FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.

 Home Encyclopedia Statistics States A-Z Flags Maps FAQ About

 WHAT'S NEW

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

(* = Graphable)

Encyclopedia > List of current systems for electric rail traction

This a list of the voltages used or have been used for tramway and railway electrification systems. Overhead wire in Coventry, England Overhead wire and its suspension system in Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA A railway electrification system is a way of supplying electric power to electric locomotives and multiple units. ...

Note the voltages are nominal, and vary depending on load and distance from the substation.

## Key to the tables below GA_googleFillSlot("encyclopedia_square");

• Conductors:
• overhead line or
• conductor rail, usually a third rail to one side of the running rails
• Conductor rail can be:
• top contact: oldest, least safe, affected by ice, snow and leaves
• side contact: newer, safer, less affected by ice, snow and leaves
• bottom contact: newer, safer, least affected by ice, snow and leaves

International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... In electrical engineering, single-phase electric power refers to the distribution of electric power using a system in which all the voltages of the supply vary in unison. ... Three-phase power transformer which is the sole transfer point for electricity to a suburban shopping mall in Canada. ... Third rail at the West Falls Church Metro stop in Washington, D.C., electrified to 750 volts. ...

## Systems using Standard Voltages

Voltages are defined by two standards: BS EN 50163 and IEC 60850

### 600 V DC Overhead

This voltage is used by older tram systems worldwide.

Country Name of System Location Notes
Australia   Melbourne
Finland   Helsinki
Estonia   Tallinn
Japan Most tram lines
Chōshi Electric Railway Chōshi, Chiba
Eizan Electric Railway Kyoto, Kyoto
Enoshima Electric Railway Kanagawa
Iyotetsu Takahama Line Matsuyama, Ehime
Shizuoka Railway Shizuoka, Shizuoka
Tōkyū Setagaya Line Tokyo
Wakayama Electric Railroad Wakayama
Slovakia Trencianske Teplice   Narrow gauge
United States   Boston, San Diego, San Francisco

### 600 V DC Conductor Rail

All third rail unless stated otherwise.
Used by most older US subways.

Type Country Name of System Location Notes
Argentina Buenos Aires Metro (line B) Buenos Aires
Argentina Urquiza Line Buenos Aires
Canada Toronto Subway and Rapid Transit Toronto
Japan Tokyo Metro Ginza Line and Marunouchi Line Tokyo
Nagoya Municipal Subway Higashiyama Line and Meijō Line Nagoya, Aichi
Sweden Stockholm Metro Stockholm 650 V.
United Kingdom Glasgow Subway Glasgow
London Was used for trams in central London - third rail accessed via a conduit slot between the rails;
Southern Railway   Some areas up to 1939.
United States New York City Subway New York City
Top Contact Chicago Transit Authority Chicago Elevated and subway lines
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Boston Red and Orange Lines, part of the Blue Line
PATH New York City metro area
Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority Philadelphia Market-Frankford subway/elevated and Broad Street subway

### 750 V DC Overhead

This voltage is used for most modern tram systems.

Country Name of System Location Notes
Argentina PreMetro line E2 Buenos Aires
Australia Sydney Light Rail Sydney
Austria Local lines of Stern & Hafferl   Also listed as having 1500  and 600 V lines
Germany Albtalbahn Rhein-Haardtbahn Railway of the Upper Rhine
Tram-Train Cologne-Bonn Frechen, Cologne, Brühl, Wesseling, Bornheim, Alfter, Bonn, St. Augustin, Siegburg, Königswinter, Bad Honnef Both lines between Cologne and Bonn originally electrified at 1200 V, one was narrow gauge
Ireland LUAS Dublin
Japan Enshū Railway Hamamatsu, Shizuoka
Hakone Tozan Railway Line Hakone, Kanagawa Between Hakone-Yumoto and Gōra.
Iyotetsu Yokogawara Line and Gunchū Line Ehime
Kintetsu Utsube Line, Hachiōji Line Yokkaichi, Mie
Sangi Railway Hokusei Line Mie
Norway Oslo T-bane Oslo Holmenkollbanen only
Sweden Saltsjöbanan Stockholm Originally 1500 V (1912), changed to 750 V in 1976 with new rolling stock
Turkey Eskişehir Tramway System
United Kingdom Manchester Metrolink Manchester
Sheffield Supertram Sheffield
Midland Metro Birmingham to Wolverhampton
United States Minneapolis/Saint Paul Minnesota Metropolitan Transit light rail
Denver, Colorado Light Rail part of the Denver Regional Transportation District [RTD]
TRAX Light Rail Salt Lake City UTA

