by engineer/producer Jonathan Borsis. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... A bull market is a prolonged period of time when prices are rising in a financial market faster than their historical average. ... A bear market is a prolonged period of time when prices are falling in a financial market. ... In investing, a bear market rally is a temporary increase in price of a type of asset during a bear market. ... A market maker is a person or a firm which quotes a buy and sell price in a financial instrument or commodity hoping to make a profit on the turn or the bid/offer spread. ... Linear graph of the DJIA from 1901 until today Logarithmic graph of the DJIA from 1901 until today The Dow Jones Industrial Average (NYSE: DJI, also called the DJIA, Dow 30, or informally the Dow Jones or The Dow) is one of several stock market indices created by nineteenth-century... NASDAQ in Times Square, New York City. ... This is a list of stock exchanges. ... // Commonly used stock market indices include: Large companies not ordered by any nation or type of business (in alphabetical order). ... The following is a list of companies by the greatest market capitalization. ...

Equity market

A stock market is a market for the trading of publicly held company stock and associated financial instruments (including stock options, convertibles and stock index futures). ... A stock market is a market for the trading of company stock, and derivatives of same; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ... For other uses, see Stock (disambiguation). ... Common stock, also referred to as common shares, are, as the name implies, the most usual and commonly held form of stock in a corporation. ... Preferred stock, also called preferred shares or preference shares, is typically a higher ranking stock than common stock, and its terms are negotiated between the corporation and the investor. ... A treasury stock or reacquired stock is stock which is bought back by the issuing company, reducing the amount of outstanding stock on the open market (open market including insiders holdings). ... Equity investment generally refers to the buying and holding of shares of stock on a stock market by individuals and funds in anticipation of income from dividends and capital gain as the value of the stock rises. ... Index investing, also called indexing, is a method of passive investing whereby a fund (or individual) buys the same stocks in the same proportions as in a target index. ... Private equity is a broad term that refers to any type of equity investment in an asset in which the equity is not freely tradable on a public stock market. ... Financial statements (or financial reports) are a record of a business financial flows and levels. ... Fundamental analysis of a business involves analyzing its income statement, financial statements and health, its management and competitive advantages, and its competitors and markets. ... It has been suggested that ex-dividend date be merged into this article or section. ... The dividend yield on a company stock is the companys annual dividend payments divided by its market cap, or the dividend per share divided by the price per share. ... Stock split refers to a corporate action that increases the number of shares in a public company. ...

Equity valuation

There are several methods used to value companies and their stocks. ... Dow Theory is a theory on stock price movements that provides a basis for technical analysis. ... The Elliott wave theory is the basis of a technical analysis technique for predicting the behavior and market trends in the stock market, invented by Ralph Nelson Elliott in 1939. ... Economic Value Added (EVA) is an estimate of true economic profit after making corrective adjustments to GAAP accounting, including deducting the opportunity cost of equity capital. ... Gordon growth model is a variant of the discounted dividend model, a method for valuing a stock or business. ... Growth Stocks in finance, are stocks that appreciate in value and yield a high return on equity (ROE). ... Acquisition redirects here. ... A leveraged buyout (or LBO, or highly-leveraged transaction (HLT), or bootstrap transaction) occurs when a financial sponsor gains control of a majority of a target companys equity through the use of borrowed money or debt. ... A takeover in business refers to one company (the acquirer, or bidder) purchasing another (the target). ... A corporate raid is a business term, sometimes also referred to as breaking a company. ... In finance, the PE ratio of a stock (also called its earnings multiple, just multiple, or P/E) is used to measure how cheap or expensive share prices are. ... Market capitalization, or market cap, is a measurement of corporate or economic size equal to the stock price times the number of shares outstanding of a public company. ... Income per share is the bottom line net income divided by the number of shares outstanding. ... There are several methods used to value companies and their stocks. ... Technical analysis is the study of market action, primarily through the use of charts, for the purpose of forecasting future price trends. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...

Investment theory

Economics Nobel Laureate Daniel Kahneman, was an important figure in the development of behavioral finance and economics and continues to write extensively in the field. ... In finance, the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) asserts that financial markets are informationally efficient, or that prices on traded assets, e. ... A stock market crash is a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices across a significant cross-section of a stock market. ... A stock market bubble is a type of economic bubble taking place in stock markets when price of stocks rise and become overvalued by any measure of stock valuation. ... The January effect (sometimes called year-end effect) is an unexplained financial phenomenon of most stock markets having significantly higher returns in January than in other months of the year. ... In some stock markets, the Mark Twain effect is the phenomenon of stock returns in October being lower than in other months. ... Quantitative Behavioral Finance is a new discipline that uses mathematical and statistical methodology to understand behavioral biases in conjunction with valuation. ...

Bond market

The bond market, also known as the debit, credit, or fixed income market, is a financial market where participants buy and sell debt securities usually in the form of bonds. ... For alternative meanings, see bond (a disambiguation page). ... Zero coupon bonds are bonds which do not pay periodic coupons, or so-called interest payments. ... High yield debt (non-investment grade or junk bond) is a business term referring to a corporate debt instrument, usually a bond, that has a higher yield (compared to investment grade debt) because of a high perceived credit risk (default risk). ... A convertible bond, or convertible debenture, is a type of bond that can be converted into shares of stock in the issuing company, usually at some pre-announced ratio. ... An accrual bond is a fixed-interest bond that is issued at its face value and repaid at the end of the maturity period together with the accrued interest. ... In the United States, a municipal bond or muni is a bond issued by a state, city or other local government, or their agencies. ... A sovereign bond is a bond issued by a national government. ... Bond valuation is the process of determining the fair price of a bond. ... Yield to maturity (YTM) is the yield promised by the bondholder on the assumption that the bond will be held to maturity, that all coupon and principal payments will be made and coupon payments are reinvested at the bonds promised yield at the same rate as invested. ... In finance, duration is the weighted average maturity of a bonds cash flows or of any series of linked cash flows. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Money market

This article is about short-term financing. ... Repurchase agreements (RPs or Repos) are financial instruments used in the money markets and capital markets. ... The International Monetary Market (IMM), largely the creation of Leo Melamed, is part of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME), the largest futures exchange in the United States and the second largest exchange in the world for the trading of futures and options on futures. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Exchange rate data in US Dollars since 1969 (Source Data: Reserve Bank of Australia www. ...

