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Encyclopedia > List of evolutionary biology topics

This is a list of topics in evolutionary biology and evolution. Evolutionary biology is a subfield of population biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, i. ... A speculative phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. ...


See also: List of biology topics, List of biochemistry topics, WikiProject Evolutionary biology This page aims to list articles related to biology. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to biochemistry. ...

Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

adaptation - allele - allele frequency - altruism - artificial selection - atavism The eye is an adaptation. ... An allele is any one of a number of viable DNA codings of the same gene (sometimes the term refers to a non-gene sequence) occupying a given locus (position) on a chromosome. ... Allele frequency is a measure of the relative frequency of an allele on a genetic locus in a population. ... Altruism is the practice of placing others before oneself. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An atavism can mean an organism that is a real or supposed evolutionary throwback; the unexpected appearance of primitive traits; or a reversion to or reappearance of a trait that had been present in a lineage in the past, but which had been absent in intervening generations. ...


B

Biopoiesis Biopoiesis or biopoesis is the process of living matter evolving from self-replicating but nonliving molecules. ...


C

Chi square test - clade - cladistics - coefficient of relationship - common descent - convergent evolution Pearsons chi-square test (χ2) is one of a variety of chi-square tests – statistical procedures whose results are evaluated by reference to the chi-square distribution. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... In population genetics, Sewall Wrights coefficient of relationship or relatedness is the probability that at a random locus, the alleles there will be identical by descent. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


D

Charles Darwin - Richard Dawkins - Theodosius Dobzhansky In his lifetime Charles Darwin gained international fame as an influential scientist examining controversial topics: portrait by Julia Margaret Cameron. ... Richard Dawkins Clinton Richard Dawkins DSc, FRS, FRSL (known as Richard Dawkins; born March 26, 1941) is an eminent British ethologist, evolutionary theorist, and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair in the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. ... Theodosius Grigorevich Dobzhansky (Russian — Феодосий Григорьевич Добржанский; sometimes anglicized to Theodore Dobzhansky; January 25, 1900 - December 18, 1975) was a noted geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ...


E

ecological selection - endosymbiosis - Error threshold (evolution) - evolution - evolution of sex - evolutionary developmental biology - evolutionary psychology - evolutionary stable strategy - evolutionary tree - experimental evolution - extinction Ecological selection (or environmental selection or survival selection or individual selection or asexual selection) refers to natural selection minus sexual selection, i. ... An endosymbiont (also known as intracellular symbiont) is any organism that lives within cells of another organism, i. ... The error threshold is a concept in the study of evolutionary biology and population genetics and is concerned with the origins of life, in particular of very early life, before the advent of DNA. The first self-replicating molecules were probably small ribozyme-like RNA molecules. ... A speculative phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. ... The evolution of sex is a major puzzle in modern evolutionary biology. ... Evolutionary developmental biology (evolution of development or informally, evo-devo) is a field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different animals in an attempt to determine the ancestral relationship between organisms and how developmental processes evolved. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated ev-psych or EP) is the claim that many mental capacities and faculties can be explained by considering them to be adaptations in an evolutionary biological sense, as traits or capacities whose natures can be explained as a product of natural selection. ... The evolutionarily stable strategy (or ESS; also evolutionary stable strategy) is a central concept in game theory introduced by John Maynard Smith and George R. Price in 1973 (a full account is given by Maynard Smith, 1982). ... The evolutionary tree of living things is currently supposed to run something along the lines of that listed below. ... In evolutionary biology, the field of experimental evolution is concerned with testing the theory of evolution in controlled experiments. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of taxa. ...


F

R.A. Fisher - Fisher's reproductive value - fitness - fitness landscape - E.B. Ford - fossil Sir Ronald Fisher Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962) was a British eugenicist, evolutionary biologist, geneticist and statistician. ... Fishers reproductive value was defined by R. A. Fisher (1930) as the expected reproduction of an individual from their current age onward, given that they have survived to their current age. ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ... In evolutionary biology, fitness landscapes or adaptive landscapes are used to visualize the relationship between genotypes (or phenotypes) and replicatory success. ... This article is about the British ecological geneticist E.B. Henry Ford. ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils (from Latin fossus, literally having been dug up) are the mineralized or otherwise preserved remains or traces (such as footprints) of animals, plants, and other organisms. ...


