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Encyclopedia > List of country name etymologies

This list covers English language country names with their etymologies. Some of these include notes on indigenous names and their etymologies. Countries in italics no longer exist as sovereign political entities. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents Top · 0–9 · A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

The origin of the word Afghan - which is synonymous with Pashtun - remains uncertain. One explanation derives it from Apakan, an 8th or 9th century Iranian ruler[citation needed]. Others point out a 3rd century Sassanid reference to "Abgan", the oldest known mention of a word variant of "Afghan"[citation needed]. It also appears in the inscriptions of Shapur I of Iran at Naqš-e Rostam which mentions a certain Goundifer Abgan Rismaund[citation needed]. The sixth-century Indian Astronomer Varahamihira, in his Brhat Samhita (11.61; 16.38), refers to Afghans as Avagan. The seventh-century Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang refers to a people located to the north of Sulaiman Mountains whom he calls Apokien which obviously alludes to Avagans or Afghans. A modern view supported by numerous noted scholars is that the name Afghan evidently derives from Sanskrit Ashvaka or Ashvakan (q.v.), (Panini's Ashvakayana), the Assakenoi of Arrian. The Ashvakayan/Asvakan are stated to be a sub-section of the Kambojas who specialised in horse-culture.


Flag of Åland Åland (autonomous province of Finland): Afghanistan literally means the land of the Afghans, but the region has had a plethora of other names that have been applied to its general location in the past. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... A coin of Shapur I. Shapur I, son of Ardashir I (226–241), was King of Persia from 241 to 272. ... NæqÅ¡-e Rostæm, near Shiraz A rock relief at Naqsh-e Rostam, depicting the triumph of Shapur I over three Roman Emperors Valerian, Gordian III and Philip the Arab. ... Varahamihira (505 – 587) was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer born in Ujjain. ... Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. ... sorry guys it is unavailable and happens to be deleted--212. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (IPA ) was an ancient Gandharan grammarian (approximately 5th century BC, but estimates range from the 7th to the 3rd centuries) who is most famous for formulating the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology known as the . ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan, including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India . ... Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... The Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Aaland. ... “Aland” redirects here. ...

"Land [in the] water," from the Germanic root *ahw-, cognate with Latin aqua. The Finnish name Ahvenanmaa is partly borrowed, partly translated from Germanic.

Flag of Albania Albania: Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ...

"Alb" from the PIE root meaning "white" or "mountain", as mountains are often white-capped with snow; compare Alps.

Flag of Algeria Algeria: This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ...

The name Algeria is derived from the name of the city of Algiers (French Alger), from the Arabic word "الجزائر" (al-jazā’ir), which translates as the islands, referring to the four islands which lay off that city's coast until becoming part of the mainland in 1525; al-jazā’ir is itself short for the older name jazā’ir banī mazghannā, "the islands of (the tribe) Bani Mazghanna", used by early medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi and Yaqut al-Hamawi.

America: This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Al_Idrisis world map from 1154. ... Yaqut (Yaqut ibn-Abdullah al-Hamawi) (1179 - 1229) was an Arab biographer and geographer. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...

Believed to derive from the Latinized version of the explorer Amerigo Vespucci's name, Americus Vespucius, in its feminine form, America. Another less-popular theory derives it from the name of Richard Amerike.
See also United States of America below and Naming of America

Flag of American Samoa American Samoa (territory of the United States of America): For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454 - February 22, 1512) was an Italian merchant, explorer and cartographer. ... Richard Amerike (Ameryk or ap Meryk) (c. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_American_Samoa. ...

See America above and Samoa, United States of America below.

Flag of Andorra Andorra: Image File history File links Flag_of_Andorra. ...

Etymology unknown and contested; of pre-Roman, possibly Iberian or Basque origin. The name Andorra may be derived from al-Darra, the Arabic word for forest. When the Moors invaded Spain, the valleys of the Pyrenees were especially wooded, and the title Andorra can be found linked to villages in other parts of Spain which had been under Moorish domination. Still others claim that it comes from the Spanish andar, meaning "to walk", which gave name to the nomadic tribe of Andorrisoe which ostensibly migrated to the valleys in and around present-day Andorra, or could possibly originate from a Navarrese word andurrial, which translates as "shrub-covered land." An oft-told legend is that the name came from the archaic "Endor", which Louis le Debonnaire christened what he referred to as the "wild valleys of Hell" after defeating the Moors – wild and desolate mountain ranges have been associated with the Devil throughout much European literature.

Flag of Angola Angola: Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... For other uses, see moor. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Angola. ...

From Ngola, a title used by the monarch of the Kingdom of Ndongo. The Portuguese named the area in honour of a Ngola allied with them.

Flag of Anguilla Anguilla (overseas territory of the United Kingdom): The Ndongo are a Bantu-speaking people inhabiting northern Angola. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Anguilla. ...

From the word for "eel" in any of several Romance languages (Spanish: anguila; French: anguille; Italian: anguilla), due to its elongated shape. The circumstances of the island's European discovery and naming are uncertain: Christopher Columbus (1493) or French explorers (1564) are both possibilities.[1]

Flag of Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda: Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda. ...

Christopher Columbus named Antigua in honour of the Santa María La Antigua ("Saint Mary the Old") cathedral in Seville, Spain when he landed there in 1493. "Barbuda" means "bearded" in Portuguese. The islands gained this name after the appearance of the their fig trees, whose long roots resemble beards. Alternatively, it may refer to the beards of the indigenous people.

Flag of Argentina Argentina: Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ...

From the Latin argentum, meaning "silver". Early Spanish and Portuguese traders used the region's Río de la Plata or "Silver River" to transport silver and other treasures from Peru to the Atlantic. The land around the terminal downstream stations became known as Argentina – "Land of Silver".
See also: Origin and history of the name of Argentina

Flag of Armenia Armenia: For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This page is about the South American estuary. ... This article explains the origin and history of the names given to the South American country Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ...

Main article: Armenia (name)
From Old Persian Armina (6th century BC), Greek Armenia (5th century BC). The further etymology of the Persian name is uncertain, but may be connected to the Assyrian Armânum, Armanî and/or the Biblical Minni. The Old Persian name is an exonym, see Hayk for the native name and Urartu for the Biblical Ararat.

Flag of Aruba Aruba (territory of Netherlands): The name Armenia is an exonym, the Armenian language name for the country being Hayk‘ (see Haik for a discussion of that name). ... edit The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni מנּי) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iran, around the 10th to 7th centuries BC. At that time they were neighbors of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... For the name of the lake and town in Hayq, Ethiopia, see Lake Hayq. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Aruba. ...

Two possible meanings exist. One story relates how the Spanish explorer Alonso de Ojeda named the island in 1499 as "Oro Hubo", implying the presence of gold (oro hubo in Spanish means "there was gold"). Another possible derivation cites the Arawak Indian word oibubai, which means "guide".

Flag of Australia Australia: Alonso de Ojeda (c. ... Arowak woman (John Gabriel Stedman) The term Arawak (from aru, the Lokono word for cassava flour), was used to designate the Amerindians encountered by the Spanish in the West Indies. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Originally from Latin terra australis incognita - "unknown southern land". Early European explorers, sensing that the Australian landmass far exceeded in size what they had already mapped, gave the area a generic descriptive name. The explorer Matthew Flinders (17741814), the first to sail around and chart the Australian coast, used the term "Australia" in his 1814 publication A Voyage to Terra Australis. Previous Dutch explorers had referred to the continent as Australisch and as "Hollandia Nova" (New Holland). From the introduction in Flinders' book:
"There is no probability, that any other detached body of land, of nearly equal extent, will ever be found in a more southern latitude; the name Terra Australis will, therefore, remain descriptive of the geographical importance of this country, and of its situation on the globe: it has antiquity to recommend it; and, having no reference to either of the two claiming nations, appears to be less objectionable than any other which could have been selected.*"[2]
...with the accompanying note at the bottom of the page:
"* Had I permitted myself any innovation upon the original term, it would have been to convert it into AUSTRALIA; as being more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth."[3]

Flag of Austria Austria: For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Captain Matthew Flinders RN (16 March 1774 – 19 July 1814) was one of the most accomplished navigators and cartographers of his age. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Map of a part of New Holland made by William Dampier in 1699 New Holland is a historic name for the island continent of Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ...

Compare the modern German Österreich, from Old High German ôstarrîhhi, which literally means "empire in the East." In the 9th century, the territory formed part of the Frankish Empire's eastern limit, and also formed the eastern limit of German settlement bordering on Slavic areas. Under Charlemagne and during the early Middle Ages, the territory had the Latin name marchia orientalis (Eastern March). This translated to Ostarrîchi in the vernacular of the time; that Old High German form first appears in a 996 document.
  • Arabic Nimsa: Presumably from the Slavic word nowaday used for Germany, via Turkish.
  • Czech Rakousko (country) or Rakousy (Upper and Lower Austria): from Rakous (German: Raabs), an important fortress on the Moravian-Austrian border.
  • Finnish Itävalta

Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan: As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This page is about medieval Austria. ... Document in which ostarrichi was first mentioned 996 (red circle) Ostarrîchi is an Old High German name found to the famous Ostarrîchi document of 996, where it refers to the Margraviate ruled by the Babenberg Count Henry I located mostly in what is today Lower Austria. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events March/April - Pope John XV dies before being being able to coronate Otto III, King of Germany as Holy Roman Emperor. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Upper Austria (Ober sterreich) is one of the nine federal states or Bundesl nder of Austria. ... Map of Lower Austria showing districts and the four quarters (Waldviertel in green, Weinviertel in red, Mostviertel in yellow and Industrieviertel in blue) Lower Austria (de: Niederösterreich) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer in Austria. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ...

Native spelling Azərbaycan (from surface fires on ancient oil pools; its ancient name, (Media) Atropatene (in Greek and Latin) or Atrpatakan (in Armenian), actually referring to the present-day Azerbaijan region of Iran. The name became Azerbaijan in Arabic. The Persians knew the territory of the modern republic of Azerbaijan as "Aran"; and in classical times it became "(Caucasian) Albania" and, in part, "(Caucasian) Iberia", although this last term corresponds mostly to the present-day republic of Georgia. (See Georgia below.) The region of Media Atropatene lay further to the south, located south of the River Araxes. "Aran" may derive from the same root as modern "Iran", while "Albania" and "Iberia" appear as toponyms of Caucasus mountain derivation. The name "(Media) Atropatene" comes from Atropates ("fire protector" in Middle Persian) who ruled as the independent Iranian satrap at the time of the Seleucids. The modern ethnonym 'Azerbaijani' has often become the subject of sharp differences of opinion between the ethnically Turkic inhabitants of the modern republic of Azerbaijan and the inhabitants of the Persian-dominated neighboring republic of Iran. Iranians regard the names "Azerbaijan" and "Atropatene" as expressions of historically Persian culture, and therefore often refer to the modern republic of Azerbaijan as "Turkish Azerbaijan", and to its inhabitants as "Azerbaijani Turks". In contrast, Turkophone Azerbaijanis insist on their own place as an historically continuous presence in Azerbaijani history. The suffix -an in Persian means "land".

Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - creator of the process of refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Arabic redirects here. ... Aras, Araks, Arax, Araxes, or Araz (Persian: ارس, Armenian: Araks, Azerbaijani: Araz), is a river rising in Anatolia in Turkey, flowing along the Turkey-Armenia border, then along the Azerbaijan-Iran border, entering Azerbaijan, and falling into Kura river as a right tributary. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Seleucus I Nicator (Nicator, the Victor) (around 358–281 BC) was one of Alexander the Greats generals who, after Alexanders death in 323 BC, founded the Seleucid Empire. ... Farsi redirects here. ...

B

Flag of the Bahamas Bahamas: Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Bahamas. ...

From Spanish Baja Mar – "Low (Shallow) Sea". Spanish conquistadors thus named the islands after the waters around them.

Flag of Bahrain Bahrain: Image File history File links Flag_of_Bahrain. ...

From Arabic. The exact referents of the "two seas" remain a matter of debate. Bahrain lies in a bay formed by the Arabian mainland and the peninsula of Qatar, and some identify the "two seas" as the waters of the bay on either side of the island. Others believe that the name refers to Bahrain's position as an island in the Persian Gulf, separated by "two seas" from the Arabian coast to the south and Iran to the north. Yet another claim suggests that the first sea surrounds Bahrain and the second "sea" metaphorically represents the abundant natural spring waters under the island itself.

Baker Island (territory of the United States of America): Arabic redirects here. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Named after Michael Baker, of New Bedford, Massachusetts, who claimed to have discovered it in 1832 (subsequent to its actual discovery).

Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh: Michael Baker can refer to: Michael A. Baker, a NASA astronaut Michael Baker, a Nova Scotia politician This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Bristol County Settled 1640 Incorporated 1787 Government  - Type Mayor-council  - Mayor Scott W. Lang (Dem)  - City Council President/Ward 6: Leo R. Pimental. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ...

From Bengali/Sanskrit, Bangla referring to the Bengali-speaking people, and Desh meaning "country", hence "Country of the Bengalis". The country previously formed part of colonial British India. Bengali culture spans a wider area than that of the state of Bangladesh: the culture extends into present-day India (in Assam (Boro Peoples), Sikkim, Tripura, West Bengal, and Jharkand.

Flag of Barbados Barbados: Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Jharkhand (झारखंड) is a state of India. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Ganga may refer to: Ganges River, a river in India Ganga, the Hindu goddess that personifies the Ganges River The Gangas, an ancient southern Indian dynasty Ganga (music), a type of rural folk singing from Croatia and Herzegovina Daren Ganga, a West Indian cricketer Ganga, an alternate spelling of ganja... The term Hindustan (Hindi: हिन्दुस्तान [Hindustān], Urdu: [Hindustān], from the (Persian) Hindu + -stān, often formerly rendered Hindoostan) and the adjective Hindustani may relate to various aspects of three geographical areas (see Names of India): The modern Republic of India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto Satyameva Jayate (Sanskrit)  (Devanagari) Truth Alone Triumphs[1] Anthem Jana Gana Mana Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people[2] Vande Mataram I bow to thee, Mother[4] Capital New Delhi Largest city Mumbai Official Languages: Scheduled Languages: Hindi, English Hindi in the Devanagari script is... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Ganges Delta (or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the South Asia region of Bengal, consisting of Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal, India. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Where the land meets the sea at the southern tip of West Bengal lies the Indian Sunderbans, a stretch of impenetrable mangrove forest of great size and bio-diversity. ... This is a list of all national parks of India. ... Indo may refer to the following ethnic identifications: - Indo (eurasian) , Indo-European or Eurasian is a term used to describe people of mixed European and Indonesian ancestry, in particular, people of Dutch and Indonesian ancestry. ... External links Parts of the Hawaiian canoe Outrigger Canoe FAQ from Kanu Culture Categories: Stub | Boat types ... Now the worlds rarest monkey, the golden langur typifies the precarious survival of much of Indias megafauna. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal Tiger or Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a subspecies of tiger found through the rainforests and grasslands of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India and Nepal. ... This is a list of national animals: See also list of national birds Categories: | ... ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Barbados. ...

Named by the Portuguese explorer Pedro A. Campos "Os Barbados" ("The Bearded Ones") in 1536 after the appearance of the island's fig trees, whose long roots resemble beards.

Flag of Belarus Belarus: Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ...