Commodity market

This article is in need of attention. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the business definition. ... The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is an independent agency of the United States Government, created by Congress in 1974. ... Day trading refers to the practice of buying and selling financial instruments within the same trading day such that all positions will usually (not necessarily always) be closed before the market close of the trading day. ... Drawdown has two distinct meanings: change in hydraulic head in an aquifer, typically due to pumping a well, this is found in drawdown_(hydrology) unrealized losses in economics, found in drawdown_(economics) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Forfaiting, or Medium-Term Capital Goods Financing, means selling a bill of exchange, at a discount, to a third party, the forfaiter, who collects the payment from an, essentially, overseas customer, through a collateral bank(s), and, thus, assuming the underlying responsibility of exporters and simultaneously providing trade finance for... Fundamental analysis of a business involves analyzing its income statement, financial statements and health, its management and competitive advantages, and its competitors and markets. ... In finance, a futures contract is a standardized contract, traded on a futures exchange, to buy or sell a certain underlying instrument at a certain date in the future, at a specified price. ... Fungibility is a measure of how easily one good may be exchanged or substituted for another example of the same good at equal value. ... Reserves of foreign exchange and gold in 2006 A pile of 12. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Hedge (finance). ... Jesse Lauriston Livermore (July 26, 1877 - November 28, 1940), also known as Boy Plunger [1], was a notable early 20th century stock trader. ... // Foodstuffs Fuels Precious metals Industrial metals Rare metals Other Source This list is partly adapted from [8] (Consumerium) under the clauses of GFDL External links NYMEX.com London Metal Exchange Euronext - Commodities > Commodities Chicago Board of Trade Category: ... MACD, which stands for Moving Average Convergence / Divergence, is a technical analysis indicator created by Gerald Appel in the 1960s. ... At the start of a business, owners put some funding into the business to finance assets. ... A position trader is one who takes a long term stance in the futures market. ... In futures trading Risk, is the probability of loss of trading capital. ... Seasonal traders take advantage of repetitive price patterns, by trading historical patterns of excess supply and scarcity. ... Seasonal spread traders are spread traders that take advantage of seasonal patterns by holding long and short positions in futures contracts simultaneously in the same or a related commodity markets. ... Speculation involves the buying, holding, and selling of stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, collectibles, real estate, derivatives or any valuable financial instrument to profit from fluctuations in its price as opposed to buying it for use or for income via methods such as dividends or interest. ... Look up spread in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Technical analysis is the study of market action, primarily through the use of charts, for the purpose of forecasting future price trends. ... A breakout is when prices pass through, and stay through an area of support or resistance. ... A bear market is a prolonged period of time when prices are falling in a financial market. ... A bottom is an event in technical analysis, where prices reach a low, then a lower low, and then a higher low. ... A bull market is a prolonged period of time when prices are rising in a financial market faster than their historical average. ... A moving average, in finance and especially in technical analysis, is one of a family of similar statistical techniques used to analyze time series data. ... Open interest is the number of open contracts of derivatives like futures and options that have a time limit after which they expire. ... Parabolic SAR fo Ebay during 2002. ... A point and figure chart is used for technical analysis of securities. ... The resistance level is the highest price a security trades at over a period of time. ... The Relative Strength Index (RSI) is a financial technical analysis oscillator showing price strength by comparing upward and downward close-to-close movements. ... The stochastic oscillator is a momentum indicator used in technical analysis, introduced by George Lane in the 1950s, to compare the closing price of a commodity to its price range over a given time span. ... A stop loss order is an order given to a broker to to sell a security when it reaches a certain price. ... The support level is the lowest price a security trades at, over a period of time. ... A top is an event in technical analysis, where a securitys prices reach a high, then a higher high, and then a lower high. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... Look up trend, trendy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Derivatives market

The derivatives markets are the financial markets for derivatives. ... Derivatives traders at the Chicago Board of Trade. ... Topics in finance include: // Finance an overview Arbitrage Capital (economics) Capital asset pricing model Cash flow Cash flow matching Debt Default Consumer debt Debt consolidation Debt settlement Credit counseling Bankruptcy Debt diet Debt-snowball method Discounted cash flow Financial capital Funding Financial modeling Entrepreneur Entrepreneurship Fixed income analysis Gap financing... Mathematical finance is the branch of applied mathematics concerned with the financial markets. ... In finance, an underlying is an investment from which a derivative security is derived. ...

Forward markets and contracts

The forward market describes the over the counter market in contracts for future delivery or, in physical commodities, for later shipment. ... A forward contract is an agreement between two parties to buy or sell an asset (which can be of any kind) at a pre-agreed future point in time. ...

Futures markets and contracts

A futures contract is a form of forward contract, a contract to buy or sell an asset of any kind at a pre-agreed future point in time, that has been standardised for a wide range of uses. ... Backwardation, sometimes incorrectly referred to as backwardization, is the situation where futures contracts closer to expiration trade at higher prices than those that are far from expiration. ... Contango is a futures market term. ... In finance, a futures contract is a standardized contract, traded on a futures exchange, to buy or sell a certain underlying instrument at a certain date in the future, at a specified price. ... A currency future, also FX future or foreign exchange future, is a futures contract to exchange one currency for another at a specified date in the future at a price (exchange rate) that is fixed on the last trading date. ... A financial future is a futures contract on a short term interest rate (STIR). ... An Interest Rate Future is a futures contract with an interest bearing instrument as the underlying asset. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

Option markets and contracts

This article is about options traded in financial markets. ... Main article: Option A stock option is a specific type of option that uses the stock itself as an underlying instrument to determine the options pay-off (and therefore its value). ... In options trading a box spread is a combination of positions that has a certain (i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A put option (sometimes simply called a put) is a financial contract between two parties, the buyer and the writer of the option. ... The strike price, or exercise price, is a key variable in a derivatives contract between two parties. ... In financial mathematics, put-call parity defines a relationship between the price of a European call option and a European put option - both with the identical strike price and expiry. ... In mathematical finance, the Greeks are the quantities representing the market sensitivities of options or other derivatives. ... The Black-Scholes model, often simply called Black-Scholes, is a model of the varying price over time of financial instruments, and in particular stocks. ... The Black model (sometimes known as the Black-76 model) is a variant the Black-Scholes option pricing model. ... In finance, the binomial options model provides a generalisable numerical method for the valuation of options. ... In financial mathematics, the implied volatility of an option contract is the volatility implied by the market price of the option based on an option pricing model. ... Option Value In finance, the value of an option consists of two components, its intrinsic value and its time value. ... In finance, moneyness is a measure of the degree to which a derivative security is likely to have positive monetary value at its expiration. ... In finance, moneyness is a measure of the degree to which a derivative security is likely to have positive monetary value at its expiration. ... In finance, moneyness is a measure of the degree to which a derivative security is likely to have positive monetary value at its expiration. ... In finance, a straddle is an investment strategy involving the purchase or sale of particular derivatives. ... In finance, the style or family of an option is a general term denoting the class into which the option falls, usually defined by the dates on which the option may be exercised. ... In finance, a vanilla option is a type of derivative security. ... In finance, an exotic option is a derivative which has features making it more complex than commonly traded products (vanilla options). ... A binary option is a type of option where the payoff is either some fixed amount of some asset or nothing at all. ... The style or family of a financial option is a general term denoting the class into which the option falls, usually defined by the manner in which the option may be exercised. ... Interest rate cap An interest rate cap is a series of European call options or caplets on a specified interest rate, usually the LIBOR interest rate. ... Interest rate cap An interest rate cap is a series of European call options or caplets on a specified interest rate, usually the LIBOR interest rate. ... The style or family of a financial option is a general term denoting the class into which the option falls, usually defined by the manner in which the option may be exercised. ... The style or family of a financial option is a general term denoting the class into which the option falls, usually defined by the manner in which the option may be exercised. ... The style or family of a financial option is a general term denoting the class into which the option falls, usually defined by the manner in which the option may be exercised. ... The style or family of a financial option is a general term denoting the class into which the option falls, usually defined by the manner in which the option may be exercised. ... An Employee stock option is a call option on a companys own stock issued as a form of non-cash compensation. ... For other uses of the term Warrant, see Warrant (disambiguation) In finance, a warrant is a security that entitles the holder to buy stock of the company that issued it at a specified price, which is much higher than the stock price at time of issue. ... In finance, a foreign exchange option (commonly shortened to just FX option or currency option) is a derivative financial instrument where the owner has the right but not the obligation to exchange money denominated in one currency into another currency at a pre-agreed exchange rate on a specified date. ... An interest rate derivate is a derivative security where the underlying asset is the right to pay or receive a (usually notional) amount of money at a given interest rate. ... A bond option is similar to a stock option with the difference that the underlying asset is a bond. ... A real option is the right, but not the obligation, to undertake some business decision, typically the option to make a capital investment. ... In finance, a futures contract is a standardized contract, traded on a futures exchange, to buy or sell a certain underlying instrument at a certain date in the future, at a specified price. ...

