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Encyclopedia > List of famous experiments

The following is a list of historically important scientific experiments and observations. From Latin ex- + -periri (akin to periculum attempt). ...


See also: timeline of scientific experiments, list of famous discoveries, thought experiment. The timeline below shows the date of publication of major scientific experiments. ... A discovery is like an invention, only it is usually a substance, rather than a way of doing something. ... In philosophy, physics, and other fields, a thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is an attempt to solve a problem using the power of human imagination. ...

History of science
Background
Theories/sociology
Historiography
Pseudoscience
Background
Pre-experimental
In early cultures
In the Middle Ages
In the Renaissance
Scientific Revolution
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Natural sciences
Astronomy
Biology
Chemistry
Earth science
Earth Ecology
Geography
Physics
Social sciences
Economics
Linguistics
Political science
Psychology
Sociology
Technology
Agricultural science
Computer science
Materials science
Medicine
Timelines
Discoveries
Experiments

Contents

In the West, from antiquity up to the time of the Scientific Revolution, inquiry into the workings of the universe was known as natural philosophy, and those engaged in it were known as natural philosophers. ... Download high resolution version (703x1050, 51 KB)Linus Pauling (public domain from [1]) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The sociology and philosophy of science, as well as the entire field of science studies, have in the 20th century been preoccupied with the question of large-scale patterns and trends in the development of science, and asking questions about how science works both in a philosophical and practical sense. ... The historiography of science is the study of the history of science (often overlapping with the history of technology, history of medicine, and history of mathematics), generally in an academic context as part of the discipline of the history of science and technology (HST), history and philosophy of science (HPS... A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. ... The Ptolemaic system of celestial motion, from Harmonia Macrocosmica, 1661. ... In prehistoric times, advice and knowledge was passed from generation to generation in an oral tradition. ... // The Middle Ages: Western World Map of Medieval Universities See Also: Medieval medicine, Medieval philosophy With the loss of the Western Roman Empire, much of Europe lost contact with the knowledge of the past. ... In the history of science, the scientific revolution was the period that roughly began with the discoveries of Kepler, Galileo, and others at the dawn of the 17th century, and ended with the publication of the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 by Isaac Newton. ... Astronomy is probably the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious practices of pre-history: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with astronomy, and not completely separate from it until about 1750‑1800 in the Western... The history of biology dates as far back as the rise of various civilization as classic philosophers did their own ways of biology as a system of understanding life. ... Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis David The history of chemistry may be said to begin with the distinction of chemistry from alchemy by Robert Boyle in his work The Skeptical Chymist, which was written after a long and tearfilled talk with his father, and alchymist... Ecology is generally spoken of as a new science, really not coming into prominence before the middle of the 20th Century. ... The growth of physics has brought not only fundamental changes in ideas about the material world, mathematics and philosophy, but also, through technology, a transformation of society. ... The term economics was coined around 1870 and popularized by Alfred Marshall, as a substitute for the earlier term political economy which has been used through the 18th-19th centuries, with Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Karl Marx as its main thinkers and which today is frequently referred to as... Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... Antecedents of political science While the study of politics is first found in the Western tradition in Ancient Greece, political science is a late arrival in terms of social sciences. ... The history of psychology consists of a prescientific and a scientific epoch. ... Sociology is a relatively new academic discipline among other social sciences including economics, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC, and has become one of the worlds most famous and most useful technologies. ... Agronomy today is very different from what it was before about 1950. ... The History of materials science is rooted in the history of the Earth and the culture of the peoples of the Earth. ... All human societies have medical beliefs that provide explanations for, and responses to, birth, death, and disease. ... The Timeline below shows the date of publication of major scientific theories. ... The timeline below shows the date of publication of major scientific experiments. ...