### 750 V DC Conductor Rail

All third rail unless stated otherwise.

Type Country Name of System Location Notes
Austria Vienna U-Bahn Vienna
Bottom contact Brazil São Paulo Metro São Paulo
Canada Montreal Metro Montreal (Guide Bars)
Czech Republic Prague Metro Prague
Denmark Copenhagen Metro Copenhagen
Bottom Contact Finland Helsinki Metro Helsinki
France Paris Métro Paris Some guide rail
Germany Berlin U-Bahn Berlin
Munich U-Bahn Munich
Nuremberg U-Bahn Nuremberg
Hamburg U-Bahn Hamburg
Hungary Budapest Metro Budapest
India Kolkata Metro Kolkata (Calcutta)
Japan Most lines of Osaka Municipal Subway Osaka, Osaka
Sapporo Municipal Subway Namboku Line Sapporo, Hokkaidō
Yokohama Municipal Subway Yokohama, Kanagawa
Norway Oslo T-bane Oslo
Portugal Lisbon Metro Lisbon
Puerto Rico Tren Urbano San Juan
Romania Bucharest Metro Bucharest
Russia     Undergrounds and metros.
Singapore Mass Rapid Transit Singapore North South Line, East West Line and Circle Line, operated by SMRT Corporation
Taiwan Rapid Transit Taipei Green, Orange, Red, Blue Lines
Bottom Contact United Kingdom Docklands Light Railway London
Top Contact Southern Region of British Railways
and successors
Southern England 660 V system upgraded and expanded
Merseyrail Liverpool
LNWR Suburban Network London Formerly four-rail out of Euston and Broad Street, curtailed, upgraded and standardised
Northern City Line London Access to City (Moorgate)
United States Washington Metro Washington, DC
Long Island Rail Road New York City
Las Vegas Monorail Las Vegas, Nevada