Swap markets and contracts

see: w:Swap (finance)

For the Thoroughbred horse racing champion, see: Swaps (horse). ... An interest rate swap is a derivative in which one party exchanges a stream of interest payments for another partys stream of cash flows. ... A basis swap is an interest rate swap which involves the exchange of two floating rate financial instruments denominated in the same currency. ... A stock swap is a business takeover in which the acquiring company uses its own stock to pay for the acquired company. ... An equity swap is a derivative security where a set of future cash flows are exchanged between two counterparties. ... A currency swap is a foreign exchange agreement between two parties to exchange a given amount of one currency for another and, after a specified period of time, to give back the original amounts swapped. ... A variance swap is a financial derivative whose payoff is the realised volatility squared of the underlier based on a prespecified set of sampling points. ...

Derivative markets by underlyings

Equity derivatives
  • Accelerated Market Participation Securities (AMPS)
  • Accelerated Return Equity Securities (ARES)
  • Asset Return Obligation Securities (ASTROS)
  • Automatic Common Exchange Securities (ACES)
  • Basket Adjusting Structured Equity Securities (BASES)
  • Basket Opportunity Exchangeable Securities (BOXES)
  • Bifurcated Option Note Unit Securities (BONUSES)
  • Broad Index Guarded Equity-Linked Securities (BRIDGES)
  • Canadian Originated Preferred Securities (COPrS)
  • Closed End Fund
  • Commodity-Indexed Preferred Securities (ComPS)
  • Common-Linked Higher Income Participation Securities (CHIPS)
  • Common stock
  • Convertible Contingent Debt Securities (CODES)
  • Corporate-Backed Trust Securities (CorTS)
  • Corporate Obligation Basket Listed Trust Securities (COBALTS)
  • Currency Protected Notes (CPNS), (SPNS)
  • Currency Protected Securities (CPS)
  • Customized Upside Basket Securities (CUBS)
  • Debt Exchangeable for Common Stock (DECS)
  • Equity Growth Long-Term Strategy (EGLS)
  • Enhanced Equity-Linked Debt Securities (ELKS)
  • Enhanced Income Securities (EISs)
  • Enhanced Stock Index Growth Notes (E-SIGNS)
  • Equity Providing Preferred Income Convertible Securities (EPPICS)
  • Exchange Preferred Income Cumulative Shares (EPICS)
  • Exchange-traded fund (ETF)
  • Exchangeable Capital Units (ExCaps)
  • Foreign Currency Return Notes (FORENS)
  • Global Bond Linked Securities (GLOBELS)
  • Hybrid Income Securities Units (HITS)
  • Income Deposit Securities (IDS)
  • Inverse exchange-traded fund
  • Leading Stockmarket Return Securities (LASERS)
  • Leveraged Upside Indexed Accelerated Return Securities (LUNARS)
  • Liquid Yield Option Notes (Zero Cupon) (LYONS)
  • Mandatorily Exchangeable Debt Securities MEDS)
  • Mandatory Adjustable Redeemable Convertible Securities (MARCS)
  • Market Index Target Term Securities (MITTS)
  • Market Participation Securities (MPS)
  • Medium Term Equity Related Investment Securities (MERITS)
  • Monthly Income Debt Securities (MIDS)
  • Monthly Income Preferred Securities (MIPS)
  • Participating Index Notes (PINS)
  • Performance Equity-Linked Redemption Quarterly Pay Securities (PERQS)
  • Performance Equity-Return Linked Securities (PERKS)
  • Performance Leveraged Upside Securities (PLUS)
  • Principal Accruing Enhanced Return Securities (PACERS)
  • Preferred Equity Redemption Cumulative Stock (PERCS)
  • Preferred Income Equity Redeemable Shares (PIERS)
  • Preferred Redeemable Increased Dividend Equity Securities (PRIDES)
  • Preferred stock
  • Premium Equity Participating Securities (PEPS)
  • Premium Income Equity Securities (PIES)
  • Protected Exchangeable Equity-Linked Securities (PEEQS)
  • Protected Growth Securities (ProGroS)
  • Protected Performance Equity Linked Securities (PROPELS)
  • Public Credit & Repackaged Securities (PCARS)
  • Public Income Notes (PINES)
  • Putable Automatic Rate Reset Securities (PARRS)
  • Quarterly Income Capital Securities (QUICS)
  • Quarterly Income Debt Securities (QUIDS)
  • Quarterly Income Preferred Securities (QUIPS)
  • Quarterly Interest Bond (QUIB)
  • Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)
  • Reset Put Securities (REPS)
  • Return Enhanced Convertible Securities (RECONS)
  • Rights
  • Risk Adjusting Equity Range Securities (RANGERS)
  • Secure Principal Energy Receipts (SPERS)
  • Select Equity Indexed Notes (SEQUINS)
  • Senior Quarterly Income Debt Securities (SQUIDS)
  • Shared Preference Redeemable Securities (SpuRS)
  • Shares of Benefical Interest (SBI)
  • Step-Up Increasing Redeemable Equity Notes (SIRENS)
  • Step-Up REIT Securities (StREITs)
  • Stock Appreciation Income-Linked Securities (SAILS)
  • Stock market Annual Reset Term (Notes) (SMART)
  • Stock Participation Accreting Redemption Quarterly-pay Securities (SPARQS)
  • Stock Return Income Debt Securities (STRIDES)
  • Stock Upside Note Securities (SUNS)
  • Structured Asset Trust Unit Repackaging (SATURNS)
  • Structured Repackaged Asset-Backed Trust Securities (STRATS)
  • Structured Yield Product Exchangeable for Common Stock (STRYPES)
  • Subordinated Capital Income Securities (SKIS)
  • Target Return Investment Growth Securities (TRIGGERS)
  • Targeted Efficient Equity Securities (TEES)
  • Targeted Growth Enhanced Terms Securities (TARGETS)
  • Term Convertible Securities (TECONS)
  • Threshold Appreciation Price Securities (TAPS)
  • Trust Automatic Common Exchange Securities (TRACES)
  • Trust Certificate (TRUC)
  • Trust Investment Enhanced Return Securities (TIERS)
  • Trust Issued Mandatory Exchange Securities (TIMES)
  • Trust Originated Preferred Securities (TOPrS)
  • Trust Preferred Stock (TruPs)
  • Trust Units Exchangeable for Preference Shares (TrUEPrS)
  • Warrants
  • Warrants & Income Redeemable Equity Securities (WIRES)
  • Yield Enhanced Equity-Linked Debt Securities (YEELDS)
  • Yield Enhanced Stock (YES)