Astronomy

Eratosthenes (Ερατοσθένης) Eratosthenes (Ερατοσθένης) (276 BC - 194 BC) was a Greek mathematician, geographer and astronomer. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 245 BC 244 BC 243 BC 242 BC 241 BC - 240 BC - 239 BC 238 BC... On January 7, 1610 Galileo discovered three of Jupiters four largest satellites (moons): Io, Europa, and Callisto. ... 50 cm refracting telescope at Nice Observatory. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... This drawing from an Icelandic manuscript dated around 1750 illustrates the geocentric model. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Arno Allan Penzias (born April 26, American physicist. ... Robert Woodrow Wilson (born January 10, 1936) is an American physicist. ... In cosmology, the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) is a form of electromagnetic radiation discovered in 1964 that radiates throughout the universe in the microwave range. ... According to the Big Bang theory, the universe originated in an extremely dense and hot state (bottom). ... For the Nintendo 64 emulator, see 1964 (Emulator). ...

Biology

Anton van Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 - August 30, 1723, full name Thonius Philips van Leeuwenhoek) was a tradesman and scientist from Delft, Netherlands. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 - March 3, 1703), one of the greatest experimental scientists of the seventeenth century, played an important role in the scientific revolution. ... 1852 microscope Compound microscope made by John Cuff in 1750 A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... Events March 4 - Start of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. ... Edward Jenner (May 17, 1749 - January 26, 1823) was an English country doctor practicing in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England, famous for his work introducing the Smallpox vaccine. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ... 1796 was a leap year starting on Friday. ... Gregor Johann Mendel Gregor Johann Mendel (July 22, 1822 – January 6, 1884) was an Austrian monk who is often called the father of genetics for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. ... Binomial name Pisum sativum L. A pea is the small, edible round green bean which grows in a pod on the leguminous vine Pisum sativum. ... In genetics, the term dominant gene refers to the an allele that causes a phenotype that is seen in a heterozygous genotype. ... In genetics, the term recessive gene refers to an allele that causes a phenotype (visible or detectable characteristic) that is only seen in a homozygous genotype (an organism that has two copies of the same allele). ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets that underlie much of genetics developed by Gregor Mendel in the latter part of the 19th century. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French microbiologist and chemist. ... The term spore has several different meanings in biology. ... Abiogenesis, in its most general sense, is the hypothetical generation of life from non-living matter. ... It has been suggested that Biopoesis be merged into this article or section. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Redi is featured in many modern-day science textbooks due to his experiment. ... Alexander Fleming Sir Alexander Fleming (August 6, 1881 – March 11, 1955) discovered the antibiotic substance lysozyme and isolated the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum, for which he shared a Nobel Prize. ... Species Penicillium notatum Penicillium glaucum Penicillium candida Penicillium roqueforti Penicillium marneffei > Penicillium bilaiae Penicillium or bread mold is a genus of fungus that includes: Penicillium notatum which produces the penicillin antibiotic Penicillium glaucum used in making Gorgonzola cheese Penicillium candida used in making Brie and Camembert cheese, also see candida... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Frederick Griffith (1879 - 1941) was a British medical officer. ... Griffiths experiment was conducted in 1928 by Frederick Griffith which was one of the first experiments suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information, otherwise known as the “transforming principle”, which was later discovered to be DNA. Griffith used two strains of Pneumococcus (which infects mice), a S... Griffiths experiment was conducted in 1928 by Frederick Griffith which was one of the first experiments suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information, otherwise known as the “transforming principle”, which was later discovered to be DNA. Griffith used two strains of Pneumococcus (which infects mice), a S... Space-filling model of a section of DNA molecule Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life (and most viruses). ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Karl von Frisch 1961 Karl Ritter von Frisch (1886-1982) was an Austrian ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973 with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz. ... Species A. mellifera — western honeybee A. cerana — eastern honeybee The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Beadle won a Nobel Prize in 1958 George Wells Beadle (October 22, 1903 - June 9, 1989) was an American scientist in the field of genetics. ... Tatum won the Nobel Prize for his work in genetics Edward Lawrie Tatum (December 14, 1909 - November 5, 1975) was an American geneticist. ... Binomial name Neurospora crassa Neurospora crassa is a type of red bread mold of the phylum Ascomycota. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Luria-Delbruck experiment (1943) demonstrates that in bacteria, genetic mutations arise in the absence of selection, rather than being a response to selection. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) is a common year starting on Friday. ... Barbara McClintock For the illustrator of the same name see Barbara McClintock (illustrator). ... Binomial name Zea mays L. Maize (Zea mays ssp. ... Transposons are sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called Transposition. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Hershey-Chase experiment was a series of experiments conducted in 1952 by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase that identified DNA to be the genetic material of phages and, ultimately, of all organisms. ... A phage (also called bacteriophage) (in Greek phageton = food/consumption) is a small virus that infects only bacteria. ... Space-filling model of a section of DNA molecule Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life (and most viruses). ... 1952 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Miller-Urey experiment attempts to recreate the chemical conditions of the primitive Earth in the laboratory, and synthesized some of the building blocks of life. ... An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with exception of carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and gases containing carbon. ... An inorganic compound is a chemical compound not containing carbon and hydrogen atoms bonded to each other. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Meselson-Stahl experiment was an experiment by Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl to prove that DNA replication was semiconservative. ... Image:Http://www. ... Semiconservative replication describes the method by which DNA is replicated in all known cells. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Crick, Brenner et al. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Nirenberg and Matthaei experiment was a scientific experiment performed in 1961 by Marshall W. Nirenberg and Heinrich J. Matthaei. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Nirenberg and Leder experiment was a scientific experiment performed in 1964 by Marshall W. Nirenberg and Philip Leder. ... For the Nintendo 64 emulator, see 1964 (Emulator). ...