From Belarusian, meaning "White Rus'", "White Ruthenia". Formerly known as Byelorussia, a transliteration from the Russian name meaning "White Russia". (See Russia below.) The name changed after the collapse of the Soviet Union to emphasize the historic and ongoing separate distinctness of the nations of Belarus and Russia. (See Belarus: Name for more.) The exact original meaning conveyed by the term "Bela" or 'White' remains uncertain. Early cultures commonly employed the concept of "whiteness" as representing the qualities of freedom, purity, or nobility. On the other hand, it may simply have originated as a totem color of convenience. Note that part of the western territory of modern Belarus historically bore the name of "Chernarossija" or 'Black Rus'. The term "Black" most commonly applied to landscapes featuring especially rich and productive soils. How this may reflect on the origin of the term 'White Rus' remains as yet unexplored. Yet another region in present-day western Ukraine historically had the name "Red Russia" or "Red Ruthenia". Note also that colors represented cardinal directions in Mongol and Tatar culture.

Flag of Belgium Belgium: The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... For other uses, see Belarus (disambiguation). ... Black Ruthenia (dark green, north-west). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ...

From the name of a Celtic tribe, the Belgae.
The name Belgae may derive from the PIE *bolg meaning "bag" or "womb" and indicating common descent; if so, it likely followed some unknown original adjective.
Another theory suggests that the name Belgae may come from the Proto-Celtic *belo, which means "bright", and which relates to the English word bale (as in "bale-fire"), to the Anglo-Saxon bael, to the Lithuanian baltas, meaning "white" or "shining" (from which the Baltic takes its name) and to Slavic "belo/bilo/bjelo/..." meaning "white" (like town names Beograd, Biograd, Bjelovar, etc all meaning "white city") (see Beltane). Thus the Gaulish god-names Belenos ("Bright one") and Belisama (probably the same divinity, originally from *belo-nos = "our shining one") may also come from the same source.

Flag of Belize Belize: This article is about the European people. ... The Belgae were a group of nations or tribes living in north-eastern Gaul, on the west bank of the Rhine, in the 1st century BC, and later also attested in Britain. ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... This article is about the Gaelic holiday. ... Gaulish is name given to the now-extinct Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Romans, the Franks and the British Celts invaded. ... In Celtic mythology, Belenus (also Belinus, Belenos, Belinos, Belinu, Bellinus, Belus, Bel) was a deity worshipped in Gaul, Britain and Celtic areas of Austria. ... In Celtic mythology, Belisama (also Belesama, Belisma) was a goddess worshipped in Britain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belize. ...

Traditionally said to derive from the Spanish pronunciation of "Wallace", the name of the pirate who set up the first settlement in Belize in 1638. Another possibility relates the name to the Maya word belix, meaning "muddy water", applied to the Belize River.
  • British Honduras (former name): after the colonial ruler (Britain). For "Honduras" see Honduras below. See also Britain below.

Flag of Benin Benin: Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... The Mayan languages are a family of related languages spoken from southeastern Mexico through northern Central America as far south as Honduras. ... Belize River is a 180-mile (290 km) river in Belize that drains more than one-quarter of the country as it winds along the northern edge of the Maya Mountains across the center of the country to the sea near Belize City. ... Flag Capital Belize City Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy History  - Established 1871  - Disestablished 1981 Area 22,966 km2 8,867 sq mi Currency British Honduran dollar Flag of British Honduras British Honduras was the former name of what is now the independent nation of Belize and was a British... Image File history File links Flag_of_Benin. ...

According to the Wikipedia article "Benin": "The name "Benin" has no proper connection to the Kingdom of Benin (or Benin City). The name Dahomey was changed in 1975 to the People's Republic of Benin, named after the body of water on which the country lies, the Bight of Benin. This name was picked due to its neutrality, since the current political boundaries of Benin encompass over fifty distinct linguistic groups and nearly as many individual ethnic groups."
  • The name Dahomey was the name of the ancient Fon Kingdom, and was determined to be an inappropriate name as it was the name of the principal ethnic group of the country.

Flag of Bermuda Bermuda (overseas territory of the United Kingdom): Dahomey was a kingdom in Africa, situated in what is now the nation of Benin. ... Fon is a major West African ethnic and linguistic group in the country of Benin or Dahomey, and southwest Nigeria, made up of more than 2,000,000 people. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bermuda. ...

From the name of the Spanish sea captain Juan de Bermúdez who sighted the islands in 1503.

Flag of Bhutan Bhutan: Juan de Bermúdez (ber-moo-deth, -des) was a Spanish navigator of the 16th century. ... Year 1503 (MDIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ...

The ethnic Tibetans or Bhotia migrated from Tibet to Bhutan in the 10th century. The root Bod expresses an ancient name for Tibet. Bhutanese language: Druk Yul - "land of the thunder dragon", "land of thunder", or "land of the dragon". From the violent thunder storms that come from the Himalayas.

Flag of Bolivia Bolivia: This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Dzongkha is the national language of the Kingdom of Bhutan. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ...

Named after Simón Bolívar (1783-1830), an anti-Spanish militant and first president of Bolivia the country after gained its independence in 1825. His surname comes from La Puebla de Bolibar, a village in Biscay, Spain. The etymology of Bolibar may be bolu- (mill) + -ibar (river). Thus, it ultimately may mean a mill on a river.

Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina: This article is about the South American independence leader. ... Biscay (Basque Bizkaia, Spanish: Vizcaya) is a province of northern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ...

The country consists of two distinct regions: the larger northern section, Bosnia, represents the name of the Bosna river. The smaller southern territory, Herzegovina takes its name from the German noble title Herzog, meaning "Duke". Frederick IV, King of the Romans, made the territory's ruler, the Grand Vojvoda Stjepan Vukcic, a duke in 1448.

Flag of Botswana Botswana: This article is about a geographic region of Bosnia. ... The Bosna is the third longest river in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is considered one of the countrys three major internal rivers, along with the Neretva and Vrbas. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ... Emperor Frederick III Frederick III of Habsburg (Innsbruck, September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... Events January 5/ 6 - Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden dies with no designated heir leaving all three kingdoms with vacant thrones. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Botswana. ...

Named after the country's largest ethnic group, the Tswana.
  • Bechuanaland (former name): derived from Bechuana, an alternative spelling of "Botswana".

Bouvet Island (territory of Norway): Tswana (Motswana, plural Batswana) is the name of a Southern African people. ... The Bechuanaland Protectorate (BP) was a protectorate established in 1885 by Britain in the area of what is now Botswana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ...

Named after the French explorer Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier who discovered the remote island in 1739.

Flag of Brazil Brazil: Jean Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier (January 14, 1705 - 1786) was a French sailor, explorer, and governor of the Mascarene Islands. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ...

Named after the brazilwood tree, called pau-brasil in Portuguese and so-named because its reddish wood resembled the color of red-hot embers (brasa in Portuguese), and because it was recognized as an excellent source of red dye. In Tupi it is called "ibirapitanga", which means literally 'red wood'. The wood of the tree was used to color clothes and fabrics.
Another theory stands that the name of the country is related to the Irish myth of Hy-Brazil, a phantom island similar to St. Brendan's Island, situated southwest of Ireland. The legend was so strong that during the 15th century many expeditions tried to find it, the most important being John Cabot. As the Brazilian lands were reached by Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 A.D., the Irish myth would have influenced the late name given to the country (after "Island of Real Cross" and "Land of Holy Cross"). The proof that the legend was popular among Iberic people may be verified by the name of the Azorean Terceira Island, registered in the 14th century in the Atlas Catalan and around 1436 on the Venetian map of Andrea Bianco.
See also list of Brazil state name etymologies

Britain: Brazilwood is a common name for several trees of the family Leguminosae (Pulse family) whose wood yields a red dye called brazilein. ... Brazilwood is a common name for several trees of the family Leguminosae (Pulse family) whose wood yields a red dye called brazilin, which oxidizes to brazilein. ... Old Tupi is an extinct Tupian language which was spoken by the native Tupi people of Brazil, mostly those who lived close to the sea. ... Brazil, also known as Hy-Brazil or several other variants, is a phantom island which features in many Irish Celtic myths. ... Phantom islands are islands that are believed to exist and appear on maps for a period of time (sometimes centuries), and then are removed after they are proven not to exist (or the general population stops believing that they exist). ... Situated somewhere west of Europe, St. ... John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto; fl. ... Pedro Álvares (about 1467 – about 1520), pron. ... Terceira Island (pron. ... The Bianco map (1436). ... Most of Brazilian state names are based on native indigenous (often Tupi-Guarani) placenames, while others were given by Portuguese and other European colonists. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ...

From Pretani, "painted ones"[citation needed]; perhaps a reference to the use of body-paint and tattoos by early inhabitants of the islands; may also derive from the Celtic goddess Brigid [citation needed]. The form 'Britain' (see also Welsh Prydain) comes from Latin 'Britannia', probably via French. The former name of the island of Britain was Albion, an ancient Greek adaptation of a Celtic name which may survive as the Gaelic name of Scotland, Alba. Traditionally, a folk etymology derived the name from "Brutus", but this is almost certainly not the case. Brittany derives from the same root.
See also United Kingdom below.

Flag of British Indian Ocean Territory British Indian Ocean Territory (overseas territory of the United Kingdom): The Cruithne or Cruthin were a historical people known to have lived in the British Isles during the Iron Age. ... In Irish mythology as it is presently constituted, Brigit or Brighit (exalted one) was the daughter of the Dagda (and therefore one of the Tuatha Dé Danann) and wife of Bres of the Fomorians. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about a name for Scotland. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_british_indian_ocean_territory. ...

Presumably named for being the sole British possession located within the Indian Ocean.

Flag of the British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands (overseas territory of the United Kingdom): Image File history File links Flag_of_the_British_Virgin_Islands. ...

Christopher Columbus, on discovering a seemingly endless number of islands in the nort-east Caribbean in 1493, named them after Saint Ursula and the 11,000 virgins.

Flag of Brunei Brunei: Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Ursula on the coat-of-arms of British Virgin Islands Ursula (small female bear in Latin) is a British Christian saint. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brunei. ...

In its full name "Negara Brunei Darussalam", "Darussalam" means "Abode of Peace" in Arabic, while "Negara" means "State" in Malay. "Negara" derives from the Sanskrit "Nagara", meaning "city."

Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria: Arabic redirects here. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ...

Named after the Bulgars. Their tribal name, Bulgar may come from burg, which means "castle" in Germanic languages. A. D. Keramopoulos derives the name "Bulgars" from burgarii or bourgarioi meaning "those who maintain the forts" (burgi, bourgoi, purgoi) along the northern boundaries of the Balkan provinces, and elsewhere in the Roman Empire, first mentioned in Greek in an inscription dated A.D. 202, found between Philippopolis and Tatar Pazardzhik (and last published in Wilhelm Dittenberger's Sylloge inscriptionum graecarum, 3 ed., vol. II [1917], no. 880,1. 51, p. 593). The Bulgarians, previously known as Moesians, inhabited Thrace.
  • An alternative Turkic etymology for the name of the pre-Slavicised Central-Asian Bulgars derives from Bulgha meaning sable and has a totemistic origin.
  • Some associate the name Bulgar with the River Volga in present-day Russia: Bulgars lived in that region before and/or after the migration to the Balkans: see Volga Bulgaria.

Flag of Burkina Faso Burkina Faso: Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 343,662. ... Pazardzhik (Bulgarian: , also spelled as Pazardjik or Pazarjik) is a town situated along the banks of the Maritsa river in Bulgaria. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Binomial name Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758 The Sable (Martes zibellina) is a small mammal, closely akin to the martens, living in southern Russia near the Ural Mountains through Siberia and Mongolia to Hokkaidō in Japan. ... Totemism (derived from the root -oode in the Ojibwe language, which referred to something kinship-related) is a religious belief that is frequently associated with shamanistic religions. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burkina_Faso. ...

From local languages, meaning "land of upright people", "land of honest men" or "land of the incorruptible". President Thomas Sankara, who took power in a coup in 1983, changed the name from "Upper Volta" in 1984. The two parts of the name come from two of the country's main languages: Moré (Burkina) and Dioula (Faso).

 Burma: Thomas Sankara Thomas Isidore Noël Sankara (born December 21, 1949 in Yako – died October 15, 1987 in Ouagadougou) was the leader of Burkina Faso (formerly known as Upper Volta) from 1983 to 1987. ... More language is a language spoken primarily in Burkina Faso. ... Dioula (Jula) is a language spoken in Burkina Faso and Côte dIvoire. ... Map showing the Volta river in Upper Volta Upper Volta (French: ) was the name of the African country now called Burkina Faso. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ...

see Myanmar below.

Flag of Burundi Burundi: Image File history File links Flag_of_Burundi. ...

From a local name meaning "land of the Kirundi-speakers."

Introduction Kirundi (also written Rundi) is a Bantu language (D62 in Guthries classification) spoken by some 6 million people in Burundi and adjacent parts of Tanzania and Congo-Kinshasa, as well as in Uganda. ...

C

Flag of Cambodia Cambodia: Image File history File links Flag_of_Cambodia. ...

The name "Cambodia" derives from that of the ancient Khmer kingdom of Kambuja (Kambujadesa). The ancient Sanskrit name Kambuja or Kamboja referred to an early Indo-Iranian tribe, the Kambojas, named after the founder of that tribe, Kambu Svayambhuva, apparently a variant of Cambyses, Kambujiya or Kamboja. See Etymology of Kamboja.
  • Kampuchea (local name): derived in the same fashion. It also served as the official English-language name from 1975 to 1989.

Flag of Cameroon Cameroon: The Khmer people are the predominant ethnic group in Cambodia, accounting for approximately 90% of the 13. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Look up Kambuja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... http://www. ... The Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Kambu Swayambhuva was a Hindu sage prince of Kamboja lineage who finds mention along with sage Agastya, Kaundinya Swayambhuva, king Rajendra Chola, king Ashoka Maurya and king Pushyamitra Shunga in Shloka-22 in Ekamata Stotra. ... Cambyses (or Cambese) is the Greek version of the name of several monarchs of Achaemenid line of ancient Persia. ... Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya (کمبوجیه), d. ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... Kamboja (or Kambuja) is the name of an ancient Indo-Iranian tribe of Indo-European family, believed to be located originally in Pamirs and Badakshan in Central Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cameroon. ...

From Portuguese Rio de Camarões ("River of Shrimps"), the name given to the Wouri River by Portuguese explorers in the 15th century.

Flag of Canada Canada: The estuary of the Wouri River The Wouri (also Vouri or Vuri) is a river in Cameroon. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

From the word Kanata meaning "village" or "settlement" in the Saint-Lawrence Iroquoian language spoken by the inhabitants of Stadacona and the neighbouring region in the 16th century, near present-day Quebec City; see Canada's name. Also see Canadian provincial name etymologies

Flag of Cape Verde Cape Verde: Territory occupied by the St. ... Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (Gift of God shall make prosper) Area: 547. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... Detail from the current Canadian $20 bank note, issued in 2004. ... This page lists the etymologies of the names of the Provinces and territories of Canada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cape_Verde. ...

Named after Cap-Vert a cape in Western Africa. From Portuguese Cabo Verde, "Green cape".

Caroline Islands The peninsula of Cap-Vert (Cape Verde, meaning green point) is the westernmost part of the continent of Africa. ... Bay redirects here. ... Sunset at Colonia on Yap The Caroline Islands form a large archipelago of widely scattered islands in the western Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Guinea. ...

Named after Charles II, who reigned as king of Spain from 1665 to 1700.
See "Micronesia" and "Palau" below

Flag of Catalonia Catalonia: Charles II of Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Catalonia. ... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ...