The term equity derivative describes a class of financial instruments whose value is at least partly derived from one or more underlying equity securities. ... A closed-end fund is a collective investment scheme with a limited number of shares. ... Common stock, also referred to as common shares, are, as the name implies, the most usual and commonly held form of stock in a corporation. ... Exchange-traded funds (or ETFs) are open-ended investment companies that can be traded at any time throughout the course of the day. ... Preferred stock, also called preferred shares or preference shares, is typically a higher ranking stock than common stock, and its terms are negotiated between the corporation and the investor. ... // A Real Estate Investment Trust or REIT (rēt, rhymes with treat) is a tax designation for a corporation investing in real estate that reduces or eliminates corporate income taxes. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... For other uses of the term Warrant, see Warrant (disambiguation) In finance, a warrant is a security that entitles the holder to buy stock of the company that issued it at a specified price, which is much higher than the stock price at time of issue. ...

Interest rate derivatives

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... A financial future is a futures contract on a short term interest rate (STIR). ... LIBOR stands for the London Interbank Offered Rate and is a daily reference rate based on the interest rates at which banks offer to lend unsecured funds to other banks in the London wholesale (or interbank) money market. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... An interest rate swap is a derivative in which one party exchanges a stream of interest payments for another partys stream of cash flows. ... Interest rate cap An interest rate cap is a series of European call options or caplets on a specified interest rate, usually the LIBOR interest rate. ... An interest rate derivate is a derivative security where the underlying asset is the right to pay or receive a (usually notional) amount of money at a given interest rate. ... An interest rate swap is a derivative in which one party exchanges a stream of interest payments for another partys stream of cash flows. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Credit derivatives

// A credit derivative is a financial instrument or derivative (finance) whose price and value derives from the creditworthiness of the obligations of a third party, which is isolated and traded. ... A credit default swap (CDS) is a bilateral contract under which two counterparties agree to isolate and separately trade the credit risk of at least one third-party reference entity. ... For other subjects with the same abbreviation, see CDO. In financial markets, collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) are a type of asset-backed security and structured credit product. ... In finance, a default option or credit default option is a put option that makes a payoff in the event the issuer of a specified reference asset defaults. ... Total return swap, or total rate of return swap, or TRORS, a contract in which one party receives interest payments on a reference asset plus any capital gains and losses over the payment period, while the other receives a specified fixed or floating cash flow unrelated to the credit worthiness...

Valuation

In general, the economic value of something is how much a product or service is worth to someone relative to other things (often measured in money). ... Definition Fair value, also called fair price, is a concept used in finance and economics. ...

Discounted cash flow valuation

In finance, the discounted cash flow (or DCF) approach describes a method to value a project, company, or financial asset using the concepts of the time value of money. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Operating cash flow (or OCF) refers to how much cash a company generates out of the revenues it brings in excluding costs associated with long-term investment on capital items. ... The time value of money is the premise that an investor prefers to receive a payment of a fixed amount of money today, rather than an equal amount in the future, all else being equal. ... The present value of a single or multiple future payments (known as cash flows) is the nominal amounts of money to change hands at some future date, discounted to account for the time value of money, and other factors such as investment risk. ... Future value measures what money is worth at a specified time in the future assuming a certain interest rate. ... In finance, discounting is the process of finding the current value of an amount of cash at some future date, and along with compounding cash from the basis of time value of money calculations. ... Bond valuation is the process of determining the fair price of a bond. ... Yield to maturity (YTM) is the yield promised by the bondholder on the assumption that the bond will be held to maturity, that all coupon and principal payments will be made and coupon payments are reinvested at the bonds promised yield at the same rate as invested. ... In finance, duration is the weighted average maturity of a bonds cash flows or of any series of linked cash flows. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Stock (disambiguation). ... Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC) is the cost per year of owning an asset over its entire lifespan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Discounted cash flow. ... In finance, discounting is the process of finding the current value of an amount of cash at some future date, and along with compounding cash from the basis of time value of money calculations. ... An estimation of the CAPM and the Security Market Line (purple) for the Dow Jones Industrial Average over the last 3 years for monthly data. ... Arbitrage pricing theory (APT), in Finance, is a general theory of asset pricing, that has become influential in the pricing of shares. ... The cost of capital for a firm is a weighted sum of the cost of equity and the cost of debt (see the financing decision). ... The weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is used in finance to measure a firms cost of capital. ... Fundamental analysis of a business involves analyzing its income statement, financial statements and health, its management and competitive advantages, and its competitors and markets. ... There are several methods used to value companies and their stocks. ... Business valuation is a process and a set of procedures used to determine the economic value of an owner’s interest in a business. ... Domestic credit to private sector in 2005 Corporate finance is an area of finance dealing with the financial decisions corporations make and the tools and analysis used to make these decisions. ...

Relative valuation

The dividend yield on a company stock is the companys annual dividend payments divided by its market cap, or the dividend per share divided by the price per share. ... In finance, a financial ratio is a ratio of selected values on a enterprises financial statements. ... Market-based valuation is a form of stock valuation that refers to market indicators, also called extrinsic criteria (i. ... In finance, the PE ratio of a stock (also called its earnings multiple, just multiple, or P/E) is used to measure how cheap or expensive share prices are. ... Relative valuation is a generic term that refers to the notion of comparing the price of an asset to the market value of similar assets. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Contingent claim valuation