Chemistry

Blaise Pascal (June 19, 1623–August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... Schematic drawing of a simple mercury barometer with vertical mercury column and reservoir at base A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. ... // Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. ... Robert Boyle The Honourable Robert Boyle (January 25, 1627 - December 30, 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Manual pump used to obtain water A pump is a mechanical device used to move liquids or gases. ... Pressure (symbol: p) is the force per unit area acting on a surface in a direction perpendicular to that surface. ... Volume, also called capacity, is a quantification of how much space an object occupies. ... A gas is one of the four main phases of matter (after solid and liquid, and followed by plasma), that subsequently appear as a solid material that is subjected to increasingly higher temperatures. ... Diagram of Boyles mercurial gauge, to discover the degrees both of rarified and condensed air. ... Events Expulsion of the Carib indigenous people from Martinique by French occupying forces. ... Events March 18 – Short-timed experiment of the first public buses holding 8 passengers begins in Paris May 3/May 2 - Catherine of Braganza marries Charles II of England – as part of the dowry, Portugal cedes Bombay and Tangier to England May 9 - Samuel Pepys witnessed a Punch and Judy... Joseph Priestley is often credited for the discovery of oxygen. ... Bubbles in carbonated water float to the surface. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794) was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... Combustion or burning is an exothermic reaction between a substance (the fuel) and a gas (the oxidizer), usually O2, to release heat. ... The phlogiston theory is an obsolete scientific theory of combustion. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794) was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... Chemical reactions are also known as chemical changes. ... law of conservation of mass/matter states that the mass of a system of substances is constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Benjamin Thompson. ... An Experimental Enquiry Concerning the Source of the Heat which is Excited by Friction, (1798), Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society 102 is a scientific paper by Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford that provided a substantial challenge to established theories of heat and began the 19th century revolution in thermodynamics. ... The Caloric theory of heat is an early theory of thermodynamics, developed mostly during the 18th and 19th centuries, which claims that changes in temperature are due to the transfer of was an invisible, weightless fluid called caloric. The theory originally hinged on two key assumptions: 1) heat was a... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Humphry Davy. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number barium, Ba, 56 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 6, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 137. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac (December 6, 1778 – May 10, 1850) was a French chemist and physicist. ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Bold textbuttRobert Brown (December 21, 1773 - June 10, 1858) is acknowledged as the leading British botanist to collect in Australia during the first half of the 19th century. ... An example of 1000 simulated steps of Brownian motion in two dimensions. ... 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Wöhler Friedrich Wöhler Friedrich Wöhler (July 31, 1800 - September 23, 1882) was a German chemist, best-known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several of the elements. ... The Wöhler synthesis is the conversion of ammonium cyanate into urea . ... An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with exception of carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and gases containing carbon. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Non-proprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... An inorganic compound is a chemical compound not containing carbon and hydrogen atoms bonded to each other. ... Vitalism is the doctrine that life cannot be explained solely by mechanism. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Life of Thomas Graham Thomas Graham (December 21, 1805 – September 16, 1869) was born in Glasgow, Scotland. ... In literature, effusion is the process of opening the flood gates to ones emotions, so to speak. ... Grahams law, also known as Grahams law of effusion, was formulated by Thomas Graham. ... Diffusion, being the spontaneous spreading of matter (particles), heat, or momentum, is one type of transport phenomena. ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Julius Robert von Mayer. ... James Prescott Joule (December 24, 1818–October 11, 1889) was an English physicist, born in Salford, near Manchester. ... Conservation of energy also known as the first law of thermodynamics is possibly the most important, and certainly the most practically useful, of several conservation laws in physics. ... Conservation of energy, also known as the first law of thermodynamics, is possibly the most important, and certainly the most practically useful of several conservation laws in physics. ... The kinetic theory of gases is a theory that explains the macroscopic properties of gases by consideration of their composition at a molecular level. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French microbiologist and chemist. ... In chemistry, a racemate is a mixture of equal amounts of left- and right-handed stereoisomers of a chiral molecule. ... In chemistry two stereoisomers are said to be enantiomers if one can be superimposed on the mirror image of the other, and vice versa. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... This article treats polarization in electrodynamics. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Anders Jonas Ã…ngström Anders Jonas Ã…ngström (August 13, 1814 – June 21, 1874) was a physicist in Sweden, one of the founders of the science of spectroscopy. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... In most modern usages of the word spectrum, there is a unifying theme of a variety of possible cases between extremes at either end. ... The Sun is the star at the centre of our Solar system. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Portrait of Dmitri Mendeleyev by Ilya Repin Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev (Russian: listen â–¶(?)) (8 February (O.S. 27 January) 1834 in Tobolsk – 2 February (O.S. 20 January) 1907 in Saint Petersburg), was a Russian chemist. ... Generally, an element is a basic part that is the foundation of something. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements, also called the Mendeleev periodic table, is a tabular display of the known chemical elements. ... 1869 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... François-Marie Raoult (1830-1901), French chemist, was born at Fournes, in the département du Nord, on the 10th of May 1830. ... The vapor pressure is the pressure (if the vapor is mixed with other gases, the partial pressure) of a vapor(this vapour being formed from molecules/atoms escaping from a liquid/solid). ... Freezing-point depression is the difference between the freezing points of a pure solvent and a solution of a nonelectrolyte in that solvent. ... In chemistry, colligative properties are factors that determine how the properties of a liquid solution change depending on the concentration of the solute in it. ... 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Henry Louis Le Chatelier, an influential French chemist and engineer, inventor of Le Chateliers principle. ... Chemical equilibrium is the state in which a chemical reaction proceeds at the same rate as its reverse reaction; the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal, and the concentration of the reactants and products stop changing. ... In chemistry, Le Chateliers principle can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on a chemical equilibrium. ... 1884 is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar). ... Svante August Arrhenius Svante August Arrhenius (February 19, 1859 – October 2, 1927) was a Swedish chemist and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry. ... Electrical conductivity is a measure of how well a material accommodates the transport of electric charge. ... In chemistry, salt is a term used for ionic compounds composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... A dissociative is a drug which reduces (or blocks) signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain, typically (but not necessarily, or limited to) the physical senses. ... ... 1884 is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar). ... Svante August Arrhenius Svante August Arrhenius (February 19, 1859 – October 2, 1927) was a Swedish chemist and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry. ... The reaction rate of a chemical reaction is the speed of production of products from reactants. ... The activation energy in chemistry is the energy needed by a system to initiate a particular process. ... 1889 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... William Ramsay. ... Lord Rayleigh John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (November 12, 1842 - June 30, 1919) was a British physicist who (with William Ramsay) discovered the element argon, an achievement that earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904. ... The noble gases are a chemical series. ... 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1898 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Frederick Soddy (September 2, 1877 – September 22, 1956) was an English radiochemist. ... William Ramsay. ... General Name, Symbol, Number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 4. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha particles or alpha rays are a form of particle radiation which are highly ionizing and have low penetration. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles (radiation). ... 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ... Otto Hahn (March 8, 1879 – July 28, 1968) was a German chemist. ... Fritz Strassman (February 22, 1902 - April 22, 1980) was a German physical chemist who, along with Otto Hahn, discovered the nuclear fission of uranium in 1938. ... Sketch of induced nuclear fission, a neutron (n) strikes a uranium nucleus which splits into similar products (F. P.), and releases more neutrons to continue the process, and energy in the form of gamma and other radiation. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American atomic scientist. ... In chemistry, transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92, the atomic number of Uranium. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements, also called the Mendeleev periodic table, is a tabular display of the known chemical elements. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Neil Bartlett (born September 15, 1932) is an English-born American chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fluorine, F, 9 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 2, p Appearance pale greenish-yellow gas Atomic mass 18. ... Noble gas compounds are chemical compounds that include an element from column 18 of the periodic table, the noble gases. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Dr. Frederick Sanger, OM , CH , CBE , FRS , Ph. ... The chain termination or Sanger or dideoxy method is a process used to sequence (read the bases of) DNA. It is named after Frederick Sanger who developed the process in 1975. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Sir Harold Walter Kroto KBE FRS (born October 7, 1939) is an English chemist. ... As the front man and lead guitar player of The Reverend Horton Heat trio, James (JIM) Heath is regarded as the best phycobilly guitar player out of texas. ... There are a number of people called Sean OBrien: Sean OBrien (writer) Sean OBrien (politician) This human name article is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that might otherwise share the same title, which is a persons or persons name. ... Robert Floyd Curl, Jr. ... Richard Errett Smalley (June 6, 1943 – October 28, 2005) was the Gene and Norman Hackerman Professor of Chemistry and a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Rice University, in Houston, Texas. ... Buckminsterfullerene (C60) Fullerenes are molecules composed entirely of carbon, taking the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. ... This article is about the year. ...