### 1500 V DC Overhead

Country Name of System Location Notes
Argentina Buenos Aires Metro Buenos Aires Lines C,D,E and H
Argentina Tren de la Costa Buenos Aires Suburban line
Australia CityRail Sydney
Melbourne Suburban Railways Melbourne
China Shanghai Shanghai Metro
Czech Republic     Tabor-Bechyne line only
Denmark Copenhagen S-train Copenhagen
France Société Nationale des Chemins de fer (SNCF) 25 kV AC used on new High Speed Lines (TGV) and in the north.
Hong Kong SAR Mass Transit Railway Corporation Hong Kong
India Mumbai Suburban Railway Mumbai
Ireland Dublin Area Rapid Transit Dublin
Japan Japan Railways (JR) lines   Most electrified lines in Kantō, Chūbu, Kansai, Chūgoku, and Shikoku.
Most private railway lines
Most subway lines
Netherlands Nederlandse Spoorwegen - Dutch Railways (NS) 25 kV AC used on new High Speed Lines.
New Zealand Wellington Suburban Wellington
Otira Tunnel Arthur's Pass-Otira, Southern Alps, South Island De-electrified 1997
Christchurch-Lyttelton South Island De-electrified 1970
Portugal Cascais Line
Singapore Mass Rapid Transit   North East Line, operated by SBS Transit
South Korea Seoul Subway Seoul National Capital Area except Korail Line 1, Line 4, Bundang and Yongsan-Deokso Line.
Incheon Subway Incheon
Daegu Subway Daegu
Busan Subway Busan
Daejeon Subway Daejeon
Gwangju Subway Gwangju
Slovakia High-Tatras electric railway
Spain Catalan Railways
RENFE
Euskotren
FEVE
Switzerland Berner Oberland Bahn (BOB) Interlaken
Schynige Platte Railway (SPB) Interlaken
Wengernalpbahn (WAB)) Interlaken
Sweden Roslagsbanan Stockholm
Saltsjöbanan Stockholm Electrified in 1912, changed to 750 V in 1976 with new rolling stock
Turkey Bursa LRT Bursa
UK Tyne and Wear Metro Newcastle
Manchester-Sheffield-Wath Manchester to Sheffield Operated 1949-1981. Suburban services in Manchester converted to 25 kV, 50 Hz a.c.
Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway Manchester Opened in 1931.
Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC in 1971
Great Eastern Main Line London (Liverpool Street) to Shenfield (then Chelmsford) Opened in 1949.
Converted to 6.25 kV 50 Hz AC in 1960
Shildon to Newport County Durham Industrial line. Operated 1915-1935.
United States Metra Electric District Service Chicago

### 3 kV DC, Overhead

Country Name of System Location Note
Belgium Belgium National Railways (SNCB) 25 kV AC used on new High Speed Lines.
Brazil
Chile
Czech Republic Czech Railways (ČD)
India   Kolkata converted to 25 kV AC
Italy RFI - Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (Italian Railways Network) 25 kV AC used on new High Speed Lines.
North Korea
Poland Polish State Railways (PKP)
Slovakia Slovak Republic Railways (ZSR) northern and eastern lines, and the broad gauge line between Kosice and the Ukraine border
Slovenia Slovenian Railways (SZ) 25 kV AC also used
South Africa
former Soviet Union
Spain Spanish National Railways (RENFE) 25 kV AC used on new High Speed Lines.
Ukraine In east; also 25 kV AC in west [1]

### 15 kV 16⅔ Hz Overhead

Country Name of System Location Notes
Austria ÖBB (Österreichische Bundesbahnen
Austrian Federal Railways)
National Standard
Germany German National Railways National Standard
Norway Jernbaneverket
Norwegian State Railways

Sweden Banverket
Switzerland SBB-CFF-FFS - Swiss Federal Railways

### 25 kV 50 Hz Overhead

Country Name of System Location Notes
Australia     Queensland and Western Australia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana     proposed line to Namibia
Belgium Belgium National Railways (SNCB) New High Speed Lines and the south of the country only The rest of the network is 3 kV DC
Bulgaria Bulgarian State Railways BDZ
China
Congo
Croatia Croatian Railways (HŽ)   Smaller part 3kV DC, being replaced with 25kV AC
Czech Republic     Southern lines only.
Denmark
Finland Finnish Railways (VR)
France French National Railways (SNCF)
Germany Rübelandbahn Harz Operated 1960-2005
Greece
Hungary Hungarian State Railways (MÁV)
India Indian Railways (IR) Large parts of Mumbai Division (Western and Central Railways) are 1500 V DC.
Iran
Israel Israel Railways   Currently in the tender stage of the electrification project
Italy     New high-speed lines only.
Japan JR Tōhoku, Jōetsu, and Nagano Shinkansen
Macedonia Macedonian Railways
Malaysia KTM Komuter Service
Montenegro
Netherlands Used on new High Speed Lines and Freight Lines 1.5 kV DC used on the rest of the network.
New Zealand North Island Main Trunk Railway   Central North Island section, 411 km between Palmerston North and Hamilton)
Portugal Portuguese Railways (CP)
Romania Romanian Railways (CFR)
Serbia Serbian Railways
Slovakia Slovak Republic Railways (ŽSR) South-western lines only
Spain     New high-speed lines only.
South Africa Transnet
former Soviet Union
Turkey
UK Network Rail except South and Merseyside
Ukraine In east; also 3000 V DC in west.
Zimbabwe National Railways of Zimbabwe (NRZ) Gweru-Harare