See also derivatives pricing

Topics in finance include: // Finance an overview Arbitrage Capital (economics) Capital asset pricing model Cash flow Cash flow matching Debt Default Consumer debt Debt consolidation Debt settlement Credit counseling Bankruptcy Debt diet Debt-snowball method Discounted cash flow Financial capital Funding Financial modeling Entrepreneur Entrepreneurship Fixed income analysis Gap financing... Rational pricing is the assumption in financial economics that asset prices (and hence asset pricing models) will reflect the arbitrage-free price of the asset as any deviation from this price will be arbitraged away. This assumption is useful in pricing fixed income securities, particularly bonds, and is fundamental to... In mathematical finance, a risk-neutral measure is a probability measure in which todays fair (i. ... In economics, arbitrage is the practice of taking advantage of a state of imbalance between two (or possibly more) markets: a combination of matching deals are struck that exploit the imbalance, the profit being the difference between the market prices. ... Mathematical finance is the branch of applied mathematics concerned with the financial markets. ... In finance, a futures contract is a standardized contract, traded on a futures exchange, to buy or sell a certain underlying instrument at a certain date in the future, at a specified price. ... In finance, a futures contract is a standardized contract, traded on a futures exchange, to buy or sell a certain underlying instrument at a certain date in the future, at a specified price. ... This article is about options traded in financial markets. ... A real option is the right, but not the obligation, to undertake some business decision, typically the option to make a capital investment. ... The Black-Scholes model, often simply called Black-Scholes, is a model of the varying price over time of financial instruments, and in particular stocks. ... The Black model (sometimes known as the Black-76 model) is a variant the Black-Scholes option pricing model. ... In finance, the binomial options model provides a generalisable numerical method for the valuation of options. ... In the context of interest rate derivatives, a short rate model is a mathematical model that describes the future evolution of interest rates by describing the future evolution of the short rate. ... A bond option is similar to a stock option with the difference that the underlying asset is a bond. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Rendleman-Bartter model in finance is a short rate model describing the evolution of interest ratess. ... A trajectory of the short rate and the corresponding yield curve In finance, the Vasicek model is a mathematical model describing the evolution of interest rates. ... In financial mathematics, the Ho-Lee model is a Short rate model of future interest rates. ... In financial mathematics, the Hull-White model is a model of future interest rates. ... The Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model in finance is a mathematical model describing the evolution of interest rates. ... Black-Derman-Toy, or BDT, in finance, is a model of the evolution of the yield curve, sometimes referred to as an short rate model. ... [edit] The model The first stochastic mean and stochastic volatility model was described by Lin Chen in 1996. ...

Corporate finance

Domestic credit to private sector in 2005 Corporate finance is an area of finance dealing with the financial decisions corporations make and the tools and analysis used to make these decisions. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... In finance, a financial ratio is a ratio of selected values on a enterprises financial statements. ... This is a summary article that covers many topics related to business plans - their content, how they are used, legal issues, and spoofs of business plans, among others. ... The process of determining which potential long-term projects are worth undertaking, by comparing their expected discounted cash flows with their internal rates of return. ... Domestic credit to private sector in 2005 Corporate finance is an area of finance dealing with the financial decisions corporations make and the tools and analysis used to make these decisions. ... Domestic credit to private sector in 2005 Corporate finance is an area of finance dealing with the financial decisions corporations make and the tools and analysis used to make these decisions. ... Business valuation is a process and a set of procedures used to determine the economic value of an owner’s interest in a business. ... There are several methods used to value companies and their stocks. ... Fundamental analysis of a business involves analyzing its income statement, financial statements and health, its management and competitive advantages, and its competitors and markets. ... A real option is the right, but not the obligation, to undertake some business decision, typically the option to make a capital investment. ... Topics in finance include: // Finance an overview Arbitrage Capital (economics) Capital asset pricing model Cash flow Cash flow matching Debt Default Consumer debt Debt consolidation Debt settlement Credit counseling Bankruptcy Debt diet Debt-snowball method Discounted cash flow Financial capital Funding Financial modeling Entrepreneur Entrepreneurship Fixed income analysis Gap financing... The Fisher separation theorem in economics asserts that the objective of a firm will be the maximization of its present value, regardless of the preferences of its owners. ... Domestic credit to private sector in 2005 Corporate finance is an area of finance dealing with the financial decisions corporations make and the tools and analysis used to make these decisions. ... Gearing ratios redirects here. ... The cost of capital for a firm is a weighted sum of the cost of equity and the cost of debt (see the financing decision). ... The weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is used in finance to measure a firms cost of capital. ... The Modigliani-Miller theorem (of Franco Modigliani, Merton Miller) forms the basis for modern thinking on capital structure. ... The Dividend Decision, in Corporate finance, is a decision made by the directors of a company. ... It has been suggested that ex-dividend date be merged into this article or section. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        A dividend tax is an income tax on dividend payments to... The dividend yield on a company stock is the companys annual dividend payments divided by its market cap, or the dividend per share divided by the price per share. ... The Modigliani-Miller theorem (of Franco Modigliani, Merton Miller) forms the basis for modern thinking on capital structure. ... A corporate action is an event taken by a public company that has a direct financial impact on of its shareholders. ... Managerial Finance is that branch of finance that provide tools for a companys financial managers. ... Management accounting is concerned with the provisions and use of accounting information to managers within organizations, to provide them with the basis in making informed business decisions that would allow them to be better equipped in their management and control functions. ... Acquisition redirects here. ... A leveraged buyout (or LBO, or highly-leveraged transaction (HLT), or bootstrap transaction) occurs when a financial sponsor gains control of a majority of a target companys equity through the use of borrowed money or debt. ... A takeover in business refers to one company (the acquirer, or bidder) purchasing another (the target). ... A corporate raid is a business term, sometimes also referred to as breaking a company. ... A real option is the right, but not the obligation, to undertake some business decision, typically the option to make a capital investment. ... In finance, the return on investment (ROI) or just return is a calculation used to determine whether a proposed investment is wise, and how well it will repay the investor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Return on Equity (ROE, Return on average common equity) measures the rate of return on the ownership interest (shareholders equity) of the common stock owners. ... Return on capital, also known as Return On Invested Capital (ROIC) is defined as NOPLAT / Invested Capital usually expressed as a percentage. ... Domestic credit to private sector in 2005 Corporate finance is an area of finance dealing with the financial decisions corporations make and the tools and analysis used to make these decisions. ... Cash conversion cycle or CCC, also known as the asset conversion cycle, net operating cycle, working capital cycle or just cash cycle, is used in the financial analysis of a business. ... Return on capital, also known as Return On Invested Capital (ROIC) is defined as NOPLAT / Invested Capital usually expressed as a percentage. ... Economic Value Added (EVA) is an estimate of true economic profit after making corrective adjustments to GAAP accounting, including deducting the opportunity cost of equity capital. ... Just In Time (JIT) is an inventory strategy implemented to improve the return on investment of a business by reducing in-process inventory and its associated costs. ... Economic Order Quantity (also known as the Wilson EOQ Model or simply the EOQ Model) is a model that defines the optimal quantity to order that minimizes total variable costs required to order and hold inventory. ... Discounts and allowances are modifications to the basic price. ... This article is about the financial term. ...