G

gene - gene-centric view of evolution - gene duplication - gene flow - gene pool - genetic drift - genotype - genotype-phenotype distinction - Stephen Jay Gould - gradualism - group selection This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Schematic of a region of a chromosome before and after a duplication event Gene duplication occurs when an error in DNA replication leads to the duplication of a region of DNA containing a (generally functional) gene. ... Gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of genes from one population to another. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... Genetic drift is the term used in population genetics to refer to the statistical drift over time of allele frequencies in a finite population due to random sampling effects in the formation of successive generations. ... The genotype is the specific genetic makeup (the specific genome) of an individual, usually in the form of DNA. It codes for the phenotype of that individual. ... The genotype-phenotype distinction refers to the fact that while genotype and phenotype of an organism are related, they do not necessarily coincide. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Gradualism, in biology, holds that evolution occurs through the accumulation of slight modifications over a period of generations. ... In evolutionary biology, group selection refers to the idea that alleles can become fixed or spread in a population because of the benefits they bestow on groups, regardless of the fitness of individuals within that group. ...


H

J. B. S. Haldane - W. D. Hamilton - Hardy-Weinberg principle - heredity - human evolution J.B.S. Haldane with his second wife Helen Spurway John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (November 5, 1892 – December 1, 1964), who normally used J.B.S. as a first name, was a British geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ... W. D. Hamilton William Donald Bill Hamilton, F.R.S. (1 August 1936 — 7 March 2000) was a British evolutionary biologist, considered one of the greatest evolutionary theorists of the 20th century. ... Hardy–Weinberg principle for two alleles: the horizontal axis shows the two allele frequencies p and q, the vertical axis shows the genotype frequencies and the three possible genotypes are represented by the different glyphs The Hardy–Weinberg principle (HWP) (also Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), or Hardy–Weinberg law), named... Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characteristics from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and/or laws). ... Human evolution is the part of the theory of evolution by which human beings emerged as a distinct species. ...


I

inclusive fitness Inclusive fitness encompasses conventional Darwinian fitness with the addition of behaviors that contribute to an organism’s individual fitness through altruism. ...


J

K

kin selection - Motoo Kimura Kin selection refers to changes in gene frequency across generations that are driven at least in part by interactions between related individuals. ... Motoo Kimura (木村資生, born on November 13, 1924 in Okazaki, Aichi Prefecture - November 13, 1994) was a highly influential Japanese mathematical biologist, working in the field of theoretical population genetics. ...


L

Language - Richard Lewontin - list of gene families - life-history theory Richard Lewontin Richard Charles Dick Lewontin (born March 29, 1929) is an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist and social commentator. ... This is a list of gene families or gene complexes, that is sets of genes which occur across a number of different species which often serve similar biological functions. ... Life-history theory explores how an organism makes a living by integrating ontogeny an phylogeny. ...


M

macroevolution - macromutation - The Major Transitions in Evolution - mating systems - John Maynard Smith - Ernst Mayr - Gregor Mendel - microevolution - modern evolutionary synthesis - molecular clock - molecular evolution - molecular phylogeny - molecular systematics - Monogamy - Hermann Joseph Muller - Muller's ratchet - evolution of music - mutation - mutational meltdown Macroevolution refers to evolution that occurs above the level of species. ... Most biologists believe that adaptation occurs through the accumulation of small mutations. ... The Major Transitions in Evolution is a book written by John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry (Oxford University Press, 1995). ... John Maynard Smith Professor John Maynard Smith, F.R.S. (6 January 1920 – 19 April 2004) was a British evolutionary biologist and geneticist. ... This article has been identified as possibly containing errors. ... Gregor Johann Mendel Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20[1], 1822 – January 6, 1884) was an Augustinian abbot who is often called the father of genetics for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. ... Microevolution is the occurrence of small-scale changes in allele frequencies in a population, over a few generations, also known as change at or below the species level. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis or the evolutionary synthesis), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism, generally denotes the combination of Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection, Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis for biological... The molecular clock (based on the molecular clock hypothesis (MCH)) is a technique in genetics, which researchers use to date when two species diverged. ... Molecular evolution is the process of the genetic material in populations of organisms changing over time. ... Molecular phylogeny is the use of the structure of molecules to gain information on an organisms evolutionary relationships. ... Molecular systematics is a product of the traditional field of systematics and the growing field of bioinformatics. ... The evolution of monogamy refers to the natural history of mating systems in which species reproduce by forming social pairs to raise offspring. ... jose camero For other Hermann Müllers: see Hermann Müller. ... In evolutionary genetics, Mullers ratchet is the name given to the process by which the genomes of an asexual population accumulate deleterious mutations in an irreversible manner (hence the word ratchet), a process which the genomes of sexual populations can easily reverse thanks to recombination. ... In biology, mutations are changes to the genetic material (usually DNA or RNA). ... Mutational meltdown refers to the process by which a small population accumulates deleterious mutations, which leads to loss of fitness and decline of the population size, which leads to further accumulation of deleterious mutations. ...