## Conductor Rail (Non-Standard Voltages)

Voltage Current Type Contact System Name of System Location Country Notes
50 DC See notes. Volk's Electric Railway Brighton United Kingdom Volk's Railway prior to 1884.
(Current fed through running rails)
110 DC third rail Top contact Volk's Electric Railway Brighton United Kingdom The world's oldest operational electric railway[2]
160 DC third rail Top contact Volk's Electric Railway Brighton United Kingdom Volk's Railway between 1884 and 1980s
180 DC See notes. Siemens streetcar Berlin-Lichterfelde Germany Current fed through the running rails.
Operated 1881-1891.
440 DC third rail Top contact Post Office Railway London UK Disused since 2003 [1].

150 V is used in station areas to limit train speed. Half-way station VER Carriages Detail of the tracks in front of the carriage shed showing the electrified third rail. ... Half-way station VER Carriages Detail of the tracks in front of the carriage shed showing the electrified third rail. ... Half-way station VER Carriages Detail of the tracks in front of the carriage shed showing the electrified third rail. ... The Post Office Railway, also known as Mail Rail, was a narrow gauge driverless private underground railway in London built by the Post Office to move mail between sorting offices. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

550 DC third rail Top contact Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneos de Buenos Aires) Buenos Aires Argentina Only Line B
660 DC third rail Top contact Southern Railway & LSWR   UK Original standard, mostly upgraded to 750 V
660 DC third rail with fourth rail bonded to running rail Euston to Watford DC Line London UK To enable London Underground trains to operate between Queens Park and Harrow & Wealdstone. Similar bonding arrangements are used on the North London Line between Richmond and Gunnersbury and South West Trains Putney Bridge to Wimbledon.
700 DC  third rail Bottom contact Metro-North Railroad New York USA Hudson & Harlem lines, southern part of New Haven line
800 DC third rail Bottom contact Berlin S-Bahn Berlin Germany
825 AC third rail   Moscow Metro Moscow Russia
Pyongyang Metro Pyongyang North Korea
850 DC 3rd Rail     Vienna Austria
former Southern Railway   United Kingdom Original route of Eurostar, pre-High Speed 1, upgraded from 750 V
1000 DC 3rd Rail   Bay Area Rapid Transit San Francisco USA
1200 DC  3rd Rail Side contact Manchester-Bury Manchester UK System abandoned in 1991
Side contact Hamburg S-Bahn Hamburg Germany Since 1940. Used both third rail DC (1200 V) and overhead line AC (6300 V 25 Hz) until 1955.
1500 DC  3rd Rail Top Contact Guangzhou Metro (Line 3) Guangzhou Metro China