Investment management

Institutional fund management is fund management conducted by large financial firms such as banks, insurance companies and major investment organisations (e. ... Active management (also called active investing) refers to a portfolio management strategy where the manager makes specific investments with the goal of outperforming a benchmark index. ... In finance, the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) asserts that financial markets are informationally efficient, or that prices on traded assets, e. ... In finance, a portfolio is a collection of investments held by an institution or a private individual. ... Capital Market Line Modern portfolio theory (MPT) proposes how rational investors will use diversification to optimize their portfolios, and how a risky asset should be priced. ... An estimation of the CAPM and the Security Market Line (purple) for the Dow Jones Industrial Average over the last 3 years for monthly data. ... Arbitrage pricing theory (APT), in Finance, is a general theory of asset pricing, that has become influential in the pricing of shares. ... Passive management (also called passive investing) is a financial strategy in which a fund manager makes as few portfolio decisions as possible, in order to minimize transaction costs, including the incidence of capital gains tax. ... An index fund or index tracker is a collective investment scheme that aims to replicate the movements of an index of a specific financial market, or a set of rules of ownership that are held constant, regardless of market conditions. ... An activist shareholder uses an equity stake in a corporation to put public pressure on its management. ... This article deals with U.S. mutual funds. ... An open-end(ed) fund is a collective investment which can issue and redeem shares at any time. ... A closed-end fund is a collective investment scheme with a limited number of shares. ... The following is a limited list of mutual-fund families. ... Financial engineering is the application of science-based mathematical and statistical models to make a better decision about managing financial risks, investing, borrowing, lending, and saving. ... Long Term Capital Management (LTCM) was a hedge fund founded in 1994 by John Meriwether (the former vice-chairman and head of bond trading at Salomon Brothers). ... A hedge fund is a private investment fund charging a performance fee and typically open to only a limited range of qualified investors. ... In finance, a hedge is an investment that is taken out specifically to reduce or cancel out the risk in another investment. ...

Personal finance

Personal finance is the application of the principles of finance to the monetary decisions of an individual or family unit. ... A 529 plan is a tax-advantaged investment vehicle in the United States designed to encourage saving for the future higher education expenses of a designated beneficiary. ... For the rental car company, see Budget Rent a Car. ... A Coverdell Education Savings Account (also known as an Education Savings Account, a Coverdell ESA, a Coverdell Account, or just an ESA and formerly known as an Education IRA), is a tax-advantaged investment account in the United States designed to encourage savings to cover future college education expenses. ... This article is about the payment system. ... Debt consolidation entails taking out one loan to pay off many others. ... A mortgage loan is a loan secured by real property through the use of a mortgage (a legal instrument). ... Look up debit card in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Direct deposit is a process where someone who is going to be paid on a recurring basis, such as an employee, or a recipient of a government entitlement or benefit program such as social security is sent the payment owed to them into their checking or savings account. ... An employment contract is an agreement entered into between an employer and an employee at the commencement of the period of employment and stating the exact nature of their business relationship, specifically what compensation the employee will receive in exchange for specific work performed. ... For other uses, see Commission. ... An Employee stock option is a call option on a companys own stock issued as a form of non-cash compensation. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The term health insurance is generally used to describe a form of insurance that pays for medical expenses. ... In a company, payroll is the sum of all financial records of salaries, wages, bonuses, and deductions. ... Romanino, Superintendent paying the workers, 1531-32, fresco, Castello del Buonconsiglio, Trento, Italy. ... A wage is a compensation which workers receive in exchange for their labor. ... Financial literacy is the ability of individuals to make appropriate decisions in managing their personal finances. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Predatory lending is a pejorative term used to describe practices of some lenders. ... A retirement plan is an arrangement to provide people with an income, or pension, during retirement, when they are no longer earning a steady income from employment. ... The 401(k) plan is a type of employer-sponsored defined contribution retirement plan under section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code () in the United States, and some other countries. ... A 403(b) plan is a tax advantaged retirement savings plan available for public education organizations, some non-profit employers (only US Tax Code 501(c)(3) organizations) and self-employed ministers in the United States. ... The 457 plan is a type of tax advantaged defined contribution retirement plan that is available for governmental and certain non governmental employers in the United States. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        An Individual Retirement Account (or IRA) is a retirement plan account that provides some tax advantages for retirement savings in the United States. ... A Roth IRA is an individual retirement account (IRA) allowed under the tax law of the United States. ... A traditional IRA is an individual retirement account (IRA) in the United States. ... A Simplified Employee Pension Individual Retirement Account is a variation of the Individual Retirement Account used in the United States. ... A SIMPLE IRA is a type of employer provided retirement plan in the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... Tax advantage refers to the economic bonus which applies to certain accounts or investments that are, by statute, tax-reduced, tax-deferred, or tax-free. ... For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ... There are a number of personal finance software packages. ... An investment club is a group of individuals who meet on a regular basis for the purpose of investing money. ... Funds financial information A collective investment scheme is a way of investing money with a large number of people to participate in a wider range of investments that may not be feasible for an individual investor hence many investors share the costs of doing so. ...

Public finance

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... Fractional-reserve banking refers to a financial system in which some fraction of the deposits can be used to finance profitable but illiquid investments. ... There are several ways that a government, in coordination with the countries commercial banks, can increase or decrease the money supply of a country. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... This article is the current Taxation Collaboration of the Month. ... A sales tax is a consumption tax charged at the point of purchase for certain goods and services. ... Tax advantage refers to the economic bonus which applies to certain accounts or investments that are, by statute, tax-reduced, tax-deferred, or tax-free. ... The tax, tariff and trade laws of a political region, state or trade bloc determine which forms of consumption and production tend to be encouraged or discouraged. ... In economics, crowding out theoretically occurs when the government expands its borrowing to finance increased expenditure, or cuts taxes (i. ... An industrial policy is any government regulation or law that encourages the ongoing operation of, or investment in, a particular industry. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In economics, a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency among them, for example, the East Caribbean Dollar. ... Monetary Reform is accounting reform that reaches more deeply into banking central bank, money supply and monetary policy. ...