Physics

Plate produced by Arthur Eddington of the 1919 eclipse.
Plate produced by Arthur Eddington of the 1919 eclipse.

Archimedes of Syracuse. ... In physics, buoyancy is an upward force on an object immersed in a fluid (i. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 255 BC 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC - 250 BC - 249 BC 248 BC... Eratosthenes (Ερατοσθένης) Eratosthenes (Ερατοσθένης) (276 BC - 194 BC) was a Greek mathematician, geographer and astronomer. ... Earth, also known as the Earth, Terra, and (mostly in the 19th century) Tellus, is the third-closest planet to the Sun. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 245 BC 244 BC 243 BC 242 BC 241 BC - 240 BC - 239 BC 238 BC... On January 7, 1610 Galileo discovered three of Jupiters four largest satellites (moons): Io, Europa, and Callisto. ... This page is about the year. ... Events January 20 - Tidal wave swept along the Bristol Channel, killing 2000 people. ... Sir Isaac Newton, PRS (25 December 1642 (OS) – 20 March 1727 (OS) / 4 January 1643 (NS) – 31 March 1727 (NS)) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, inventor, philosopher and alchemist. ... If a shaft of light entering a prism is sufficiently small such that the coloured edges meet, a spectrum results In optics, a prism is a device used to refract light, reflect it or break it up (to disperse it) into its constituent spectral colours (colours of the rainbow). ... Ole Rømer. ... Cherenkov effect in a swimming pool nuclear reactor. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... Henry Cavendish (October 10, 1731 - February 24, 1810) was a British scientist. ... In physics, the purpose of the torsion bar experiment is to estimate the gravitational constant. ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Thomas Young, English scientist Thomas Young (June 13, 1773 – May 10, 1829) was an English scientist and researcher. ... The double-slit experiment consists of letting light diffract through two slits producing fringes on a screen. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Hans Christian Ørsted (August 14, 1777 – March 9, 1851) was a Danish physicist and chemist, influenced by the thinking of Immanuel Kant. ... Electricity is a general term applied to phenomena involving a fundamental property of matter called an electric charge. ... In physics, magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... This article is about the navigational instrument. ... An electrical network or electrical circuit is an interconnection of analog electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, switches and transistors. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Christian Doppler Johann Christian Andreas Doppler (November 29, 1803 in Salzburg – March 17, 1853 in Venice) was an Austrian mathematician and physicist, most famous for the hypothesis of what is now known as the Doppler effect which causes the frequency of a wave to apparently change as its source moves... There are various types of trains designed for particular purposes, see rail transport operations. ... Sound waves emanating from an ambulance moving to the right. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... J. B. Léon Foucault Jean Bernard Léon Foucault (18 September 1819–11 February 1868) was a French physicist best known for the invention of the Foucault pendulum, a device demonstrating the effect of the Earths rotation. ... Foucaults Pendulum in the Panthéon, Paris A Foucault pendulum, or Foucaults pendulum, named after the French physicist Léon Foucault, was conceived as an experiment to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth; its action is a result of the Coriolis effect. ... In physics, the Coriolis effect is an inertial force first described by Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis, a French scientist, in 1835. ... Earth, also known as the Earth, Terra, and (mostly in the 19th century) Tellus, is the third-closest planet to the Sun. ... 1851 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Michelson-Morley experiment, one of the most important and famous experiments in the history of physics, was performed in 1887 by Albert Michelson and Edward Morley at what is now Case Western Reserve University, and is considered to be the first strong evidence against the theory of a luminiferous... The luminiferous aether: it was hypothesised that the Earth moves through a medium of aether that carries light In the late 19th century the luminiferous aether (light-bearing aether), or ether, was a substance postulated to be the medium for the propagation of light. ... 1887 is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar). ... Guglielmo Marconi Guglielmo Marconi, GCVO (25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937) was an Italian electrical engineer and Nobel laureate, known for the development of a practical wireless telegraphy system commonly known as the radio. Marconi was President of the Accademia dItalia and a member of the Fascist Grand Council... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) (symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ... 1895 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Antoine Henri Becquerel (December 15, 1852 – August 25, 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and one of the discoverers of radioactivity. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-08-17, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Pierre Curie Pierre Curie (May 15, 1859 – April 19, 1906) was a pioneer in the study of crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1896 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Joseph John Thomson Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940), often known as J. J. Thomson, was an English physicist, the discoverer of the electron. ... Properties The electron is a fundamental subatomic particle which carries a negative electric charge. ... 1897 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Robert Millikan. ... The purpose of Robert Millikans oil-drop experiment (1909) was to measure the electric charge of the electron. ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interactions. ... The word quantum, pl. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (September 21, 1853 – February 21, 1926) was a Dutch physicist. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor (with boiling liquid nitrogen underneath) demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... 1911 was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, OM, FRS (August 30, 1871 - October 19, 1937), called father of nuclear physics, pioneered the orbital theory of the atom notably in his discovery of rutherford scattering off the nucleus with his gold foil experiment. ... Top: Expected results: alpha particles passing through the plum pudding model of the atom undisturbed. ... A stylized representation of a lithium atom. ... A schematic representation of the plum pudding model of the atom. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... 1911 was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x899, 314 KB) Negative of the 1919 solar eclipse taken from the report of Sir Arthur Eddington on the expedition to verify Einsteins prediction of the bending of light around the sun. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x899, 314 KB) Negative of the 1919 solar eclipse taken from the report of Sir Arthur Eddington on the expedition to verify Einsteins prediction of the bending of light around the sun. ... One of Sir Arthur Stanley Eddingtons papers announced Einsteins theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world. ... One of Sir Arthur Stanley Eddingtons papers announced Einsteins theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world. ... National motto: n/a Official language Portuguese Capital São Tomé President Fradique de Menezes Prime Minister Maria do Carmo Silveira Area  - Total % water Ranked 169th 964km² 0% (islands) Population  - Total (Year)  - Density Ranked 173rd 165,034 171/km² Independence 12 July 1975 (from Portugal) Currency Dobra (STD) Time zone... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Albert Einstein photographed by Oren J. Turner in 1947. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Relativity: The Special and General Theory Albert Einsteins theory of relativity is a set of two scientific theories in physics: special relativity and general relativity. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Walter Gerlach (Germany, 1889‑1979) was a nuclear physicist: suspected of making nuclear weapons for Germany, he was taken to England for questioning. ... In quantum mechanics, the Stern-Gerlach experiment, named after Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach, is a celebrated experiment in 1920 on deflection of particles, often used to illustrate basic principles of quantum mechanics. ... In physics, spin is an intrinsic angular momentum associated with microscopic particles. ... 1920 (MCMXX) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Enrico Fermi in the 1940s. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... John Bardeen (May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American physicist. ... Bell Laboratories invented the transistor in 1947. ... Assorted transistors Transistor was also a common name for a 1960s era handheld transistor radio. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Clyde Lorrain Cowan Jr (1919–1974) was a captain in the United States Army Air Force. ... Frederick Reines Frederick Reines (March 16, 1918 - August 26, 1998) was an American physicist. ... The neutrino is an elementary particle. ... The neutrino experiment, also called the Cowan and Reines neutrino experiment, was performed by Clyde L. Cowan and Frederick Reines in 1956. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gravity Probe A (GP-A) was a satellite-based experiment to test Einsteins theory of general relativity performed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Gravity is the force of attraction between massive particles. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Stanley Pons was a chemist at University of Utah who, while working with Martin Fleischmann of the University of Southampton, announced the discovery of cold fusion on March 23, 1989. ... Martin Fleischmann (1927-) is a chemist at the University of Southampton who, while working with Stanley Pons of University of Utah, announced the discovery of cold fusion on March 23, 1989. ... This article is about the nuclear reaction. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is a physicist who, along with Carl E. Wieman, was able to synthesize Bose-Einstein condensate in 1995. ... Carl Edwin Wieman (born March 26, American physicist of the University of Colorado at Boulder who (with Eric Allin Cornell), in 1995, produced a Bose-Einstein condensate. ... A Bose-Einstein condensate is a gaseous superfluid phase formed by atoms cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Psychology