Catalunya in Catalan. The origin is unclear and there are a lot of hypotheses. Perhaps from the word meaning "land of castles" (see Castile for a similar origin). According to another but somewhat similar theory (Lafont 1986), Catalunya could come from Arabic Qalat-uniyya (Qalat means "castle" and -uniyya is a collective suffix) because medieval Catalonha used to be a frontier country whith a lot of castles in front of the Muslim and Arabized zone of the Iberic peninsula. Some texts suggest that the name Catalunya derives from "Gauta-landia": Land of the Goths, or "Goth-Alania" meaning "Land of the Goths and Alans" through Arabian *Cotelanuyya [cf. Andalusia, land of the Vandals], as the Visigoths and Alans invaded and divided Iberia between themselves, agreeing to rule some parts together, with the region of Catalunya going to the Visigoths. Additionally, the Visigothic kingdom of Catalonia may have been named after the original homeland of the Visigoths, "Gotland". Coromines suggests an Iberian origin: Laietani (latinization of Iberian laiezken) > *laketani > laketans > metathesized as catelans > catalans, reforced by castellani (with an epenthetic s according to Coromines). Another theory suggests *kaste-lan as the Iberian name later latinized as castellani (an Iberian tribe in northern Catalonia according to Ptolemy); then the name would have evolved into *catellani > *catelans > *catalans.

Flag of Cayman Islands Cayman Islands (overseas territory of the United Kingdom): Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... A former kingdom in modern-day Spain, Castile (Spanish: Castilla; usually pronounced Cast-EEL in English) now compromises the regions of Old Castile in the north-west, and New Castile in the center of the country. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Cayman_Islands. ...

Christopher Columbus discovered the islands in 1503 after winds blew him off his course from Panama to Hispaniola. He called the islands Las Tortugas ("The Turtles" in Spanish) due to the large numbers of turtles on the islands. Around 1540 the islands gained the name Caymanas, from a Carib word for marine alligators or "caiman", an animal found on the islands.

Flag of the Central African Republic Central African Republic: Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... Genera Alligator Caiman Melanosuchus Paleosuchus Alligators and caimans are reptiles closely related to the crocodiles and forming the family Alligatoridae (sometimes regarded instead as the subfamily Alligatorinae). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Central_African_Republic. ...

Named after its geographical position in the center of the continent of Africa.
See also Africa on the Placename etymology page.

Flag of Chad Chad: A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... // The ancient Romans used the name Africa terra --- land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) --- for the northern part of the continent, corresponding to modern-day Tunisia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chad. ...

Locally known in French as République du Tchad. Named for Lake Chad (or Tchad) in the country's southwest. The lake in turn got its name from the Bornu word tsade, "lake".

 Chechnya: Lake Chad (in French: Lac Tchad) is a large, shallow lake in Africa. ... Bornu may mean: Kanem-Bornu Empire, a historical state of West Africa Borno State, Nigeria This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chechnya. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ...

The Russian ethnonym Chechen probably derives from the name of the ancient village of Chechana or Chechen-aul. The village is situated on the bank of the Argun River, near Grozny. Another theory derives the name from chechenit' sya "to talk mincingly.[4]
The native term, Noxçi, is derived from nexça (sheep cheese), nox (plow) or from the prophet Noah (Nox in Chechen)

Flag of Chile Chile: // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... Argun River may refer to Argun River, Caucasus Argun River, Asia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses of Grozny, see Grozny (disambiguation). ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ...

Exact etymology unknown. Possibilities include that it comes from a native Mapudungun term meaning "the depths", a reference to the fact that the Andes mountain chain looms over the narrow coastal flatland. The Quechua or Mapuche Indian word "chili/chilli" or "where the land ends/where the land runs out/limit of the world" also provides a possible derivation. Another possible meaning originates with a native word tchili, meaning "snow".

Flag of the People's Republic of China China: Mapudungun test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapudungun (mapu means earth and dungun means to speak) is a language isolate spoken in central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche (mapu is earth and che means people) people. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ...

The English name of China comes from the Qin Dynasty, possibly in a Sanskrit form; the pronunciation "China" came to the western languages through the Persian word چین "Chin". (see also: China in world languages)
  • Chinese: Zhong Guo - "central country"
  • Archaic English Cathay, Turkish Xytai and Russian Китай (Kitai), from the Khitan people who conquered north China in the 10th century.

Flag of Christmas Island Christmas Island (territory of Australia): Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The different usages of China in world languages generally derives from two sources, according to how knowledge of China reached the culture, whether by: the northern land_route traversing the length of Asia The land of the Seres became known in the European Middle Ages as the Empire of Cathay. ... Cathay is the Anglicized version of Catai, the name that was given to northern China by Marco Polo (he referred to southern China as Manji). ... The Khitan (or Khitai, Chinese: ; pinyin: Qìdān) were an ethnic group which dominated much of Manchuria in the 11th century and has been classified by Chinese historians as one of the Eastern proto-Mongolic ethnic groups Donghu (東胡族 dōng hú zú). They established the Liao Dynasty in 907... Image File history File links Flag_of_Christmas_Island. ...

So named because Captain William Mynors discovered the island on Christmas Day in 1643.

Clipperton Island (territory of France): // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Named after the English mutineer and pirate John Clipperton, who made it his hideout in 1705.

Flag of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cocos Islands (territory of Australia): For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Cocos_(Keeling)_Islands. ...

Named after coconuts, the main local product.
  • Keeling Islands (alternative name), after Captain William Keeling who discovered the islands in 1609.

Flag of Colombia Colombia: For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... Captain William Keelingdiscovered the Cocos (Keeling) Islands in 1609 as he was going home from Java to England. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ...

Named after the explorer Christopher Columbus, despite the fact that he never actually set foot in the country.

Flag of the Comoros Comoros: Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Comoros. ...

From the Arabic "Djazair al Qamar" — "Island of the moon."

Flag of the Republic of the Congo Congo, Republic of the: Arabic redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_the_Congo. ...

Named after the former Kongo kingdom, in turn named after the Bakongo people.

Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo, Democratic Republic of the: The Empire Kongo The Kongo Kingdom was an African kingdom located in southwest Africa in what are now northern Angola, Cabinda, Republic of the Congo, and the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... The Bakongo people (aka. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ...

Named after the former Kongo kingdom, in turn named after the Bakongo people.

Flag of the Cook Islands Cook Islands (territory of New Zealand): The Empire Kongo The Kongo Kingdom was an African kingdom located in southwest Africa in what are now northern Angola, Cabinda, Republic of the Congo, and the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... The Bakongo people (aka. ... The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Cook_Islands. ...

Named after Captain James Cook, who sighted the islands in 1770.

Flag of Costa Rica Costa Rica: Captain James Cook may refer to: James Cook - British explorer, navigator, and map maker Captain James Cook (TV miniseries) - 1987 Australian television miniseries This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... For the village in Queensland, see 1770, Queensland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Costa_Rica. ...

The name, meaning "rich coast" in Spanish, given by the Spanish explorer Gil González Dávila.

 Côte d'Ivoire: Gil González Dávila, a. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cote_d'Ivoire. ...

From French. The French named the region "Ivory Coast" in reference to the ivory traded from the area - in similar fashion, nearby stretches of the African shoreline became known as the "Grain Coast", the "Gold Coast" and the "Slave Coast."

Flag of Croatia Croatia: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ...

Latinization of the Croatian name Hrvatska, derived from Hrvat (Croat): a word of unknown origin, possibly from a Sarmatian word for "herdsman" or "cowboy"[citation needed]. May be related to an aboriginal tribe of Alans.

Flag of Cuba Cuba: Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ...

From Taíno Indian Cubanacan — "centre place". In Portugal, some believe that the name echoes that of the Portuguese town of Cuba, speculating that Christopher Columbus provided a link. In Portuguese and Spanish, the word "cuba" refers to the barrels used to hold beverages.

 Cymru For other uses, see Taino (disambiguation). ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_2. ... This article is about the country. ...

Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales, thought to mean "Land of the Compatriots" in Old Welsh.

Flag of Cyprus Cyprus: Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... This article is about the country. ... Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from the time it developed from the Brythonic language, generally thought to be in the period between the middle of the 6th century and the middle of the 7th century, until the early 12th century when it developed... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ...

Derived from the Greek Kypros for "copper", in reference to the copper mined on the island.

Flag of Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia: For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Czechoslovakia. ...

Roughly "land of the Czechs and Slovaks" from the two main Slavic ethnic groups in the country, with "Slovak" deriving from the Slavic for "Slavs"; and "Czech" ultimately of unknown origin.

Flag of the Czech Republic Czech Republic: Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ...

From Čechové (Češi, i.e. Czechs), the name of one of the Slavic tribes on the country's territory, which subdued the neighboring Slavic tribes around 900. The origin of the name of the tribe itself remains unknown. According to a legend, it comes from their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia. Most scholarly theories regard Čech as a sort of obscure derivative, i.e. from Četa (military unit).
  • Bohemia (Latin and traditional English variant): after a Celtic tribe Boii.

The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... This article is about the European people. ... Boii (Latin plural, singular Boius; Greek Βοιοι) is the Roman name of an ancient Celtic tribe, attested at various times in Transalpine Gaul (modern France) and Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy), as well as in Pannonia (today Western Hungary), Bohemia, Moravia and western Slovakia. ...

D

Flag of Dagestan Dagestan: Image File history File links Flag_of_Dagestan. ... The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...

The word Daghestan or Daghistan (Avar: Дагъистан; Arabic and Persian: داغستان) means "country of mountains", it is derived from the Turkic word dağ meaning mountain and Persian suffix -stan meaning "land of". The spelling Dagestan is a transliteration from Russian language, which lacks the voiced velar fricative.

Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo: The modern Avar language (self-designation магарул мац language of the mountains or Авар мац Avar language) belongs to the Avar-Andi-Tsez subgroup of the Alarodian Northeast-Caucasian (or Nakh-Dagestani) language family. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , IPA: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ...

See Congo, Democratic Republic of, above

Flag of Denmark Denmark: Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ...

From the native name, Danmark, meaning "march (i.e., borderland) of the Danes", the dominant people of the region since ancient times. Origin of the tribal name is unknown, but one theory derives it from PIE dhen "low" or "flat", presumably in reference to the lowland nature of most of the country.

Flag of Djibouti Djibouti: The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Djibouti. ...

Named after the bottom point of the Gulf of Tadjoura. Possibly derived from the Afar word "gabouti", a type of doormat made of palm fibres. Another plausible, but unproven etymology suggests that "Djibouti" means "Land of Tehuti" or Land of Thoth, after the Egyptian Moon God.
See also France below.

Flag of Dominica Dominica: The Gulf of Tadjoura is a gulf or basin of the Indian Ocean in the Horn of Africa, lying to the south of the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, or the entrance to the Red Sea. ... Thoth (Ramesseum, Luxor) Thoth (his Greek name derived from the Egyptian *, written by Egyptians as ) was considered one of the most important deities of the Egyptian pantheon, often depicted with the head of an ibis. ... The Republic of Djibouti (جيبوتي) is a country in eastern Africa, located in the Horn of Africa. ... The Republic of Djibouti (جيبوتي) is a country in eastern Africa, located in the Horn of Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Dominica. ...

From the Latin "Dies Dominica" meaning "Sunday": the day of the week on which Christopher Columbus first landed on the island.

Flag of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic: For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic. ...

Derived from Santo Domingo, the capital city, which bears the name of the Spanish Saint Domingo de Guzmán, the founder of the Dominican Order.

It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ... St. ... “Dominicans” redirects here. ...

E

Flag of East Timor East Timor: Image File history File links Flag_of_East_Timor. ...

From the Malay word timur meaning "east". The local official Tetum language refers to East Timor as Timor Lorosae or "East Timor", or Timor-Leste in Portuguese. In neighbouring Indonesia it has the formal name Timor Timur - etymologically "eastern east". But Indonesians usually shorten the name to Tim-Tim.

Flag of Ecuador Ecuador: Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Tetum (also written as Tetun) is the national language of East Timor. ... Portuguese Timor is the former name (1596 - 1975) of East Timor when it was under Portuguese control. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ...

"Equator" in Spanish, as the country lies on the Equator.

Flag of Egypt Egypt: World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ...

From ancient Greek (attested in Mycenean) Αίγυπτος, or Aígyptos, which according to Strabo, derived from "Αιγαίου υπτίως" (Aigaiou hyptios - "the land below the Aegean sea"). This becomes more apparent in the Latin form Aegyptus [1]. Alternatively, from the Egyptian name of Memphis, *ħāwit kuʔ pitáħ meaning "house (or temple) of the soul of Ptah".
  • Mişr (Arabic name, pronounced Maşr in Egyptian Arabic): a widespread Semitic word (Hebrew: "Mitzraim"), first used to mean "Egypt" in Akkadian, and meaning "city" or "to settle or found" in Arabic. The Turkish name Mısır derives from the Arabic one. However, the Hebrew form means "straights or narrow places" referring to the shape of the country as it follows the Nile River and takes on more symbolic weight in the Bible in reference to the Exodus story.
  • Kême (Coptic name): "black land" (Ancient Egyptian kmt), referring to the mud of the Nile after the summer flood, as opposed to the desert, called "red land" (Ancient Egyptian dšrt).

Flag of El Salvador El Salvador: The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Memphis. ... Ptah also refers to the asteroid 5011 Ptah Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... Arabic redirects here. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ...

"The saviour" in Spanish, named after Jesus.

Flag of England England (constituent country of the United Kingdom): This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Constituent countries is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping, concerning these countries; thus the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has used the phrase in reference to the parts of former Yugoslavia...

Derived from the Old English name Englaland, literally translatable as "land of the Angles".
The indigenous languages of Ireland and Scotland refer to England as the "land of the Saxons" — for example, Irish Sasana. Cornish — also a Celtic language — uses Pow Saws — literally "Saxon country".

Flag of Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea: Old English redirects here. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... This article is about the country. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Celtic languages are a branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Equatorial_Guinea. ...

"Equatorial" from the word "equator", despite the fact that the country doesn't actually lie on the Equator (though very close to it). "Guinea" perhaps from the Berber term aguinaoui, which means "black".
See also Spain below.

Flag of Eritrea Eritrea: World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Spanish Guinea was an African colony of Spain that became the independent nation of Equatorial Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Eritrea. ...

Named by Italian colonizers, from the Latin name for the Red Sea "Mare Erythraeum" ("Erythraean Sea") which in turn derived from the ancient Greek name for the Red Sea: "Erythrea Thalassa".

Flag of Estonia Estonia: The Erythraean Sea is an ancient name for the Indian Ocean or its attached gulfs, specifically, the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ...

From the Latin version of the Germanic word Estland, which could originate from the Germanic word for "eastern (way)", or from the name Aestia, first mentioned in ancient Greek texts. Palaeogeographers have not located Aestia exactly: the name may have instead referred to modern Masuria, in Poland.
  • Chud (Old East Slavic): originally derived from the Gothic for "people" (see "Deutschland" under the heading "Germany"); more recent folk-etymology has also linked the name to the Slavic root for "weird". Lake Peipus still bears the name of "Chudskoe Lake" in Slavic languages.
  • Igaunija (Latvian): from the ancient Ugaunian tribe in southeastern Estonia.
  • Viro (Finnish variant): from the ancient Vironian tribe in northern Estonia.

Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia: The Roman historian Tacitus in his book Germania mentions a Aesti or Aestii people. ... Sailing on Lake MikoÅ‚ajki Masuria (Polish: ; German: ) is an area in northeastern Poland famous for its lakes and forests. ... Chud is a term referring to urban homeless people, especially those who dwell in the tunnels, sewers and subway corridors beneath New York City. ... Old East Slavic, traditionally known as Old Russian (Russian: древнерусский), is a name for a vernacular literary language used between the 10th and 14th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus and other states formed by that ethnic group. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Lake Peipus (Estonian: Peipsi-Pihkva järv, Russian: (Chud Lake), German: Peipussee) is a large fresh water lake, on the border between Estonia and Russia in Northern Europe. ... The Ugaunians (ugalased in Estonian) is one of the Finnic tribes that were called Chudes in Russian and that later formed the Estonian nation. ... The Vironians (Virulased in Estonian) is one of the Finnic tribes that later formed the Estonian nation. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ...

From the Greek word Αἰθιοπία (Æthiopia), from Αἰθίοψ (Æthiops) ‘an Ethiopian’ -- sometimes parsed by Westerners as a purely Greek term meaning "of burnt (αιθ-) visage (ὄψ)"; however, some (i.e. the 16-17th c. Book of Aksum [Matshafa Aksum]) Ethiopian sources state that the name derived from "'Ityopp'is", a son of Cush, son of Ham who according to legend founded the city of Aksum.

Europa Island (territory of France): The Book of Aksum (Geez መጽሓፈ ፡ አክሱም maṣḥāfa aksūm, Amh. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Axum, also Aksum, is a city in northern Ethiopia, located at the base of the Adoua mountains. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Ethiopian Semitic languages (sometimes Ethiopic) is a language group which together with Old South Arabian forms the Western branch of the South Semitic languages. ... The term Habesha (Geez ሐበሻ ḥabaśā, Amh. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

The island takes its name from the British ship Europa, which visited it in 1774.

F

Flag of the Falkland Islands Falkland Islands (overseas territory of the United Kingdom): Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Falkland_Islands. ...

The English Captain John Strong named the strait between the two main islands the Falkland Sound when he landed on the islands in 1690, and the term eventually came to apply to the whole island group. The name honoured Anthony Cary, 5th Viscount Falkland, the then First Lord of the Admiralty, who took his family title from Falkland Palace in Scotland
  • Islas Malvinas (Spanish language name): comes from the French sailors who frequented the islands during the 1690s. They came from St. Malo in Brittany, France, and so others often referred to them in French as the "Malouines".
  • Sebald Islands - a nearly defunct name of Dutch origin, which commemorated Sebald de Weert.

Flag of the Faroe Islands Faroe Islands (territory of Denmark): For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... John Franklin Alexander Strong (October 15, 1856–July 27, 1929) was an American Democratic politician who was the Governor of Alaska Territory from 1913 to 1918. ... The Falkland Sound is a sea strait in the Falkland Islands. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... Anthony Cary, 5th Viscount Falkland (1656-1694) was a British politician who served as First Lord of the Admiralty from 1693 to 1694. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... Falkland Palace is a former Scottish royal palace in Falkland, Fife. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Events and Trends Thomas Neale designed Seven Dials The Salem Witchcraft Trials are held in Massachusetts Bay Colony (1692). ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Sebald de Weert (born 15??, Netherlands, died 1602 in Ceylon) was a Dutch captain employed by the Dutch East India Company (known in Dutch as Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, or by the anacronym VOC). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Faroe_Islands. ...

From Faroese (originally Old Norse) Føroyar, "sheep islands".

Flag of Fiji Fiji: Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Fiji. ...

From the Tongan name for the islands: Viti.

Flag of Finland Finland: Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ...

From the Germanic/Swedish Land of the Finns. Originally, the Swedish term Finn referred to the Sami or Lapps. The word derives from a root Germanic root meaning "nomadic hunter and gatherer", related to the English verb "find". Latin Fennia. In modern Swedish "finna" is the verb for "to find".
  • Suomi (Finnish name), Soome (Estonian name), Sum' (Old Russian name): may derive the Baltic root zeme for "land": "zeme" ← "sheme" ← "shäme" → Häme ← "shaame" → Saami ← "Soomi" ← "Suomi"
  • An Fhionnlainn (Irish name) is derived from Finlandia though by coincidence Fionnlann also means Land of the fair in Irish.

Formosa: The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... Häme (Tavastland) is the name of a geographical region in Finland which can refer to: Häme - a historical Province of Sweden (Historical provinces of Finland) Uudenmaan ja Hämeen lääni - a former County of Sweden (Counties in Finland) Hämeen lääni - a former Province of Finland... Saami or SAAMI can stand for: Sami peoples Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... This article is about the history, geography, and people of the island known as Taiwan. ...

see Taiwan.

 France: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Main article: Name of France
French derivation of Francia, "Land of the Franks". A frankon was a spear used by the early Franks, thus giving them their name. The term "Frank" later became associated with "free" as the Franks were the only truly freemen, since they subjugated the Romanized Gauls.

Flag of French Guiana French Guiana (territory of France): The name France comes from Latin Francia, which literally means land of the Franks, Frankland. Originally it applied to the whole Frankish Empire, extending from southern France to eastern Germany. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Gallia may mean several things: Gallia was the Latin name for Gaul. ... This article is about the European people. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

see France above and Guyana below.

Flag of French Polynesia French Polynesia (territory of France): Image File history File links Flag_of_French_Polynesia. ...

The geographic term Polynesia means "many islands", formed from the Greek roots: poly = many; and νῆσος nēsos = island.
See also France above.

Flag of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands French Southern and Antarctic Lands (territory of France): Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

From the geographic location of the territories (in the southern Indian Ocean).
Note: France's claims to Antarctic lands remainin abeyance in line with the 1959 Antarctic Treaty.
See also France above.

Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Antarctic Treaty from the Gundam anime, see Antarctic Treaty (Gundam) The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate the international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only uninhabited continent. ...

G

Flag of Gabon Gabon: Image File history File links Flag_of_Gabon. ...

From Gabão, the Portuguese name for the Komo river estuary (French: Estuaire de Gabon). The estuary took its name from its shape, which resembles that of a hooded overcoat (gabão). Gabão comes from Arabic قباء qabā’.

Flag of The Gambia Gambia, The: For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_The_Gambia. ...

From the river Gambia that runs through the country. The word gambia supposedly derives from the Portuguese word câmbio (meaning "trade" or "exchange"), in reference to the trade the Portuguese carried out in the area.

Flag of Georgia (country) Georgia: The Gambia River is a major river in Africa, running 1,130 km (700 miles) from the Fouta Djallon plateau in north Guinea to the Atlantic Ocean at the city of Banjul. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ...

Derived from Persian Gurj[5][6], probably derived from a PIE term meaning 'mountainous'. In classical times Greeks referring to the region used the names of Colchis (the coastal region along the Black Sea) and Iberia (further inland to the east). Some also believed that Georgia was so named by the Greeks on account of its agricultural resources, since "georgia" (γεωργία) means "farming" in Greek. However, the modern Greek name is now taken to be a derivation from the Persian root "Gurj".[7] Both names probably derive from indigenous Caucasian languages.
  • Gruzia in Slavic languages (Грузия in Russian, for example) and Gorjestân (گرجستان) in Persian derive from the same source.
  • Sakartvelo (Georgian name; in English commonly "Kartvelia"): derived from a pagan god called Kartlos, once regarded as the father of all Georgians.
  • Vrastan (Armenian: Վրաստան)

Flag of Germany Germany: Farsi redirects here. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Farsi redirects here. ... Kartlos (Georgian: ქართლოს) was the legendary establisher and eponymous father of Georgia, namely its nucleus Kartli (cf. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ...

Main article: Names for Germany
From Latin "Germania", of the 3rd century BC, of unknown origin. The Oxford English Dictionary records theories about the Celtic roots gair ("neighbour") (from Zeuß), and gairm ("battle-cry") (from Wachter and from Grimm). Partridge suggested *gar ("to shout"), and describes the gar ("spear") theory as "obsolete". Italian, Romanian, and other languages use the latinate Germania as the name for Germany. The Irish language uses An Ghearmáin, also cognate.

Flag of Ghana Ghana: Because of Germanys geographic position in the centre of Europe and its long history as a disunited region of distinct tribes and states, there are many widely-varying names for Germany in different languages, perhaps more than for any other European nation: for example, in German the country is... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Johann Kaspar Zeuß (22 July 1806–10 November 1856) was a German historian and Celtic philologist. ... The Brothers Grimm on a 1000DM banknote. ... Eric Honeywood Partridge (February 6, 1894-June 1, 1979) was a noted lexicographer of the English language, and particularly of its slang. ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of west Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, a river that is one of the largest tributaries of the Rhine, on land that is today... The term Germanic tribes applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... A map of Gaul showing the position of the Nemetes The Nemetes or Nemeti (German: ) were a Western Germanic tribe living at the Rhine between the Palatinate and Lake Bodensee where Ariovistus had lead them, the Suebi and other allied Germanic peoples in the second quarter of the 1st century... Tahitian, a Tahitic language, is one of the two official languages of French Polynesia (along with French). ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ghana. ...

After the ancient West African kingdom of the same name. The modern territory of Ghana, however, never formed part of the previous polity. J. B. Danquah suggested the use of the name in the run-up to Ghanaian independence. His research led him to believe that modern Ghanaian peoples descended from the ancient Ghana Kingdom; others dispute his conclusions.
  • Gold Coast (former name): after the large amount of gold that colonisers found in the country. Compare the names Europeans gave to nearby stretches of shoreline: "Ivory Coast", "Slave Coast" and "Grain Coast".

Flag of Gibraltar Gibraltar (overseas territory of the United Kingdom): World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Joseph Kwame Kyeretwi Boakye Danquah (December 1895 – 4 February 1965), Ghanaian statesman, was one of the primary opposition leaders to Ghanaian president and independence leader Kwame Nkrumah. ... Flag of Gold Coast Map from 1896 of the British Gold Coast Colony. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Gibraltar. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ...

A corruption of the Arabic words "Jebel Tarik" which means "Tarik's Mountain", named after Tarik-ibn-Zeyad, a Berber who landed at Gibraltar in 711 to launch the Islamic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula.

Glorioso Islands (territory of France): Arabic redirects here. ... Tariq ibn Ziyad (d. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... See also: phone number 711. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

The Glorioso or Glorieuses Islands take their name, presumably, for their wonderful (glorious) looks. A Frenchman, Hippolyte Caltaux, settled in 1880 and established a coconut and maize plantation on Grande Glorieuse. (This does not explain the Spanish or Portuguese-looking form of the name used in English.)

Flag of Greece Greece: Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ...

Main article: Names of the Greeks
From the Latin Græcus (Greek Γραικοί, claimed by Aristotle to refer to the name of the original people of Epirus)
  • Hellas/Ellas/Ellada (Greek name): land of the Hellenes, descended in mythology from Hellen; the place name has a linguistic cognate in the English verb "settle". A popular folk etymology holds the name to mean "land of light", relating to ἥλιος (hḗlios), the Greek word for "sun".
  • Hurumistan (Kurdish variant), Urəm (Урым, Adyghe):
  • Saberdzneṭi (საბერძნეთი, Georgian):
  • Yunanistan (Azeri, Kurdish variant, Turkish), al-Yūnān (Arabic), Yunān (Persian), Yavan (Hebrew): after Ionians, an older name for Greeks of Asia Minor

 Greenland (territory of Denmark): Note: This article contains special characters. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Graecus (or Græcus in Greek ) was, according to Hesiods (probably) Eoiae (Greek : Ηοίαι) or Catalogue of Women[1] on the origin of the Greeks, the son of Pandora and Zeus and brother of Magnetas and Macedon. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... Greece, formally called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... For other uses, see Greek (disambiguation). ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Note: Hellen was not the same person as Helen of Troy, or Helenus, son of King Priam of Troy. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... Sol redirects here. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is the language spoken by Kurds. ... The Adyghe or Adygs are a people of the northwest Caucasus region, principally inhabiting Adygeya (23 %) (now a constituent republic of the Russian Federation) and Karachay-Cherkessia (11 %) (where they are named as Cherkess). Shapsigh Autonomous District, an autonomous district founded for Shapsigh (or Shapsugh) tribe living on the Black... The Azeri, also referred to as Azerbaijanian Turks, are a Turkic-Muslim people. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greenland. ...

English name given by Eric the Red in 982 to attract settlers.
  • Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenlandic name): means "lands of humans".

 Grenada: This article concerns the Viking explorer. ... Events Greenland founded by Erik the Red ; first contact of Europeans with North America Births Emma of Normandy Atisha the Bengali Buddhist Saint Deaths Categories: 982 ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Grenada. ...

After the southern Spanish city of Granada. Columbus originally named the island Concepción.

 Guadeloupe territory of France): Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Christopher Columbus named the island in honour of Santa María de Guadalupe in Extremadura, Spain when he landed in 1493.

 Guam (territory of the United States of America): Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... The Royal Monastery of Santa Maria de Guadalupe (Spanish: Real Monasterio de Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe) is a monastic establishment in Cáceres province of the Extremadura autonomous community of Spain, which used to be the most important monastery in the country for more than four centuries. ... Capital Mérida Official language(s) Spanish; Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 5th  41,634 km²  8. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guam. ...

From the native Chamorro word 'guahan', meaning 'we have'.

 Guatemala: The Chamorro people or Chamoru people are the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands, which include the American territory of Guam and the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Micronesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guatemala. ...

The country name comes from the Nahuatl Cuauhtēmallān, "place of many trees", a translation of K'iche' Mayan K’ii’chee’, "many trees" (that is, "forest").[8] When the Spanish arrived, they saw a decayed tree with lots of trees around it right in front of the palace. The Spanish believed this the center of the Mayan Kingdom. When the Spanish asked the name of the area, the Native Amerindians told them this name.

 Guinea: For the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico, see Mexican Spanish. ... The Kiche language (Quiché in Spanish) is a part of the Mayan language family. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea. ...

From the Susu (Sousou) language meaning 'Women'. The first Europeans to arrive in the area would have heard Susu, the main language spoken by the inhabitants of coastal Guinea. The English form comes via Portuguese Guiné from a (presumed) indigenous African name. Or possibly from the Berber "Akal n-Iguinawen" meaning "land of the blacks".

 Guinea-Bissau: The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Not to be confused with French Guiana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea-Bissau. ...

That part of the region known as "Guinea" which has as its capital the city of Bissau. Compare the usage of Congo-Brazzaville.

 Guyana: Bissau, estimated population 355,000 (2004), is the capital of Guinea-Bissau. ... Portuguese Guinea was the name for what is today Guinea-Bissau from 1446 to September 10, 1974. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guyana. ...

From the indigenous peoples who called the land "Guiana", meaning "land of many waters", in reference to large number of rivers in the area.
  • British Guiana (former name): after the colonial ruler (Britain). "Guiana" has the same etymology as "Guyana".
See also Britain above

British Guiana and its boundary lines, 1896 Flag of British Guiana British Guiana was the name of the British colony on the northern coast of South America, now the independent nation of Guyana. ...

H

 Haiti: Image File history File links Flag_of_Haiti. ...

Taíno/Arawak Indian, "Hayiti/Hayti" meaning "mountainous land". The island of which Haiti forms a part, Hispaniola (roughly, "little Spain") originally had the name Hayiti.

 Honduras: For other uses, see Taino (disambiguation). ... Arowak woman (John Gabriel Stedman) The term Arawak (from aru, the Lokono word for cassava flour), was used to designate the Amerindians encountered by the Spanish in the West Indies. ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Honduras. ...