N

natural selection - neutral theory of molecular evolution Natural selection is the process by which individual organisms with favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce. ... The neutral theory of molecular evolution (also, simply the neutral theory of evolution) is an influential theory that was introduced with provocative effect by Motoo Kimura in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ...


O

P

parallel evolution - paraphyletic -peppered moth - phenotype - phylogenetics - phylogeny - phylogenetic tree - population - population dynamics - population genetics - George R. Price - Price equation - punctuated equilibrium Bee hovering in flight In evolutionary biology, parallel evolution refers to the independent evolution of similar traits in closely related lineages of species, while convergent evolution refers to the appearance of striking similarities among lineages of organisms only very distantly related. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Binomial name Biston betularia Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies The peppered moth (Biston betularia) is a temperate species of night-flying moth often used by educators as an example of natural selection (see theory of evolution, industrial melanism). ... The phenotype of an individual organism is either its total physical appearance and constitution or a specific manifestation of a trait, such as size, eye color, or behavior that varies between individuals. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... It has been suggested that Evolutionary tree be merged into this article or section. ... Population dynamics is the study of marginal and long-term changes in the numbers, individual weights and age composition of individuals in one or several populations, and biological and environmental processes influencing those changes. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... George R. Price (1922 - January 6, 1975) was a American population geneticist. ... The Price equation (also known as Prices equation) is a covariance equation which is a mathematical description of evolution and natural selection. ... Punctuated equilibrium (or punctuated equilibria) is a theory in evolutionary biology which states that most sexually reproducing species will show little to no evolutionary change throughout their history. ...


Q

quasispecies model The quasispecies [kwaa-zei-spee-seez] model is a description of the process of the Darwinian evolution of self-replicating entities within the framework of physical chemistry. ...


R

Red Queen - recombination The Red Queens Hypothesis, Red Queen, Red Queens race or Red Queen Effect is an evolutionary hypothesis to explain the advantage of sex at the level of individuals, and the constant evolutionary arms race between competing species. ... Recombination usually denotes a genetic event that occurs during the formation of sperm and egg cells (especially in areas of study of biology topics). ...


S

selection - Science of Evolution - sexual selection - sociobiology - species - speciation - sperm competition - symbiogenesis Selection is hierachically classified into natural and artificial selection. ... Charles Darwin, the father of evolutionary theory Although generally, evolution is taken to mean any process of change over time, in the context of life science, evolution is a change in the traits of living organisms over generations, including the emergence of new species. ... Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ... Sociobiology is a synthesis of scientific disciplines that attempts to explain behaviour in all species by considering the evolutionary advantages of social behaviours. ... In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... Speciation refers to the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... Sperm competition is competition between sperm of two or more males for the fertilization of an ova (Parker 1970). ... Symbiogenesis refers to the merging of two separate organisms to form a single new organism. ...


T

timeline of evolution - Trait (biological) - transposon This timeline of evolution of life outlines the major events in the development of life on the planet Earth. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... Transposons are sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called transposition. ...


U

V

virus evolution Virus evolution is a subfield of evolutionary biology that is specifically concerned with the evolution of viruses. ...


W

Alfred Russel Wallace - George C. Williams - Edward O. Wilson - Sewall Wright Alfred Russel Wallace for the Cornish painter see Alfred Wallis Alfred Russel Wallace, OM , FRS (January 8, 1823 – November 7, 1913) was a British naturalist, geographer, anthropologist and biologist. ... George Williams Professor George Christopher Williams (b. ... E.O. Wilson with Dynastes hercules E. O. Wilson, or Edward Osborne Wilson, (born June 10, 1929) is an entomologist and biologist known for his work on ecology, evolution, and sociobiology. ... Sewall Green Wright (December 21, 1889– March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory. ...


X

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary - Biology (2517 words)
For example evolutionary biology leans heavily on techniques from molecular biology to determine DNA sequences which assist in understanding the genetic variation of a population; and physiology borrows extensively from cell biology in describing the function of organ systems.
Cell biology studies the physiological properties of cells, as well as their behaviors, interactions, and environment; this is done both on a microscopic and molecular level.
Evolutionary biology is concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, i.e.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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