Ivan Pavlov Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Иван Петрович Павлов) (September 14, 1849 – February 27, 1936) was a Russian physiologist, psychologist and physician. ... Classical conditioning, also called Pavlovian conditioning or respondent conditioning, is a type of learning found in animals, caused by the association (or pairing) of two stimuli or what Ivan Pavlov described as the learning of conditional behavior, therfore called conditioning. ... // Events and Trends Technology Lawrence Hargrave makes the first stable wing design for a heavier-than-air aircraft Orville and Wilbur Wright make the first documented flight in a powered heavier-than-air aircraft Mass production of automobile Wide popularity of home phonograph Panama Canal is built by the United... John B. Watson John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878–September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism. ... The Little Albert experiment was an experiment showing empirical evidence of classical conditioning. ... Classical conditioning, also called Pavlovian conditioning or respondent conditioning, is a type of learning found in animals, caused by the association (or pairing) of two stimuli or what Ivan Pavlov described as the learning of conditional behavior, therfore called conditioning. ... 1920 (MCMXX) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Solomon E. Asch (September 14, 1907 - February 20, 1996) was a world-renowned American Gestalt psychologist and pioneer in social psychology. ... The Asch conformity experiments were a series of studies that starkly demonstrated the power of conformity in groups. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 _ August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ... Operant conditioning, so named by psychologist B. F. Skinner, is the modification of behavior brought about over time by the consequences of said behavior. ... // Events and trends The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the global depression. ... The 1960s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... Harry Harlow (1906-1981) was an American psychologist best known for his studies on affection and development using rhesus monkeys and surrogate wire or terrycloth mothers. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Stanley Milgram (August 15, 1933 - December 20, 1984) was a Yale University psychologist who conducted the Small world experiment (the source of the six degrees of separation concept) and the Milgram experiment on obedience to authority. ... The experimenter (E) persuades the participant (S) to give what the participant believes are painful electric shocks to another participant (A), who is actually an actor. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Philip G. Zimbardo (born March 23, 1933) is an American psychologist, best-known for his Stanford prison experiment and bestselling introductions to psychology. ... The Stanford prison experiment was a landmark psychological study of the human response to captivity, in particular, to the real world circumstances of prison life. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... American Sign Language (ASL, also Amslan obs. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often abbreviated to chimp, is the common name for two species in the genus Pan. ... Washoe Washoe is a chimpanzee, currently living at the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute (CHCI) at Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington. ... The 1970s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1970 and 1979. ... As of early 2004, Martin E.P. Seligman is a Fox Leadership Professor of Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania Department of Psychology. ... Learned helplessness, a term initially used in experimental psychology, is a description of the effect of inescapable positive punishment (such as electrical shock) on animal (and by extension, human) behavior. ... The 1970s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1970 and 1979. ... The Rosenhan experiment was an investigation into the validity of psychiatric diagnosis conducted by David Rosenhan in 1972. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... The Kansas City preventive patrol experiment was a landmark experiment carried out between 1972 and 1973 by the Kansas City Police Department. ... Elizabeth F. Loftus is a psychologist who works on human memory and how it can be changed by facts, ideas, suggestions and other forms of post-event information. ... A leading question is a question which attempts to direct a respondant to a particular answer or implies a correct response. ... A false memory is a memory of an event that did not happen or is a distortion of an event that did occur as determined by externally corroborated facts. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ...

Economics and Political Science

  • Negative Income Tax experiments
  • Axelrod's Prisoner's Dilemma Tournament
  • Tennessee STAR Class Size Experiment

  Results from FactBites:
 
Experiment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2103 words)
On the other hand, in other cases such as biology, and medicine, it is often hard to ensure that the conditions of an experiment be performed consistently; and in the social sciences, it may even be difficult to determine a method for measuring the outcomes of an experiment in an objective manner.
In many laboratory experiments it is good practice to have several replicate samples for the test being performed and have both a positive control and a negative control.
In human experiments, a subject (person) may be given a stimulus to which he or she should respond.
List of famous experiments - definition of List of famous experiments in Encyclopedia (813 words)
Michelson-Morley experiment exposes weaknesses of the prevailing variant of the theory of luminiferous aether.
Ernest Rutherford's gold foil experiment demonstrated that the positive charge and mass of an atom is concentrated in a small, central atomic nucleus, disproving the then-popular plum pudding model of the atom.
Clyde L. Cowan and Frederick Reines confirm the existence of the neutrino in the neutrino experiment (1955)
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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