Christopher Columbus named the country "Honduras", Spanish for "depths", a reference to the deep waters off the northern coast.

 Hong Kong (Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China): Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hong_Kong. ... Special administrative region may be: Peoples Republic of China Special administrative regions, present-day administrative divisions (as of 2006) set up by the Peoples Republic of China to administer Hong Kong (since 1997) and Macau (since 1999) Republic of China Special administrative regions, also translated as special administrative...

An approximate phonetic rendering of the Hakka / Cantonese name "香港", meaning "Fragrant Harbour" or "Incense Harbour"; more accurately Heung1 Gong2 (Yale). The original fragrant harbour was a small inlet between the island of Ap Lei Chau (鴨脷洲) and the south side of Hong Kong Island, now known as Aberdeen Harbour in English, but still called Heung Gong Tsai (香港仔, Little Hong Kong) in Cantonese. The fragrance came from incense grown to the north of Kowloon that was stored around Aberdeen Harbour for export, before the development of Victoria Harbour. The village of Heung Gong Tsuen (香港村) on Ap Lei Chau is perhaps the earliest recorded use of the name. Another legend goes that a female pirate named Xiang Gu (香姑)often attacks the harbor.

Howland Island (territory of the United States of America): Hakka is one language in the family of languages known as Chinese. ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... Ap Lei Chau (鴨脷洲), or Aberdeen Island, is an island of Hong Kong, located south-west of Hong Kong Island, next to Aberdeen Harbour and Aberdeen Channel, with an area of 1. ... A gate of Aberdeen Square, the largest shopping area in Aberdeen. ... Victoria Harbour The night view of the Victoria Harbour with the skyscrapers in Central behind, viewed from Tsim Sha Tsui Victoria Harbour (Traditional Chinese: 維多利亞港; Simplified Chinese: 维多利亚港; Cantonese Jyutping: wai4 do1 lei6 aa3 gong2; Mandarin Pinyin: Wéiduōlìyà Gǎng) is the harbour between the Kowloon Peninsula and the... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Captain George E. Netcher named the island after the lookout who sighted it from his ship the Isabella on 9 September 1842.

 Hungary: is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ...

Turkic: on-ogur, "(people of the) ten arrows" — in other words, "alliance of the ten tribes". Byzantine chronicles gave this name to the Hungarians; the chroniclers mistakenly assumed that the Hungarians had Turkic origins, based on their Turkic-nomadic customs and appearance, despite the Finno-Ugric language of the people. The Hungarian tribes later actually formed an alliance of the seven Hungarian and three Khazarian tribes, but the name originates from the time before this, and first applied to the original seven Hungarian tribes. The ethnonym Hunni (referring to the Huns) has influenced the Latin (and English) spelling.
  • Uhorshchyna (Угорщина, Ukrainian), Vuhorščyna (Вугоршчына, Belarusian), Węgry (Polish), Wędżierskô (Kashubian), and Ugre in Old Russian: from the Turkic "on-ogur", see above. The same root emerges in the ethnonym Yugra, a people living in Siberia and distantly related to Hungarians.
  • Magyarország (native name - land of the Magyars): According to a famous Hungarian chronicle (Simon of Kéza: Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum, 1282), Magyar (Magor), the forefather of all Hungarians, had a brother named Hunor (the ancestor of the Huns); their father king Menrot, builder of the tower of Babel, equates to the Nimrod of the Hebrew Bible.
  • The Turkish language uses Macaristan, a compound derived from a Turkish spelling of Magyar and the Persian suffix -stan meaning "country".

The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... It has been suggested that Old Great Bulgaria be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... The name Old Russian language has been applied to different things. ... Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, a territory formerly known as Yugra Yugra (Russian: ) was the name of the lands between the Pechora River and Northern Urals in the Russian annals of the 12th–17th centuries, as well as the name of the Khanty and partly Mansi tribes inhabiting these territories. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Simon of Kéza (in Hungarian Kézai Simon) was the most famous Hungarian chronicler in the 13th century. ... The Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum (Deeds of the Huns and Hungarians) or just Gesta Hungarorum (II) (Deeds of the Hungarians) written mainly by Simon of Kéza is one of the sources of early Hungarian history. ... Babel (Hebrew: ; Bavel) (Arabic|بابل: Babel) is the name used in the Hebrew Bible and the Quran for the city of Babylon (Akkadian Babilu), notable in Genesis as the location of the Tower of Babel. ... Look up Nimrod in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Turkish ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... Farsi may refer to: The name of the the Persian language among native speakers Farsi Island, an Iranian island in the Persian Gulf The Jafari Shia Tajiks of Central Asia Salman al-Farsi, one of the prophet Muhammads companions Al-Farisi (1260-1320), Persian mathematician and physicist Jalaleddin Farsi...

I

 Iceland: Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ...

"Land of ice" (Ísland in Icelandic). Popularly (but falsely) attributed to an attempt to dissuade outsiders from attempting to settle on the land. In fact the early settler/explorer Flóki Vilgerðarson coined the name after he spotted "a firth full of drift ice" to the north. This occurred during spring after an especially harsh winter during which all his livestock had died and he started debating whether to leave.

 India: Flóki Vilgerðarson (Floki son of Vilgerdur) was amongst the first Norsemen to find Iceland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ...

Derived from the original name Sindhu of the Indus River in modern-day Pakistan, which gave its name to the land of Sind. People later applied derivations of the Persian form of this name, Hind, to all of modern Pakistan and India.
  • Bharat (Sanskrit name): Popular accounts derive "Bharat" from the name of either of two ancient kings named Bharata.
  • Hindustan (Hindi Name): The name Hind is derived from a a Persian pronunciation of Sind. The Persian -stān means country or land (cognate to Sanskrit sthāna "place, land").India is called al-Hind الهند in the Arabic language, and sometimes in Persian. (e.g. in the 11th century Tarik Al-Hind "history of India") and Hind هند in Persian. It also occurs intermittently in usage within India, such as in the phrase Jai Hind. The terms Hind and Hindustan were current in Persian and Arabic from the 11th century Islamic conquests: the rulers in the Sultanate and Mughal periods called their Indian dominion, centred around Delhi, Hindustan.

The word Hindu (हिन्दु) was loaned from Persian into Sanskrit in early medieval times and is attested — in the sense of dwellers of the Indian subcontinent, in some texts, such as Bhavishya Purāna, Kālikā Purāna, Merutantra, Rāmakosha, Hemantakavikosha and Adbhutarūpakosha. Hindustan was in use synonymously with India during the British Raj. The term is from the Persian Hindustān هندوستان, as is the term Hindu itself. It entered the English language in the 17th century. In the 19th century, the term as used in English referred to the northern region of India between the Indus and Brahmaputra and between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas in particular, hence the term Hindustani for the Hindi-Urdu language. India is a historic country with three main names. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... Le de de Sind de ou de Sindh de (Sindhi: ‎, Urdu: ‎, Hindi: ) peut se rapporter : * Sindh de le Pakistan (de 1970), retitré du ** de province de Sind dedans 1990 * [[provinces de |Sind] de province de Sind (1936-1955)] de lInde britannique (1936-04-01 - 1947-08-13) ** de le... Farsi redirects here. ... Bharata भरत (Sanskrit lit. ...

 Indonesia: Dzongkha is the national language of the Kingdom of Bhutan. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ...

A pseudo-Greek name, apparently invented in the mid-19th century to mean "Indies Islands", from the Greek νῆσος nēsos "island", added to the country name India. (Europeans previously referred to Indonesia as the "East Indies".)

 Iran: This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ...

"Land of the Aryans" or "land of the free". The term "Arya" derived from the PIE (Proto Indo-European), and generally carrying the meaning of "noble" or "free", cognate with the Greek-derived word "aristocrat".
  • Persia (former name): from Latin, via Greek "Persis", from Old Persian "Paarsa", a placename of a central district within the region, modern Fars. A common Hellenistic folk-etymology derives "Persia" from "Land of Perseus".
  • Uajemi (Swahili variant): from the word Ajam which Arabs used to refer to any ethnics which are not Arab, including Persians. The Arabic word Ajam means "the ones whose language we don't understand".

 Iraq: This article is about the term Aryan. For Arian, a follower of the ancient Christian sect, See Arianism. ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ... Persia redirects here. ... For the constellation, see Perseus (constellation); for the Macedonian king, see Perseus of Macedon Perseus with the Head of Medusa Perseus was the son of Danae, the only child of Acrisius king of Argos. ... This article is about the language. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ...

From the city of Erech/Uruk (also known as "Warka") near the river Euphrates. Some archaeologists regard Uruk as the first major Sumerian city. Another theory suggests that Iraq derives from Irak, which in older Iranian languages meant the Lesser Iran. Note that the natives of the western part of today's Iran also called their area "the Persian Iraq" for many centuries.
  • Mesopotamia (ancient name and Greek variant): a loan-translation (Greek meso- (between) and potamos (river)) of the ancient Semitic Beth-Nahrin, "Between the Rivers", a reference to the Tigris and Euphrates.

 Ireland: Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ...

After Éire from Proto-Celtic *Īweriū "the fertile place" or "Place of Éire (Eriu)" a Celtic fertility goddess. Often mistakenly derived as "Land of Iron", or from a reflex of Proto-Indo-European *arya, or from variations of the Irish word for west (modern Irish iar, iarthar).
  • Hibernia (ancient name and Latin variant): apparently assimilated to Latin hibernus (wintry).
  • Ireland is known as Eirinn in Scottish Gaelic, from a grammatical case of Éire. In fellow Celtic language Welsh it is Iwerddon, in Cornish it is Ywerdhon or Worthen and in Breton it is Iwerzhon.
  • In Gaelic bardic tradition Ireland is also known by the poetical names of Banbha (meaning piglet) and Fódhla. In Gaelic myth, Ériu, Banbha and Fódla were three goddesses who greeted the Milesians upon their arrival in Ireland, and who granted them custodianship of the island.

 Israel: Map of Éire Éire (pronounced ) is the Irish name for Ireland. ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... Proto-Indo-European (PIE) may refer to: Proto-Indo-European language the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages Proto-Indo-Europeans, the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language Proto-Indo-European roots, A list of reconstructed Proto-Indo-European roots Categories: | ... True colour image of Ireland, captured by a NASA satellite on 4 January 2003. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ...

Israel takes its name from the biblical patriarch Jacob, later known as Israel, literally meaning "struggled with God/he struggles with God". According to the account in the Book of Genesis, Jacob wrestled with a stranger (in later tradition said to have been an angel) at a river ford and won through perseverance. God then changed his name to Israel signifying that he had deliberated with God and won as he had wrestled and won with men.

 Italy: This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ...

Main articles: Italy#Etymology, History of Italy#Origins of the name, and :wikt:Italy#Etymology
From Latin Ītalia, itself from Greek Ιταλία, from the ethnic name Ιταλός, plural Ιταλόι, originally referring to an early population in the southern part of Calabria. This ethnic name probably directly relates to a word ιταλός (italós) ('bull') quoted in an ancient Greek gloss by Hesychius (from his collection of 51,000 unusual, obscure and foreign words). This "Greek" word is assumed to be a cognate of Latin vitulus ('calf'), although the different length of the i is a problem. Latin vitulus ('calf') is presumably derived from the PIE root *wet- meaning 'year' (hence, a 'yearling', a 'one-year-old calf'), although the change of e to i is unexplained. The "Greek" word, however, is glossed as 'bull', not 'calf'. Speakers of ancient Oscan called Italy Víteliú, a cognate of Greek Ιταλία and Latin Ītalia. Varro wrote that the region got its name from the excellence and abundance of its cattle. Some disagree with this etymology. Compare Italus.
  • Friagi or Friaz' in Old Russian: from the Byzantine appellation for the medieval Franks.
  • Valland (variant in Icelandic): land of "valer", (an Old Norse name for Celts, later also used for the Romanized tribes).
  • Włochy (Polish) and Olaszország (Hungarian): from Gothic walh, the same root as in Valland, see details under "Wallachia" below.

 Ivory Coast: “Italian Republic” redirects here. ... United in 1861, Italy has significantly contributed to the cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean area, deeply influencing European culture as well. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... A portion of the Tabula Peutingeriana, a Roman map of the 4th century, depicting the southern part of Italia. ... For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... page of Marc. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Denarius of Marsican Confederation with Oscan legend. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Marcus Terentius Varro ([[116 BC]–27 BC), also known as Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his contemporary Varro Atacinus, was a Roman scholar and writer, who the Romans came to call the most learned of all the Romans. ... In Roman mythology, Italus, son of Penelope and Telegonus, was the king of the Oenotrians or Sicels, who were the first inhabitants of Italy. ... The name Old Russian language has been applied to different things. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... In Norse mythology and legend Valland is the name the part of Europe which is inhabited by Celtic and Romance speaking peoples. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cote_d'Ivoire. ... Motto Unity, Discipline and Labour(translation) Anthem LAbidjanaise Capital Yamoussoukro (de jure) Abidjan (de facto) Largest city Abidjan Official languages French Demonym Ivorian Government Republic  -  President Laurent Gbagbo[1]  -  Prime Minister Guillaume Soro[1] Independence from France   -  Date August 7, 1960  Area  -  Total 322,460 km² (68th) 124,502...

see Côte d'Ivoire above

J

 Jamaica: Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ...

Taíno/Arawak Indian "Xaymaca" or "Hamaica", "Land of wood and water" or perhaps "Land of Springs".

 Japan: For other uses, see Taino (disambiguation). ... Arowak woman (John Gabriel Stedman) The term Arawak (from aru, the Lokono word for cassava flour), was used to designate the Amerindians encountered by the Spanish in the West Indies. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ...

The English name of "Japan" comes from Geppun, Marco Polo's Italian rendition of the islands' Chinese name 日本 (pinyin: rìběn, at the time approximately jitpun), or "sun-origin", i.e. "Land of the Rising Sun", indicating Japan as lying to the east of China (where the sun rises). Also formerly known as the "Empire of the Sun". See also Names of Japan.
  • Nihon / Nippon: Japanese name, from the local pronunciation of the same characters as above.

Jarvis Island (territory of the United States of America): Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Land of the Rising Sun most commonly refers to Japan as a translation of Nippon or Nihon (see List of country name etymologies#J). ... The English word Japan is not the name used for their country by the Japanese themselves: it is an exonym. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

The island was named after the owners Edward, Thomas, and William Jarvis of the British ship Eliza Francis by her commander, one Captain Brown, who discovered the island.

 Jersey: Image File history File links Flag_of_Jersey. ...

The Norse suffix -ey means island (see modern Nordic languages; "øy" in Norwegian, "ø/ö" in Danish and Swedish) and is found in many parts of the British Isles. The significance of the first part of the island's toponym is unclear. Among theories are that it derives from jarth (Norse: earth) or jarl (earl), or perhaps a personal name, Geirr, to give "Geirr's Island".

Johnston Atoll (territory of the United States of America): Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... Jarl may refer to: Alternative word for the peerage dignity Earl Japan Amateur Radio League, the Amateur Radio association of Japan Jarl, a Norse title Jarl Wahlström, the 12th General of The Salvation Army Category: ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Named after Captain Charles J. Johnston, the commanding officer of the ship Cornwallis, who came across the atoll on 14 December 1807.

 Jordan: is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ...