Insurance

Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... 2003 US mortality (life) table, Table 1, Page 1 Actuarial science applies mathematical and statistical methods to finance and insurance, particularly to the assessment of risk. ... Annuity contracts are offered by organizations and individuals that may accumulate value and take a current value and pay it out over a period of years. ... Catastrophe modeling (also known as cat modeling) is the process of using computer-assisted calculations to estimate the losses that could be sustained by a portfolio of properties due to a catastrophic event such as a hurricane or earthquake. ... Extended coverage is a term used in the insurance business. ... An insurable risk is a risk that meets the ideal criteria for efficient insurance. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... The term health insurance is generally used to describe a form of insurance that pays for medical expenses. ... Injury cover may refer to the act of receiving or claiming compensation for work related injuries. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... A flexible spending account (FSA) is a tax-advantaged financial account set up through the cafeteria plan of an employer in the United States. ... A Health Savings Account (HSA) is a tax-advantaged medical savings account available to taxpayers in the United States who are enrolled in a High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP). ... Long-term care insurance, an insurance product sold in the United States, helps provide for the cost of long-term care beyond a predetermined period. ... A medical savings account (MSA) is an account, generally associated with self-employed individuals, in which tax-deferred deposits can be made for medical expenses. ... Life insurance or life assurance is a contract between the policy owner and the insurer, where the insurer agrees to pay a sum of money upon the occurrence of the insured individuals or individuals death. ... Life insurance proceeds are not taxable in many jurisdictions. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Term life insurance is the original form of life insurance and is considered to be pure insurance protection because it builds no cash value. ... Universal Life (UL) is a type of permanent life insurance based on a cash value. ... It has been suggested that Variable universal life Insurance be merged into this article or section. ... Whole life insurance, or Whole of Life Assurance, refers to a policy that pays a lump sum on death or, in some cases, the earlier diagnosis of a critical illness whenever it occurs provided the contract is kept in force through the required payments being made. ... Property insurance provides protection against most risks to property, such as fire, theft and some weather damage. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Boiler insurance is a type of property insurance that pays accidental losses to machinery and equipment. ... Earthquake insurance is a form of property insurance that pays the policyholder in the event of an earthquake that causes damage to the property. ... Home insurance, also commonly called hazard insurance or homeowners insurance (often abbreviated in the real estate industry as HOI), is the type of property insurance that covers private homes. ... Title insurance is insurance against loss from defects in title to real property and from the invalidity or unenforceability of mortgage liens. ... Casualty insurance is a broad category of insurance that includes almost any coverage that is not related to life, health, or property. ... A fidelity bond is a form of protection that covers policyholders for losses that they incur as a result of fraudulent acts by specified individuals. ... Liability insurance is a part of the general insurance system of risk transference. ... Political risk insurance can be taken out by businesses, of any size, having operations in countries in which there is a risk that revolution or other political conditions will result in a loss. ... A surety bond is a contract among at least three parties: The principal - the primary party who will be performing a contractual obligation The obligee - the party who is the recipient of the obligation, and The surety - who ensures that the principals obligations will be performed. ... Terrorism insurance is insurance purchased by property owners to cover their potential losses and liabilities that might occur due to terrorist activities. ... Credit Insurance is an insurance policy associated with a specific loan or line of credit which pays back some or all of any money owed should certain things happen to the borrower, such as death, disability, or unemployment. ... Reinsurance is a means by which an insurance company can protect itself against the risk of losses with other insurance companies. ... Self insurance is a risk management method whereby an eligible risk is retained, but a calculated amount of money is set aside to compensate for the potential future loss. ... Travel insurance is insurance that is intended to cover financial and other losses incurred while travelling, either within ones own country, or internationally. ... An Insurance contract determines the legal framework under which the features of an insurance policy are enforced. ...

Economics and finance

World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... Financial economics is the branch of economics concerned with resource allocation over time. ... Mathematical economics is the sub-field of economics that explores the mathematical aspects of economic systems. ... Managerial economics (also called business economics), is a branch of economics that applies microeconomic analysis to specific business decisions. ... This article is about utility in economics and in game theory. ...

Mathematics and finance

Time value of money

The time value of money is the premise that an investor prefers to receive a payment of a fixed amount of money today, rather than an equal amount in the future, all else being equal. ... The present value of a single or multiple future payments (known as cash flows) is the nominal amounts of money to change hands at some future date, discounted to account for the time value of money, and other factors such as investment risk. ... Future value measures what money is worth at a specified time in the future assuming a certain interest rate. ... In finance, discounting is the process of finding the current value of an amount of cash at some future date, and along with compounding cash from the basis of time value of money calculations. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Discounted cash flow. ... The internal rate of return (IRR) is a capital budgeting method used by firms to decide whether they should make long-term investments. ... The term annuity is used in finance theory to refer to any terminating stream of fixed payments over a specified period of time. ... // A perpetuity is an annuity that has no definite end, or a stream of cash payments that continues forever. ...

Financial mathematics

Mathematical finance is the branch of applied mathematics concerned with the financial markets. ...

Mathematical tools

For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Probability is the likelihood that something is the case or will happen. ... A probability distribution describes the values and probabilities that a random event can take place. ... In probability theory and statistics, the binomial distribution is the discrete probability distribution of the number of successes in a sequence of n independent yes/no experiments, each of which yields success with probability p. ... In probability and statistics, the log-normal distribution is the single-tailed probability distribution of any random variable whose logarithm is normally distributed. ... In probability theory the expected value (or mathematical expectation) of a random variable is the sum of the probability of each possible outcome of the experiment multiplied by its payoff (value). Thus, it represents the average amount one expects as the outcome of the random trial when identical odds are... Definition In economics and finance, the Value at risk, or VaR, is a measure used to estimate how the value of an asset or of a portfolio of assets will decrease over a certain time period (usually over 1 day or 10 days) under usual conditions. ... In mathematical finance, a risk-neutral measure is a probability measure in which todays fair (i. ... Stochastic calculus is a branch of mathematics that operates on stochastic processes. ... Three different views of Brownian motion, with 32 steps, 256 steps, and 2048 steps denoted by progressively lighter colors. ... In mathematics, Itōs lemma is used in stochastic calculus to find the differential of a function of a particular type of stochastic process. ... In probability theory, Girsanovs theorem tells how stochastic processes change under changes in measure. ... In mathematics, the Radon-Nikodym theorem is a result in functional analysis that states that if a measure Q is absolutely continuous with respect to another sigma-finite measure P then there is a measurable function f, taking values in [0,∞], on the underlying space such that for any measurable... In the field of financial mathematics, many problems, for instance the problem of finding the arbitrage-free value of a particular derivative, boil down to the computation of a particular integral. ... In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a relation involving an unknown function of several independent variables and its partial derivatives with respect to those variables. ... The heat equation is an important partial differential equation which describes the variation of temperature in a given region over time. ... In probability theory, the martingale representation theorem states that a random variable which is measurable with respect to the filtration generated by a Brownian motion can be written in terms of an Itô integral with respect to this Brownian motion. ... The Feynman-Kac formula establishes a link between partial differential equations (PDEs) and stochastic processes. ... A stochastic differential equation (SDE) is a differential equation in which one or more of the terms is a stochastic process, thus resulting in a solution which is itself a stochastic process. ... Volatility most frequently refers to the standard deviation of the change in value of a financial instrument with a specific time horizon. ... In econometrics, an autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH, Engle (1982)) model considers the variance of the current error term to be a function of the variances of the previous time periods error terms. ... In econometrics, an autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH, Engle (1982)) model considers the variance of the current error term to be a function of the variances of the previous time periods error terms. ... A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. ... Numerical analysis is the study of approximate methods for the problems of continuous mathematics (as distinguished from discrete mathematics). ...