## Overhead (Non-Standard Voltages)

Voltage Current Name of System Location Country Notes
250 DC Chicago Tunnel Company Chicago USA Operated 1906-1959
500 DC Many tram systems
525 DC Bergbahn Lauterbrunnen-Mürren Lauterbrunnen Switzerland
550 DC Snaefell Mountain Railway Isle of Man UK
900 DC Gruyere - Fribourg - Morat Fribourg Switzerland
Montreux-Oberland Bernois Montreux Switzerland
1000 DC Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg (SZU) Zürich Switzerland
Rhätische Bahn (RhB) St Moritz - Tirano Switzerland
1100 DC Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneos de Buenos Aires) Buenos Aires Argentina Only Line A (will be converted to 1500 V DC by 2008/09)
1200 DC Barcelona Metro Barcelona Spain Uses an overhead conductor rail/beam system.
Sóller Railway Palma - Sóller, Majorca Spain Website
Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Cuba Havana - Santiago Cuba
Lusatian Germany 900 mm gauge mining railways in the brown coal district
Estonia (Elektriraudtee) 1924-1941 and 1946-1958
1350 DC FART Domodossola-Locarno Italy - Switzerland
2400 DC   Lausitzer Germany Work line of the Lausitzer Brown Coal AG company.
Chemin de fer de La Mure Grenoble France -1200 V, +1200 V two wire system from 1903-1950. 2400 V since 1950 [2].
3500 DC Bury - Holcombe Brook Manchester UK Operated 1913-1918.
6000 DC     Russia Experiments in the late 1970s (3000 V lines)
6000 50 Hz     Germany Factory railway of Rheinbraun AG
6250 50 Hz Great Eastern suburban lines London United Kingdom Great Eastern suburban lines from Liverpool Street London, 1950s-c1980 (converted to 25 kV)
6300 25 Hz Hamburg S-Bahn Hamburg Germany Operated with AC 1907-1955. Used both AC and DC (1200 V 3rd rail) 1940-1955.
6500 25 Hz Mariazellerbahn Sankt Pölten Austria
6600 25 Hz Thamshavnbanen Orkdal Norway
10,000 25 Hz 'Hofpleinlijn' Local railway The Hague - Rotterdam Netherlands From 1908, in 1926 converted to 1500 DC. In 2006 replaced by 750 V DC light rail
11,000 16⅔ Hz Rhaetian Railway (RhB)   Switzerland
Matterhorn-Gotthard-Bahn (MGB)   Switzerland Formerly Furka-Oberalp-Bahn (FOB) and BVZ Zermatt-Bahn
11,000 25 Hz Northeast Corridor (NEC), Amtrak Washington, DC - New York City United States
Keystone Corridor, Amtrak Harrisburg, PA to Philadelphia, PA United States
SEPTA Philadelphia United States Commuter Lines
New Jersey Transit New Jersey United States Not all lines are electrified
12,500 60 Hz Metro-North Railroad New York City to New Haven United States Amtrak NEC trains also operate on these tracks
20,000 50 Hz Höllentalbahn Feibourg Germany Operated 1933-1960.
Most electrified JR/the third sector lines in Hokkaidō and Tōhoku JR East, JR Hokkaidō, and others. Japan
20,000 60 Hz Most electrified JR/the third sector lines in Kyūshū JR Kyūshū and others Japan
25,000 60 Hz Northeast Corridor (NEC), Amtrak   United States New Haven to Boston
New Jersey Transit New Jersey United States Newer Lines only; Not all lines are electrified
Tōkaidō-Sanyō Shinkansen JR Central, JR West Japan
Deux-Montagnes Line (AMT) Montreal Canada Previously used 3kv DC, until line overhaul in 1995
Korail South Korea All freight/passenger lines except Seoul subway Line 3
A'REX Incheon, Seoul South Korea
50,000 50 Hz Spoornet Sishen - Saldanha South Africa Iron ore line
50,000 60 Hz Black Mesa and Lake Powell Arizona USA Coal line

Voltage Current Contact System Name of System Location Country Notes
Three wire Tagebau Gruhlwerk     Rack Railway (0.7 km).
Operated 1927-1949
725 50 Hz, Δ Two wire Gornergratbahn Zermatt Switzerland Website
750 40 Hz, 3Ø Two wire Burgdorf-Thun Bahn Burgdorf-Thun Switzerland Operated 1899-1933.
Converted to 15 kV, 16⅔ Hz in 1933.
800 60 Hz, 3Ø   Corcovado Rack Railway Rio de Janeiro Brazil
1125 50 Hz, 3Ø Two wire Jungfraubahn Interlaken Switzerland Website
3000 15 Hz, 3Ø   Valtellina Electrification   North Italy 1902-1917
3000 50 Hz, 3Ø   Chemin de Fer de la Rhune   France
3600 16⅔ Hz, 3Ø Two wire     Italy Operated 1912-1976 in Upper Italy (more info needed)
3600 16.7 Hz, 3Ø   FS Bologna - Porretta - Firenze Italy 1927-1935
5200 25 Hz, 3Ø     Almeria-Gergal Spain 1911-1966?
10000 45 Hz, 3Ø Two wire FS Roma - Sulmona Italy 1929 - 1944
50 Hz, 3Ø Three wire   Berlin - Lichtenhain   Test track (1.8 km).
Variable voltage and frequency.
Trial runs 1898-1901
14000
(See notes)
38 Hz - 48 Hz
(See notes)
Three wire   Zossen - Marienfelde   Test Track (23.4 km).
Trial runs 1901-1904