After the river Jordan, the name of which derives from the Hebrew and Canaanite root yrd — "descend" (into the Dead Sea.) The river Jordan forms part of the border between Jordan and Israel/West Bank. In classical times, the region (known as Nabataea) encompassed territories on both sides of the River Jordan, infrequently also territories on the Sinai peninsula in Africa.
  • Transjordan (former name): "Trans" means "across" or "beyond" i.e. east of the river Jordan.
  • Urdun (Arabic), literal translation of name Jordan, sometimes spelled Urdan

Juan de Nova (territory of France): This article is about the Jordan River in western Asia. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The Canaanite languages are a subfamily of the Semitic languages, spoken by the ancient Canaanite peoples. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... This article is about the Jordan River in western Asia. ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... This article is about the Jordan River in western Asia. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Location of the Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean: • 1 : Bassas da India • 2 : Europa Island • 3 : Glorioso Islands • 4 : Juan de Nova • 5 : Tromelin (KM : Comoros, MG : Madagascar, MU : Mauritius, MZ : Mozambique, RE : Réunion, YT : Mayotte) Juan de Nova Island (French: locally ÃŽle Juan de Nova or officially...

Named after João da Nova, a 15th century Portuguese explorer/navigator.

João da Nova (died 1509 in Cochin, India) (or Juan de Nova) was a Spanish navigator who explored the Atlantic in the name of Portugal - hence more often known as João rather than Juan. ...

K

 Kazakhstan: Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ...

Means "land of the Kazakhs". The word "Kazakh" does not have a straightforward exact English translation, but it means something along the lines of "independent/rebellious/wanderer/brave/free". The Russian term kazak (казак) - "cossack" in English - offers a cognate word. -stan as a Persian suffix means "land".

 Kenya: The suffix -stan (spelled ـستان in the Perso-Arabic script) is Persian for place of, and -sthan (स्थान in the DevanāgarÄ« script) is a cognate Sanskrit suffix with the same meaning. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kenya. ...

After Mount Kenya, from the Kĩkũyũ name "Kere-Nyaga" ("Mountain of Whiteness").
See also Britain above and Africa on the Placename etymology page.

Kingman Reef (territory of the United States of America): Mount Kenya has a low profile typical of a shield volcano. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... British East Africa was a British protectorate in East Africa, covering generally the area of present-day Kenya and lasting from 1890 to 1920, when it became the colony of Kenya. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... // The ancient Romans used the name Africa terra --- land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) --- for the northern part of the continent, corresponding to modern-day Tunisia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Named after Captain W.E. Kingman, who came across the reef whilst sailing in the boat Shooting Star on 29 November 1853.

 Kiribati: is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kiribati. ...

An adaptation of "Gilbert", from the former European name the "Gilbert Islands". Note the pronunciation of "Kiribati": /'kiribas/.

Korea (North and South): It has been suggested that Central Gilberts be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Central Gilberts be merged into this article or section. ... Thomas Gilbert Was The Captain Of The Charlotte in the first fleet ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ...

After the Goryeo Dynasty, the first Korean dynasty visited by Persian merchants who referred to Goryeo as Korea. The name of Goryeo itself appears to be derived from the traditional Chinese name for the race of people who founded various ancient states and empires in the area of Manchuria and the Korean Peninsula, such as Gojoseon and Goguryeo. At present, South Koreans call Korea Hanguk, while North Koreans call it Joseon, the latter of which probably originated as a local ethnonym's phonetic transcription.
See also: Names of Korea

 Kuwait: Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... For Korea as a whole, see Korea. ... Korea (한국) is a formerly unified country, situated on the Korean Peninsula in northern East Asia, bordering on China to the west and Russia to the north. ... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia... Joseon or Chosun (Korean: ì¡°ì„ ; Hanja: 朝鮮; Revised: Joseon; McCune-Reischauer: Chosŏn; Chinese: CháoxiÇŽn; Japanese: Chōsen) is a name for Korea, as used in the following cases: As part of the name of several ancient kingdoms (including Gojoseon, Gija Joseon, and Wiman Joseon); During most of the Joseon... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kuwait. ...

From the Arabic diminutive form of "Kut/Kout" meaning "fortress built near water".

 Kyrgyzstan: Arabic redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kyrgyzstan. ...

Derives from three words — kyrg meaning "forty", yz meaning "tribes" and -stan meaning "land" in Persian — "land of forty tribes".
Another version is - kyrg meaning "forty", kyz meaning "girl" and -stan meaning "land" in Persian, which means "the land of forty girls".

The suffix -stan (spelled ـستان in the Perso-Arabic script) is Persian for place of, and -sthan (स्थान in the Devanāgarī script) is a cognate Sanskrit suffix with the same meaning. ... The suffix -stan (spelled ـستان in the Perso-Arabic script) is Persian for place of, and -sthan (स्थान in the Devanāgarī script) is a cognate Sanskrit suffix with the same meaning. ...

L

 Laos: Image File history File links Flag_of_Laos. ...

Name coined under French rule, derived from Lao lao meaning "a Laotian" or "Laotian", possibly originally from an ancient Indian word lava. Lava names one of the twin sons of the god Rama. Might also be from "Ai-Lao" the old Chinese name for the Tai ethnic groups of which the Lao people belong to.[9] Formerly known as "Lan Xang" or "land of a million elephants".

 Latvia: Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Lava and his twin brother Kusha are the children of the Hindu God Rama and his wife Sita Devi, whose story is told in the Ramayana. ... Rama ( in IAST, in DevanāgarÄ«) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... The Tai languages are a subgroup of the Tai Kadai language family. ... The Lao kingdom of Lan Xang or Lan Chang (Pali: Sisattanakhanahut, Lao: lâansâang, from Sinitic “vast number of elephants”) was established in 1354 by Somdetch Brhat-Anya Fa Ladhuraniya Sri Sadhana Kanayudha Maharaja Brhat Rajadharana Sri Chudhana Negara (otherwise known as Fa Ngum). ... The Lao kingdom of Lan Xang (or in Pali, Sisattanakhanahut) was established in 1354 by Fa Ngum. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ...

Derived from the regional name "Latgale", the "Lat-" part associated with several Baltic hydronyms and "-gale" meaning "land" or "boundary land", of Baltic origin.

 Lebanon: A hydronym (from Greek hudor, water and onuma, name) is a proper name of a body of water. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ...

The name Lebanon ("Lubnān" in standard Arabic; "Lebnan" or "Lebnèn" in local dialect) is derived from the Semitic root "LBN", which is linked to several closely-related meanings in various languages, such as white and milk. This is regarded as reference to the snow-capped Mount Lebanon. Occurrences of the name have been found in three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh (2900 bc), the texts of the library of Ebla (2400 bc), and the Bible. The word Lebanon is also mentioned 71 times in the Old Testament.

 Lesotho: Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... For other uses, see Mount Lebanon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gilgamesh (disambiguation). ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lesotho. ...

After the indigenous Sotho people, whose own name means "black" or "dark-skinned".

 Liberia: Image File history File links Flag_of_Liberia. ...

From the Latin liber, "free", so named from the establishment of the Liberian state as a homeland for freed African-American slaves.

 Libya: Image File history File links Flag_of_Libya. ...

After an ancient Berber tribe called Libyans by the Greeks and Rbw by the Egyptians. Up to and until the country's independence, the term "Libya" generally applied only to the vast desert interposed between the Tripolitanian Lowland and the Fazzan plateau (to the west) and Egypt's Nile river valley (to the east). With "Tripoli" the name of new country's capital and the old northeastern regional name 'Cyrenaica' having passed into obsolescence, "Libya" became the convenient name for the country, despite the fact that much of the Libyan desert actually forms part of Egyptian territory.

 Liechtenstein: Image File history File links Flag_of_Liechtenstein. ...

From the German "Light stone" ("light" as in "bright"). The country took its name from the Liechtenstein dynasty, which purchased and united the counties of Schellenburg and Vaduz. The Holy Roman Emperor allowed the dynasty to rename the new property after itself. Liechtenstein and Luxembourg are the only German-speaking former Holy Roman Empire duchies not to be assimilated by the motherlands of Germany, Austria, or Switzerland.

 Lithuania: Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ...

Modern scholars tend to agree upon hydronymic origin of this name, possibly from a small river Lietava in Central Lithuania. This hydronym in turn has been associated with Lithuanian "lieti" (root "lie-") "pour", "spill". Compare to Old-Slavic "liyati" "pour", Greek "a-lei-son" "cup", Latin "litus" "seashore", Tocharian A "lyjäm" "lake".
Historically, it has been attempted to suggest a direct descendance from the Latin "litus" (see littoral). "Litva" (Gen. "Litvae"), an early Latin variant of the toponym, appears in a 1009 chronicle describing an archbishop "struck over the head by pagans on the border of Russia/Prussia and Litvae". A 16th-century scholar associated the word with the Latin word "litus" (tubes) — a possible reference to wooden trumpets played by Lithuanian tribesmen. A popular belief is that the country's name in Lithuanian language (Lietuva) is derived from a word "lietus" (rain), and means "a rainy place".

 Luxembourg: Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ...

From Celtic Lucilem "small" (cognate to English "little") and Germanic burg "castle", thus lucilemburg "little castle".

M

 Republic of Macedonia: Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...

Known in the United Nations as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the country is named after the ancient people named Macedonians. This has resulted in a naming dispute with the Greek people who also call themselves Macedonians, who consider themselves the rightful heirs of the legacy of the ancient people. According to Hesiod, the Macedonians were named for king Makedon, the founder of the kingdom, a son of Zeus and a grandson of Deucalion, the common ancestor of all Greeks. The etymology of the name is believed to be from the Greek root mak- (long or tall), possibly signifying the Pierian highlands where the Macedonians first settled.

 Madagascar: UN and U.N. redirect here. ... For an in depth analysis of the often confusing terms regarding Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Deucalion In Greek mythology, Deucalion, or Deukálion (new-wine sailor) was the name of at least two figures: a son of Prometheus, and a son of Minos. ... This article is about the use of the name Macedonia and its derivatives. ... Pieria (Πιερία) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Madagascar. ...

From the name of the island in Malagasy language: Madagasikara, itself derived from the proto-Malay "end of the Earth", a reference to the island's long distance by sea from an earlier homeland in Southeast Asia.

 Malawi: Malagasy redirects here. ... Proto Malay is also known as Melayu Asli or Melayu Purba in local Malaysia language, is an ethnic group in Malaysia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malawi. ...

Possibly based on a native word meaning "flaming water" or "tongues of fire," believed to have derived from the sun's dazzling reflections on Lake Malawi. But President Hastings Banda, the founding President of Malawi, reported in interviews that in the 1940s he saw a "Lac Maravi" shown in "Bororo" country on an antique French map titled "La Basse Guinee Con[t]enant Les Royaumes de Loango, de Congo, d'Angola et de Benguela" and he liked the name "Malawi" better than "Nyasa" (or "Maravi"). "Lac Marawi" does not necessarily correspond to today's Lake Malawi. Banda had such influence at the time of independence in 1964 that he named the former Nyasaland "Malawi" himself, and the name has stuck.
  • Nyasaland (former name): "Nyasa" literally means "lake" in the local indigenous languages. The name applied to Lake Malawi (formerly Lake Nyasa, or "Niassa").

 Malaysia: Lake Malawi (also known as Lake Nyasa, Lake Nyassa, Lake Niassa, and Niassa in Mozambique), is the most southerly lake in the Great African Rift Valley system. ... Hastings Kamuzu Banda (1896? – 25 November 1997) was the President of Malawi, from 1966 to 1994. ... Lake Malawi (also known as Lake Nyasa, Lake Nyassa, Lake Niassa, and Niassa in Mozambique), is the most southerly lake in the Great African Rift Valley system. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Lake Malawi (also known as Lake Nyasa, Lake Nyassa, Lake Niassa, and Niassa in Mozambique), is the most southerly lake in the Great African Rift Valley system. ... A view of the lake from Likoma Island Lake Malawi, originally known as Lake Nyasa, Lake Nyassa and Lake Niassa after the Yao word for lake, is the most southerly lake in the Great African Rift Valley system. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ...

Land of the Malay people. The country bore the name Malaya until 1963 following the accession of Singapore (seceded in 1965), Sabah and Sarawak in Borneo. The change of name reflected the expansion of the country's boundaries beyond Malay Peninsula. The adjective Malaysian refers to nationality of all races while Malay specifically refers to the native Malay people which make up about half of the total population.

 Maldives: This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... Demographics of Malaysia is diverse. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maldives. ...

From Arabic Mahal("palace") or "Dhibat-al-Mahal / Dhibat Mahal" as Arabs used to refer to the country. Therefore referring to the Arabic terminology it could mean "Palace Islands" as the main island, Malé, held the palace of the islands' Sultan. Some scholars believe that the name "Maldives" derives from the Sanskrit maladvipa, meaning "garland of islands". Some sources say Tamil malai or Malayalam mala "mountain(s)"), and Sanskrit diva, "island", thus "Mountain Islands"
  • Dhivehi Raajje (Maldivian name): "Kingdom of Maldivians". Dhivehi is a noun describing the Dhives people (Maldivians) and their language "Dhivehi" simultaneously.
  • Maladwipa (Sanskrit for "garland (mala, pronounced /maalaa/) of islands"; or more likely "small islands" from mala (pronounced /mala/) meaning "small".
  • Dhibat Mahal (Arabic)

 Mali: Malé (Dhivehi: މާލެ), (pronounced: Maa-lay) population 81,647 (2004), is the capital of the Republic of Maldives located at the southern edge of North Male Atoll Kaafu Atoll. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mali. ...

After the ancient West African kingdom of the same name, upon which a large part of the modern state lies. The word "Mali" means [[hippopotamus]] in Malinké and Bamana.
  • French Sudan (former colonial name). In French Soudan français. The term Sudan (see below), stemming from the Arabic bilad as-sudan (land of the Blacks).

 Malta: The Malinké are an African Mandé ethnic group. ... Bambara, also known as Bamanankan in the language itself, is a language spoken in Mali by as many as six million people (including second language users). ... French Sudan (Fr. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ...

From the Phoenician root MLT meaning "refuge". The term may have survived due to the existence of the Greek and Latin word melitta or "honey", the name of the island in classical times, and also the major export from the island during those centuries. The modern name comes from Maltese, previously from Arabic ملطة Malṭah, previously of the same Phoenician origin.

 Isle of Man: Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region then called PÅ«t in Ancient Egyptian, Canaan in Phoenician, Hebrew and Aramaic, and Phoenicia in Greek and Latin. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Arabic redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_isle_of_man. ...

The island's name in both English and Manx (Mannin) derives from Manannán mac Lir, the Brythonic and Gaelic equivalent of the god Poseidon.

 Marshall Islands: In Irish and Manx mythology, Manannán mac Lir is the god of the sea. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Marshall_Islands. ...

Named after British Captain John Marshall, who first documented the existence of the islands in 1788.

 Martinique (territory of France): John Marshall was born in Ramsgate,Kent,England on 15 February 1748. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

When Christopher Columbus landed on the island in 1502 (he had sailed past it in 1493 but neglected to land) he named it in honour of St. Martin.

 Mauritania: Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritania. ...

Misnamed after the classical Mauretania in northern Morocco, itself named after the Berber Mauri tribe.

 Mauritius: In Antiquity, Mauretania was originally an independent Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of north Africa (named after the Maure tribe, after whom the Moors were named), corresponding to western Algeria, and northern Morocco. ... Mauri may refer to: In the Maori language of New Zealand, Mauri means the life force which binds together every branch of Maoridom into one entity. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritius. ...

Named Prins Maurits van Nassaueiland in 1598 after Maurice of Nassau (1567 - 1625), Stadtholder of Holland Prince of Orange (1585 - 1625).