Derivatives pricing

Mathematical finance is the branch of applied mathematics concerned with the financial markets. ... Rational pricing is the assumption in financial economics that asset prices (and hence asset pricing models) will reflect the arbitrage-free price of the asset as any deviation from this price will be arbitraged away. This assumption is useful in pricing fixed income securities, particularly bonds, and is fundamental to... In mathematical finance, a risk-neutral measure is a probability measure in which todays fair (i. ... In economics, arbitrage is the practice of taking advantage of a state of imbalance between two (or possibly more) markets: a combination of matching deals are struck that exploit the imbalance, the profit being the difference between the market prices. ... In finance, a futures contract is a standardized contract, traded on a futures exchange, to buy or sell a certain underlying instrument at a certain date in the future, at a specified price. ... In finance, a futures contract is a standardized contract, traded on a futures exchange, to buy or sell a certain underlying instrument at a certain date in the future, at a specified price. ... This article is about options traded in financial markets. ... The Black-Scholes model, often simply called Black-Scholes, is a model of the varying price over time of financial instruments, and in particular stocks. ... The Black model (sometimes known as the Black-76 model) is a variant the Black-Scholes option pricing model. ... In finance, the binomial options model provides a generalisable numerical method for the valuation of options. ... In financial mathematics, the implied volatility of an option contract is the volatility implied by the market price of the option based on an option pricing model. ... Volatility is the standard deviation of the change in value of a financial instrument with a specific time horizon. ... In mathematical finance, the Greeks are the quantities representing the market sensitivities of options or other derivatives. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... In the context of interest rate derivatives, a short rate model is a mathematical model that describes the future evolution of interest rates by describing the future evolution of the short rate. ... A trajectory of the short rate and the corresponding yield curve In finance, the Vasicek model is a mathematical model describing the evolution of interest rates. ... The Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model in finance is a mathematical model describing the evolution of interest rates. ... In financial mathematics, the Hull-White model is a model of future interest rates. ... [edit] The model The first stochastic mean and stochastic volatility model was described by Lin Chen in 1996. ... The LIBOR Market Model, also referred to as the BGM Model in industry, is an interest rate model used for the pricing of interest rate derivatives, especially exotic derivatives like Bermudan swaptions. ... Heath-Jarrow-Morton framework is a general framework to model the evolution of interest rates (forward rates in particular). ...

Constraint finance

The field of environmental finance, part of both environmental economics and the conservation movement, exploits various financial instruments (most notably land trusts) to protect biodiversity. ... Feminist economics broadly refers to a developing branch of economics that applies feminist insights and critiques to mainstream economics. ... Green economics is an unconventional approach to economics by non-economists. ... Islamic economics is economics in accordance with Islamic law. ... Uneconomic growth, in welfare economics, human development theory and some forms of ecological economics, is economic growth which reflects or creates a decline in human well-being. ... In economics, value of Earth is the ultimate in ecosystem valuation, and important to value of life calculations. ... The value of life (or price of life) is an economic or moral value assigned to life in general, or to specific living organisms. ...

Virtual finance

Virtual finance is a branch of game design theory which is concerned with monetary aspects of virtual worlds, such as massively parallel multi-user games. ...

The history of finance

Pamphlet from the Dutch tulipomania, printed in 1637 The term tulip mania (alternatively tulipomania) is used metaphorically to refer to any large economic bubble. ... Hogarthian image of the South Sea Bubble by Edward Matthew Ward, Tate Gallery More well known than The South Sea Company is perhaps the South Sea Bubble (1711 - September 1720) which is the name given to the economic bubble that occurred through overheated speculation in the company shares during 1720. ... Whig campaign poster blames Van Buren for hard times (1840). ... Railway mania was the term given to the speculative frenzy in Britain in the 1840s. ... The Long Depression (1873 – 1896) affected much of the world from the early 1870s until the mid-1890s and was contemporary with the Second Industrial Revolution. ... The 1929 stock market crash devastated economies worldwide The Wall Street Crash refers to the stock market crash that occurred on October 29, 1929, when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange collapsed, leading eventually to the Great Depression. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... An Energy Crisis is any great shortfall (or price rise) in the supply of energy to an economy. ... Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ... The Savings and Loan crisis of the 1980s was a wave of savings and loan association failures in the United States in which over 1,000 savings and loan institutions failed in the largest and costliest venture in public misfeasance, malfeasance and larceny of all time. ... DJIA (19 July 1987 through 19 January 1988). ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... The dot-com bubble was a speculative bubble covering roughly 1995–2001 during which stock markets in Western nations saw their value increase rapidly from growth in the new Internet sector and related fields. ... The stock market downturn of 2002 (some say stock market crash or the Internet bubble bursting) is the sharp drop in stock prices during 2002 in stock exchanges across the United States, Canada, Asia, and Europe. ... Home $weet Home: cover of the June 13, 2005 issue of Time magazine[1] illustrating the mania[2] for home buying. ...

Financial software tools

Technical Analysis Software is used to analyze quantitative data in several securities and financial markets, especially price data, volume data and sentiment data. ... Microsoft Excel (full name Microsoft Office Excel) is a spreadsheet application written and distributed by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS. It features calculation and graphing tools which, along with aggressive marketing, have made Excel one of the most popular microcomputer applications to date. ... Not to be confused with Matlab Upazila in Chandpur District, Bangladesh. ... TradeStation is a windows-based application, designed, sold and distributed by TradeStation Securities. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Straight Through Processing (STP) enables the entire trade process for capital markets and payment transactions to be conducted electronically without the need for re-keying or manual intervention, subject to legal and regulatory restrictions. ...

Finding related topics

Following is a list of accounting topics. ... This is a list of articles on general management and strategic management topics. ... This is a list of over 200 articles on marketing topics. ... This aims to be a complete list of the articles on economics. ... International trade - an overview Absolute advantage Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) APEC Autarky Balance of trade barter Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT) Bimetallism branch plant Bretton Woods Conference Bretton Woods system British timber trade Cash crop Comparative advantage Continental trading bloc Cost, insurance and freight Currency... Management information systems an overview E-business Intranet strategies Database management system Data warehousing Data mining Document warehousing Customer relationship management (CRM) Sales force management system Enterprise resource planning (ERP) Human Resource Management Systems (HRMS) Business performance management Project management software Integration management Middleware Groupware and collaborative systems RSA Computer... Manufacturing and manufacturing systems manufacturing factory Craft system English system of manufacturing American system of manufacturing Mass production Batch production Just in time manufacturing Toyota Production System Lean manufacturing Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) Mass customization Theories of production Taylorism Fordism Theory of constraints Productivity Productivity benchmarking cost accounting experience curve... This is a list of business law topics within the field of commercial law. ... See business ethics, political economy and Philosophy of business for an overview. ... This is an annotated list of important business theorists. ... This is an alphabetical list of notable economists, that is, experts in the social science of economics. ... List of corporate leaders: Joe Ackermann - Deutsche Bank William Maxwell Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook- newspaper magnate Arthur Andersen - Arthur Andersen Kunitake Ando - Sony John Jacob Astor - Fur trading and real estate Nitchell Baker - Mozilla Corporation Percy Barnevik - Investor Bernard Baruch - Financier, Investor, Presidential advisor Andy Bechtolsheim - Sun Microsystems Silvio Berlusconi... This page represents a collection of topics which relate to Actuarial Science. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Compare Finance and find Finance resources on FUN2FUN (5739 words)
Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, [businesses], and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary [factors of production] over time, taking into account the [risks] entailed in their projects.
The activity of finance is the application of a set of techniques that individuals and organizations (entities) use to manage their money, particularly the differences between income and expenditure and the risks of their investments.
A specific example of corporate finance is the sale of stock by a company to institutional investors like investment banks, who in turn generally sell it to the public.
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