## Special or unusual types

### DC, plough collection from conductors in conduit below track

Conduit current collection was a system of current collection used by electric trams where the power supply was located in a channel under the roadway, rather than located overhead. ... The London County Council Tramways was an extensive network of public street tramways that was operated by the council throughout the County of London from 1899 to 1933, when they were taken over by the London Passenger Transport Board. ... The transport of London has, since 1933, been under a single control with various names. ...

### DC, one ground-level conductor

• Wolverhampton Corporation Tramways, England. (stud contact) (1902-1921)

### DC, two ground-level conductors

A Citadis tram at the City Hall stop in Bordeaux The Bordeaux tramway network consists of three lines serving the capital of the Aquitaine Region in southwestern France. ... Bordeaux trams run without overhead wires. ...

### DC, two-wire

• Greenwich, England. Previously used by trams when in the vicinity of Greenwich Observatory; separate from trolley-bus supply.
• Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Tram (streetcar) system used this arrangement throughout, probably due to legal constraints on ground return currents.

This article is about Greenwich in England. ... Royal Observatory, Greenwich The original site of the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO), which was built as a workplace for the Astronomer Royal, was on a hill in Greenwich Park in Greenwich, London, overlooking the River Thames. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ...

### DC, power from running rails

• Gross-Lichterfelde Tramway (1881-1893)
• Ungerer Tramway (1886-1895)
• transportable railways as ride for children

### DC, four-rail

Voltage Current Type Contact System Name of System Location Country Notes
750 DC guide bars   Paris Metro Paris France Rubber-tyred lines only
750 DC third and fourth Rail Lateral (positive) and top (negative) contact Milan Transportation System Milan Italy Metro (only line 1)
630 DC third and fourth Rail Top Contact London Underground London UK Transport for London [3]
Clive's Underground Line Guides [4]

25 kV AC is one of the most common voltages used for railway electrification, usually at 50 Hz or 60 Hz depending on that countrys normal mains frequency. ... By traction current one understands the electric current, which is used for the drive of electrical trains. ... a historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888 A streetcar is a railway vehicle designed to carry passengers on tracks, usually laid in city streets. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Bordeaux trams run without overhead wires. ...

## References

1. ^ Railway Gazette International April 2008, p 240
2. ^ The world's oldest operational electric railway.

Railway Gazette International is a monthly business journal covering the railway, metro, light rail and tram industries worldwide. ...

Results from FactBites:

 EZGeography - Railway electrification system (751 words) Electric motors were fed directly from mains, and were controlled by using a combination of resistors and relays which connected the motors in parallel or series. The 3000 V DC system is used in Belgium, Italy, Poland, the northern Czech Republic, Slovakia, former Yugoslavia and in the former Soviet Union. This system is quite ecomomical, but it has its drawbacks: the phases of the external power system are loaded unequally, and there is significant electromagnetic interference generated.
 Volt - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (392 words) The volt (symbol: V) is the SI derived unit of electric potential difference or voltage. The volt is defined as the potential difference across a conductor when a current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power. Volta had determined that the most effective pair of dissimilar metals to produce electricity was zinc and silver.
More results at FactBites »

Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here