 Mayotte (territory of France): Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange - portrait by Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt Maurice of Nassau (Dutch Maurits van Nassau) (14 November 1567 – 23 April 1625), Prince of Orange (1618–1625), son of William the Silent and Princess Anna of Saxony, was born at the castle of Dillenburg. ... A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning place holder, a Germanic parallel to Latin locum tenens or French lieutenant), means an official who is appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in his name, in the latter case roughly... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

The name is a French corruption of the native "Maore" or "Mawuti" sultanates present on the island circa 1500.

 Mexico Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ...

Main article: Etymology of Mexico
After the Mexica branch of the Aztecs. The origin of the term "Mexxica" remains uncertain. Some take it as the old Nahuatl word for the sun. Others say it derived from the name of the leader Mexitli. Yet others simply ascribe it to a type of weed that grows in Lake Texcoco. Leon Portilla suggests that it means "navel of the moon" from Nahuatl metztli (moon) and xictli (navel). Alternatively, it could mean "navel of the maguey" (Nahuatl metl). Also see Mexican state name etymologies.

 Micronesia Image of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Mendoza codex The etymology of Mexico dates back to 14th century Mesoamerica. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... For the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico, see Mexican Spanish. ... Sol redirects here. ... Mexitli was a legendary great leader and war god of the Aztecs (before they became known as the Mexica, possibly in his honour). ... Lake Texcoco is a lake in Mexico. ... Miguel Le n-Portilla (born in Mexico City, 22 February 1926) is a Mexican anthropologist and historian, and the prime authority on Nahuatl thought and literature. ... This article provides a collection of the etymologies of the names of the states of Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Micronesia. ...

A name coined from the Greek words mikros (small) and nesos (island) — "small islands".

Midway Islands (territory of the United States of America): Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Named after their geographic location midway between somewhere and somewhere else in the Pacific ocean. Originally named the Middlebrook Islands or the Brook Islands, after their discoverer Captain N.C. Middlebrooks ("Captain Brooks").

 Moldova Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ...

From the Moldova River in Romania, possibly from Gothic Mulda (dust, mud) via the [[Principality of Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian). See Etymology of Moldova.

 Monaco Moldova river is a river of the Moldavia region of Romania, which rises from the Obcine of Bukovina in Suceava county. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Moldova was the Romanian name of a medieval principality (Moldavia) which included land in Eastern Romania and the Republic of Moldova and has a controversed etymology. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Monaco. ...

"Himself alone", a reference to the Greek demigod Hercules, once worshipped at a shrine on the territory. Alternatively, Monaco derives its name from the nearby Greek colony Monoikos founded in the 6th century B.C. by Phocian Greeks. The Phocians constructed a temple there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos (Μόνοικος means "single house" or "single temple"). (The association of Monaco with monks (Italian monachi) dates fron the Grimaldi conquest of 1297: see coat of arms of Monaco.

 Mongolia For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ... Phocis (Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα/Fokída, Ancient/Katharevousa: Φωκίς/Phokis; named after the Greek mythological personage Phocus) is an ancient district of central Greece and a prefecture of modern Greece located in Sterea Hellas, one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Monaco The Royal Arms of His Serene Highness Prince Albert II are his arms of dominion in right of Monaco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mongolia. ...

From Mongol, which probably means "brave" or "fearless".

 Montenegro Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ...

Venetian conquerors gave Montenegro its name, Montenegro meaning "black mountain", after the appearance of Mount Lovćen or most likely its dark coniferous forests. (Contrary to popular belief, "Montenegro" does not represent a standard Italian name, as "black mountain" in official Italian translates as monte nero without the "g". It does, however, perfectly represent a name in the Venetian dialect)
  • Crna Gora (the local Serbian/Montenegrin name for Montenegro): literally translates as "black mountain".
  • Doclea (ancient name for Montenegro): Doclea, the name of the region during the early period of the Roman Empire, reflected the name of an early Illyrian tribe. In later centuries, Romans "hyper-corrected" it to "Dioclea", wrongly guessing that an "I" had disappeared due to vulgar speech patterns.
  • Zeta (ancient name for Montenegro): The earliest Slavic name, Zeta, derives from the name of a river in Montenegro which itself derives from an early root meaning "harvest" or "grain".

 Montserrat (territory of the United Kingdom): Lovćen is a mountain located in the southwest of Montenegro. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Venetian is a Romance language spoken by over two million people in and around Venice. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montserrat. ...

Christopher Columbus named the island "Santa Maria de Montserrate" while sailing past it in 1493 because it reminded him of the Blessed Virgin of the Monastery of Montserrate in Spain. The name "Montserrat" itself, literally means "jagged mountain".

 Morocco: Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... The Virgin of Montserrat, or La Moreneta in its setting Detail The Virgin of Montserrat is a statue of Mary, Mother of Jesus venerated at the Montserrat mountain in Catalonia, Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ...

From Marruecos, the Spanish pronunciation of the name of the city of "Marrakesh" (more precisely Marrakush), believed to derive from the Berber words (ta)murt "land" (or (a)mur "part") + akush "God".
  • Al Maghrib (Arabic name):means "the Farthest West".

 Mozambique: The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mozambique. ...

From the name of the Island of Mozambique, which in turn probably comes from the name of a previous Arab ruler, the sheik Mussa Ben Mbiki.

 Myanmar: The Island of Mozambique is an island off the coast of Nampula province, Mozambique, that has been declared a World Heritage Site on the basis of its preserved architecture. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ...

One explanation sees the name as a derivative of the Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw; an alternative etymology suggests that myan means "quick/fast" and mar means "hard/tough/strong". The renaming of the country in 1989 has aroused political controversy; as certain minority groups and activist communities charge the symbolism of the move intended to strengthen the position of hard-line political elements inside the country. Correspondingly, such groups continue to refer to Myanmar as "Burma".
  • Burma (former name): The name Burma apparently derives from the Sanskrit name for the region: "Brahmadesh", land of (the deity) Brahma.

This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

N

 Namibia: Image File history File links Flag_of_Namibia. ...

From the coastal Namib Desert. "Namib" means "area where there is nothing" in the Nama language.
See also Africa on the Placename etymology page and Germany above.

 Nauru: Dune 7, one of the highest sand dunes in the world (ca. ... Nàmá, previously called Hottentot, is the most populous and widespread of the Khoisan languages. ... South-West Africa is the former name (1884-1990) of Namibia under German (as German South-West Africa, Deutsch Süd-West Afrika) and (from 1915) South African administration when it was conquered from the Germans during World War I. Following the war, the Treaty of Versailles declared the territory... Flag of German South West Africa German South-West Africa (German: Deutsch-Südwestafrika or DSWA) was a colony of Germany from 1884 to 1915, when it was taken over by South Africa and administered as South-West Africa, later becoming Namibia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... // The ancient Romans used the name Africa terra --- land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) --- for the northern part of the continent, corresponding to modern-day Tunisia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nauru. ...

The name "Nauru" may derive from the Nauruan word "Anáoero", which means "I go to the beach". The German settlers called the island "Nawodo" or "Onawero".

 Navassa Island (territory of the United States of America): Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

In 1504, Christopher Columbus, stranded on Jamaica, sent some crew members by canoe to Hispaniola for help. They ran into the island on the way, but it had no water. They called it Navaza, "nava-" meaning plain, or field. Mariners avoided the island for the next 350 years.

 Nepal: 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ...

The toponym "Nepal" may derive from the Sanskrit nipalaya, which means "at the foot of the mountains" or "abode at the foot," a reference to its location in relation to the Himalayas. (Compare the analogous European toponym "Piedmont"). An alternative suggestion derives the name from the Tibetan niyampal, which means "holy land".

 Netherlands: Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ...

Germanic for "low lands".
  • Holland (part of the Netherlands; a name often incorrectly used to refer to the country as a whole): Germanic holt-land ("wooded land") (often incorrectly regarded as meaning "hollow [i.e. marsh] land")
  • Batavia (Latin): derived from the name of the Germanic Batavii tribe.
  • Nederland (Dutch) "low-land".
  • Alankomaat (Finnish) "low lands"
  • Na hÍsiltíre (Irish) "the low lands"

 Netherlands Antilles: (territory of Netherlands): This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ... The Batavii (or Batavi, Batavians) were a Germanic tribe, originally part of the Chatti, reported by Tacitus to have lived around the Rhine delta, in the area which is currently the Netherlands, an uninhabited district on the extremity of the coast of Gaul, and also of a neighbouring island, surrounded... The Batavii (or Batavi, Batavians) were a Germanic tribe, originally part of the Chatti, reported by Tacitus to have lived around the Rhine delta, in the area which is currently the Netherlands, an uninhabited district on the extremity of the coast of Gaul, and also of a neighbouring island, surrounded... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands_Antilles. ...

"Antilles" from a mythical land/island (Antillia) west of Europe or a combination of two Portuguese words "ante" or "anti" and "ilha" which means island, currently the name for the Caribbean islands. "Netherlands" after the colonial ruler, the Netherlands

 New Caledonia (territory of France): The Antilles (the same in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch) refers to the islands forming the greater part of the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea. ... Antillia (or Antilia) was a phantom island said to lie in the Atlantic Ocean far to the west of Spain. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Captain James Cook named the islands in 1774 in reference to Scotland. The mountains he saw reminded him of those in Scotland ("Caledonia" in Latin).

 New Zealand: This article is about the British explorer. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Roman Empire to a northern area of the island of Great Britain. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ...

After the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands, which means "Sealand" in reference to the large number of islands it contains. Abel Tasman referred to New Zealand as Staten Landt, but subsequent Dutch cartographers used Nova Zeelandia in Latin, followed by Nieuw Zeeland in Dutch, which Captain James Cook subsequently anglicised as New Zealand.
  • Aotearoa has become the most common name for the country in the indigenous Maori language, supplanting the loan-phrase Niu Tireni. Aotearoa conventionally means "land of the long white cloud".
  • Nua Shealtainn in both Irish and Scottish Gaelic, meaning New Shetland (Sealtainn), itself from a metathesised form of Scots Shetland. Gaelic speakers seem to have folk-etymologised Zeeland when translating New Zealand's name from English.

 Nicaragua: Capital Middelburg Largest city Terneuzen Queens Commissioner Karla Peijs Religion (1999) Protestant 35% Catholic 23% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   1,788 km² (10th) 1,146 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 380,186 (11th) 213/km² (10th) Anthem Zeeuws volkslied ISO NL-ZE Official website www. ... Portrait of Tasman Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 - October 10, 1659), was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Captain James Cook may refer to: James Cook - British explorer, navigator, and map maker Captain James Cook (TV miniseries) - 1987 Australian television miniseries This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up Aotearoa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Māori (or Maori) is a language spoken by the native peoples of New Zealand and the Cook Islands. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nicaragua. ...

A merger coined by the Spanish explorer Gil González Dávila after Nicarao, a leader of an indigenous community inhabiting the shores of Lake Nicaragua and "agua," the Spanish word for "water"; subsequently, the ethnonym of that native community.

 Niger: Gil González Dávila, a. ... Nicarao is the name of the then-leader and/or the capital city of the most populous indigenous tribe when the Spanish arrived in Nicaragua. ... Lake Nicaragua (Spanish: Lago de Nicaragua) or Lake Cocibolca (Lago Cocibolca) is a freshwater lake in Nicaragua and it is of tectonic origin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Niger. ...

Named after the Niger River, from a native term "Ni Gir" or 'River Gir'. The name has often been misinterpreted, especially by Latinists, to be deriving from the Latin niger ("black"), a reference to the dark complexions of the inhabitants of the region.
See also Nigeria below

 Nigeria: Map of Niger River with Niger River basin in green The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending over 2500 miles (about 4180 km). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ...

After the Niger river that flows through the western areas of the country and out into the ocean.
See also Niger above

 Niue (territory of New Zealand): Map of Niger River with Niger River basin in green The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending over 2500 miles (about 4180 km). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Niue. ...

Niu probably means "coconut," and "é" means "behold." According to legend, the Polynesian explorers who first settled the island knew they had come close to land when they saw a coconut floating in the water. There is also coincidental similarity with the Germanic words niew, nieu, niewe, niue, nieue, niewe, nieuw, nieuwe, niuewe niuew, new, and the Latinic neo.

 Norfolk Island (territory of Australia): Look up NEW and new in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Look up neo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norfolk_Island. ...

The first European known to have sighted the island,Captain James Cook, in 1774, on his second voyage to the South Pacific on HMS Resolution, named it after the wife of the premier peer of Britain, Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk (1685 - 1777).

 Northern Mariana Islands (commonwealth in political union with the United States of America): Captain James Cook may refer to: James Cook - British explorer, navigator, and map maker Captain James Cook (TV miniseries) - 1987 Australian television miniseries This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Resolution and Adventure with fishing craft in Matavai Bay by William Hodges, painted 1776, shows the two ships at anchor in Tahiti in August 1773. ... Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk was born 5 June 1685/6 the son of Lord Thomas Howard (bef1662-1689), who was the son of Henry Howard 6th Duke of Norfolk, and Mary Elizabeth Savile (bef1667-1732). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Northern_Mariana_Islands. ...

Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan (the first European to sight the islands in 1521), named them Islas de los Ladrones (Islands of Thieves). In 1668 Jesuit missionary San Vitores changed the name to Las Marianas in honour of Mariana of Austria (1634 - 1696), widow of king Philip IV and regent of Spain (1665 - 1675).

 North Korea: For the Presidential railcar named Ferdinand Magellan, see Ferdinand Magellan Railcar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... 1668 (MDCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... The assasination of Padre San Vitores in 1672 by Matapang and Hirao. ... Mariana of Austria, 1652, portrayed by Diego Velázquez Mariana or Maria-Anna of Austria (Vienna, 23 December 1634 - Madrid, 16 May 1696), daughter of Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III and Infanta Maria Ana of Spain, was the second wife of her maternal uncle Philip IV of Spain. ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ...

After the location in Korea.
See also Korea above

 Northern Ireland (constituent country of the United Kingdom):: This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Northern_Ireland. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Constituent countries is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping, concerning these countries; thus the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has used the phrase in reference to the parts of former Yugoslavia...

After the location in Ireland.
See also Ireland above

 Norway: Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ...

From the old Norse norðr and vegr "northern way". 'Norðrvegr' refers to long coastal passages from the western tip of Norway to its northernmost lands in the Arctic.
  • Natively called 'Norge (Noreg in Nynorsk)'
  • Urmane, or Murmane in Old Russian: from the Norse pronunciation of the word Normans (Northmen). (This word survives in the name of the Russian city Murmansk.)
  • An Iorua (Irish) seems to derive from a misinterpretation of Old Norse Norðrvegr as beginning the Irish definite article an, common to most country names in Irish. The rest of the word was then taken as the country name. A similar process took place in the development of the English word adder (originally a nadder).

The name Old Russian language has been applied to different things. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ; Finnish: (archaic); Northern Sami: ; Skolt Sami: ) is a city in the extreme northwest part of Russia with a seaport on the Kola Bay, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russias borders with Norway and... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ...

O

 Occitania: Image File history File links Flag_of_Occitania_(with_star). ... A version of the flag frequently used by Occitan activists. ...

Occitània in Occitan. From medieval Latin Occitania (approximately since 1300). The first part of the name, Occ-, comes from Occitan [lenga d']òc or Italian [lingua d']oc (i.e. "Language of Òc"), a name given to the Occitan language by Dante according to its way of saying "yes" (òc). The ending -itania is probably an imitation of the old Latin name [Aqu]itania.

 Oman: Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Oman. ...

The name Oman (also rendered Uman) is ancient in origin. In his translation of a "History of the Imams and Seyyids of Oman" George Badger says that the name was already in use by early Greek and Arab geographers. The book "Oman in History" (Arabic: Tarikh fi 'Uman') notes that the Roman historian Yalainous (23-79 AD) mentions a city on the Arab peninsula he calls "Omana." The city (probably ancient Sohar, on the Omani coast) passed its name on to the region.
According to Tarikh fi Uman,"various Arab scholars proposed a variety of different linguistic origins for the name 'Oman'." Ibn al-Qabi suggested it derives from a word for "settlement" or "staying",suggesting it comes from the adjective aamen, or amoun, or "settled (as opposed to nomadic) man." Other scholars have suggested the city was named after any of a number of historic, legendary or biblical founding figures, including Oman bin Ibrahim al-Khalil, Oman bin Siba' bin Yaghthan bin Ibrahim, Oman bin Qahtan, and Oman bin Loot (the Arabic name for the biblical figure Lot. Still others have suggested the name is based on a valley in Yemen where the city's founders came from originally. The facts are lost to history.

Sohar (صحار in Arabic) is located in the Al-Batinah province of the Sultanate of Oman, 240 kilometers north-west of the capital Muscat. ... Lot and his Daughters, Hendrik Goltzius, 1616. ...

P

 Pakistan: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

The Cambridge student and Muslim nationalist Choudhary Rahmat Ali coined this name. He devised the word and first published it on 28 January 1933 in the pamphlet "Now or Never". He constructed the name as an acronym of the different states/homelands/regions, which broke down into: P=Punjab, A=Afghania (Ali's preferred name for the North West Frontier Province), K=Kashmir, S=Sindh and the suffix -stan from BalochiSTAN, thus forming "Pakstan". An "i" intruded later in order to ease pronunciation. The suffix -stan in Persian expresses "home of" and Sanskrit means "place". Rahmat Ali later expanded upon this in his 1947 book Pakistan: the Fatherland of the Pak Nation. In that book he explains the acronym as follows: P=Punjab, A=Afghania, K=Kashmir, I=Iran, S=Sindh, T=Turkharistan (roughly the modern central-Asian states), A=Afghanistan and N=BalochistaN. The Persian word پاک pāk, which means "pure", adds another shade of meaning, with the full name thus meaning "land of the pure". Use of the name gradually became widespread during the campaign for the setting up of a Muslim state in the then British India.

 Palau: This article is about the city in England. ... Choudhary Rahmat Ali (Urdu: چودھری رحمت علی) (or Rehmat Ali Khan; Urdu: رحمت علی خان) (November 16, 1897 - February 12, 1951) was an Indian Muslim nationalist who was one of the earliest proponents of the creation of the state of Pakistan. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... A suffix is an affix that follows the morphemes to which it can attach. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Türkistan (also spelled Turkistan or Turkestan) is a region in Central Asia, largely inhabited by Turkic people. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palau. ...

-?-
  • Belau or Belaw (local names):-?-
  • Pelew (alternative name): the English Captain Henry Wilson suffered shipwreck on a reef off Palau's Ulong Island in 1783. Wilson spelt "Palau" as "Pelew".

 Palestine: 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ...

Named after the ancient Philistines of the area around Gaza. The Greeks adopted the name to refer to the broader area, as Palaistinê, but Herodotus and others considered this as one part of Syria. The Roman Empire later adopted this concept in the form Syria Palaestina, as a new name for the province (formerly known as Judaea) after the defeat of Bar Kochba in AD 135.

Palmyra Atoll (territory of the United States of America): Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... See related article Occupations of Palestine. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided... Simon bar Kokhba was a Jewish military leader who led a revolt against the Romans in AD 132. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Named after the boat Palmyra, which belonged to the American Captain Sawle. He sought shelter on the atoll on 7 November 1802, and became the first person to land on it.

 Panama: is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... --69. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Panama. ...

After a former village near the modern capital, Panama City. From the Cueva Indian language meaning "place of abundance of fish/place of many fish", possibly from the Caribe "abundance of butterflies", or possibly from another native term referring to the Panama tree.

 Papua New Guinea: This article is about the capital city of Panama. ... Cuevas is Spanish for caves. Cuevas, as well as Cueva (the singular form) is a Spanish surname as well as a name used for many geographical places. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ...

The country acquired its name in the 19th century; the word "Papua" derives from Malay papuah describing the frizzy Melanesian hair. "New Guinea" comes from the Spanish explorer Íñigo Ortiz de Retes, who noted the resemblance of the local people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa.

 Paraguay: Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ...

The exact meaning of the word "Paraguay" remains unknown, though it seems to derive from the river of the same name. One of the most common explanations suggests that it means "water of the Payagua (a native tribe)". Another meaning links the Tupi-Guarani words para (river) and guai (crown) meaning "crowned river".

 Peru: This article is in need of attention. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ...

The exact meaning behind the word "Peru" remains obscure: the most popular theory derives it from the native word biru meaning "river" (compare with the River Biru in modern Ecuador). Another explanation claims that it comes from the name of the Indian chieftain Beru. Spanish explorers asked him the name of the land, but not understanding their language, he assumed they wanted his own name, which he gave them. Another possibility explanation traces the name to pelu, presumptively an old native name of the region.

 Philippines: Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ...

"Lands of King Philip" (Philip II of Spain, reigned 1556 - 1598) - the "-ines" part at the end of the name functions adjectivally. A recent and very romantic descriptive name, "Pearl of the Orient Seas" derives from the poem, "Mi Ultimo Adios" written by Philippine nationalist hero José Rizal. Other names include Katagalugan (used by the Katipunan when referring to the Philippines and means "land of/by the river", though this name is more used to refer to the Tagalog areas) and Maharlika (from the name of the upper class in pre-Hispanic Philippines, meaning "noble").

 Pitcairn Islands (overseas territory of the United Kingdom): Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the... ... For places, institutions and objects named after this person, see Rizal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Philippine revolutionary organization. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Pitcairn_Islands. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ...

A member of the English Captain Philip Carteret's crew in his boat HMS Swallow first sighted the remote islands in July 1767. Carteret named the main island "Pitcairn's Island" after the man who first saw land: the son of Major Pitcairn of the Marines.

 Poland: Philip Carteret (1733 - 1796) was a British naval officer and explorer who participated in the Royal Navys circumnavigation expedition of 1766. ... Year 1767 (MDCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ...

"Land of Polans", the territory of the tribe of Polans (Polanie). When the Polans formed a united Poland in the 10th century, this name also came into use for the whole Polish state. The name "Poland" (Polska) expressed both meanings, until, in the 13th/14th century, the original territory of the Polans became known as Greater Poland (Wielkopolska), instead. The name of the tribe comes probably from Polish pole ("field", "open field").
  • Lengyelország (Hungarian), Lenkija (Lithuanian), Lahestân (Persian) all derive from the Old Ruthenian or Old Polish ethnonym lęděnin ("man ploughing virgin soil"?) and its augmentative lęch.

 Portugal: Poland 960-992 Polans (also Polanes, Polanians, or Polians; Polish: Polanie) were a West Slavic tribe inhabiting the Warta river basin in the 8th century. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ...

From medieval Romance Portucale, from Latin portus, "port" and Cale, the name of the Roman port of Cale (modern Porto). The origin of the name Cale is debated. It may have been related to the Gallaeci, a Celtic people who lived north of the Douro River in pre-Roman times.
  • Lusitania (ancient predecessor and literary variant): after the Lusitanians, probably of Celtic origin, as Lus and Tanus, "tribe of Lusus".

 Puerto Rico (territory of the United States of America) with commonwealth status): Oporto redirects here. ... Gallaecia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, 120 AD Lusitania was an ancient Roman province approximately including current Portugal, except for the area between the rivers Douro and Minho (part of Hispania Tarraconensis), and part of modern day western Spain, the present autonomous communities of Extremadura... The Lusitanians (or Lusitani in Latin) were a tribe, or various tribes, from the western Iberian peninsula (province of Lusitania), who spoke a Lusitanian language until the conquest of their territory by the Romans. ... This article is about the European people. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Puerto_Rico. ...

Christopher Columbus named the island "San Juan Bautista" in honour of Saint John in 1493. The Spanish authorities set up a capital city called Puerto Rico (meaning "rich port"). For still unknown reasons the island and capital city had exchanged names by the 1520s.

Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ...

Q

 Qatar: Image File history File links Flag_of_Qatar. ...

Derives from "Qatara", believed to refer to the Qatari town of Zubara, an important trading port and town in the region in ancient times. The word "Qatara" first appeared on Ptolemy's map of the Arab world. In the early 20th century English-speakers often used to pronounce Qatar as "Cutter", which closely resembles the local pronunciation used in Qatar. However, the traditional English pronunciation ("Kuh-tahr") has prevailed.

An important trading port and town on Qatars west coast. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...

R

 Réunion (territory of France): Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

The island changed names often in the past, but the name "Réunion" (recombination) became associated with the island in 1793 by a decree of the French Convention. The name commemorates the union of revolutionaries from Marseille with the French National Guard in Paris, which took place on August 10, 1792.

 Romania: (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Saint-Denis Regional President Paul Vergès (PCR) (since 1998) Departments Réunion Arrondissements 4 Cantons 49 Communes 24 Statistics Land area1 2,512 km² Population (Ranked 21st)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... This article is about the legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M... During the early years of the French Revolution, the National Guard (fr:Garde Nationale) was a military force separate from the regular army. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ...

"Roman Realm". The Roman Empire conquered a large part of the territory of the country, and the inhabitants became Romanized (Romanians). Older variants of the name include "Rumania" and (in a French-influenced spelling) "Roumania".
  • Dacia, older name and Latin variant: named after the ancient people the Dacians.
  • Wallachia, Slavic name for the country, from the Gothic word for Celts (walh), later also used for the Romanized tribes. This Germanic form derives from the name of the Celtic tribe of Volcae. Compare with the etymologies of the names "Wales" and "Wallonia".
See also: Etymology of Romania

 Russia: For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Dacian kingdom during the reign of Burebista, 82 BC The Dacians (Lat. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), is widely used to refer to the members of any of the peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages or descended from those who did. ... The Volcae in the 2nd century BC were a large and powerful Celtic nation of Gallia Transalpina, comprised of two branches, the Volcae Arecomici and the Volcae Tectosages. ... This article is about the country. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... Romanians are a people living in Central and South-Eastern Europe speaking a Romance language. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ...

From a Varangian group known as the Rus' and from the state of Kievan Rus' they co-founded. (Soviet scholars disliked attributing the foundation of the Old East Slavic state to Scandinavian dynasts rather than to Slavic cultural groups, and therefore often insisted that the term "Rossija" derived from the name of the river Ros near Kiev.)
  • An Rúis — (Irish name) means, literally, "The Rus", though using a singular definite article (an) rather than the plural form na which would be grammatical. Use of an to denote a country is standard in Irish.
  • Krievija (Latvian) : named after the ancient Krivichs tribe, related to modern Belarusians.
  • Vene, Venemaa (Estonian), Venäjä (Finnish): after the ancient people Venedes.
See also Etymology of Rus and derivatives and "Ruotsi" under Sweden (below) for details.

 Rwanda: The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Rus’ (????, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular (but by no means only) theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly with Scandinavian roots. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Ros (Ukrainian and Russian: Рось, Ros) is a river in Ukraine, a right tributary of the Dnieper. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Kriwi  album cover The Krivichs (Кривичи́ in Russian, Крывічы́ in Belarusian or Krivichi), a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries, which inhabited the upper reaches of the Volga, Dnieper, Western Dvina, the southern part of the Lake Peipus and parts of the Neman basin. ... The Baltic Veneti (alternatively also called the Vistula Veneti) were an ancient Indo-European people living in contemporary Poland, along the rivers of Oder and the Vistula. ... Originally Rus (Русь, Rus’) was a medieval country and state that comprised mostly Early East Slavs. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Rwanda. ...

From the name of the people Vanyaruanda, a word of unknown origin, but obviously cognate to the name of Rwanda. Also known fondly as "Land of a Thousand Hills" (Pays des milles collines).

another name for Rwanda, because of its hilly topography. ...

S

 Saint Helena (territory of the United Kingdom): Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Helena. ...

The Portuguese navigator João da Nova discovered the island on 21 May 1502 (Saint Helena's Day) and named it after Helena of Constantinople (mother of the Roman emperor Constantine).

 Saint Kitts and Nevis: is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flavia Iulia Helena, also known as Saint Helena, Saint Helen, Helena Augusta or Helena of Constantinople (ca. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis. ...

St. Kitts took its name in honour of Saint Christopher, the patron saint of travelling. Christopher Columbus probably named the island for Saint Christopher, though this remains uncertain. British sailors later shortened the name to St. Kitts. Nevis derives from the Spanish phrase "Nuestra Senora de las Nieves", which means "Our Lady of the Snows", after the permanent halo of white clouds that surrounded mountains on the island.

 Saint Lucia: Saint Kitts (also/previously known as Saint Christopher) is an island in the Caribbean. ... For other uses, see Saint Christopher (disambiguation). ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... For other uses, see Nevis (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Lucia. ...

According to tradition, named after Saint Lucy by French sailors shipwrecked on the island on 13 December 1502 – the feast day of Saint Lucy.

 Saint Pierre and Miquelon (territory of France): Saint Lucy of Syracuse, also known as Saint Lucia, Santa Lucia, or Saint Lukia, (traditional dates 283-304) was a rich young Christian martyr who is venerated as a Saint by Catholic and Orthodox Christians. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Lucy of Syracuse, also known as Saint Lucia, Santa Lucia, or Saint Lukia, (traditional dates 283-304) was a rich young Christian martyr who is venerated as a Saint by Catholic and Orthodox Christians. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Originally named the 'Eleven Thousand Virgins' by Portuguese explorer João Álvares Fagundes in 1521. The French called the islands the 'Islands of Saint-Pierre'. Miquelon comes from the Basque language and means "Michael" (maybe after Saint Michael). In 1579 Martin de Hoyarçabal's navigational pilot published the names Micquetõ and Micquellefor the first time. The name evolved over time into Miclon, Micklon, and finally Miquelon.

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Ursula (small female bear in Latin) is a Christian saint. ... João Álvares Fagundes, an explorer and ship owner from Viana do Castelo in Northern Portugal, near Galicia, organized several expeditions to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia around 1520-1521. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... “St Peter” redirects here. ... Map of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Miquelon is a town and an island, part of the Saint-Pierre and Miquelon archipelago. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Santa Maria della Concezione, Rome) tramples Satan. ... Events January 6 - The Union of Atrecht united the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines. ...

Named after the Spanish Saint Vincent by Christopher Columbus on 22 January 1498, the day of the Feast of Saint Vincent. The Grenadines, like Grenada, take their name from the southern Spanish city of Granada.

 Samoa: Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Grenadines are a Caribbean island chain of over 600 islands in the Windward Islands. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Samoa. ...

The islands allegedly derive their name from that of a local chieftain, or from an indigenous word meaning "place of the moa". The moa, a large bird now extinct, may have served as the islanders' totem.

 San Marino: Genera Anomalopteryx (bush moa) Euryapteryx Megalapteryx (upland moa) Dinornis (giant moa) Emeus Pachyornis Moa were giant flightless birds native to New Zealand. ... A totem is any entity which watches over or assists a group of people, such as a family, clan or tribe (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary [1] and Websters New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_San_Marino. ...

Takes its name from Marinus, a (possibly legendary) Christian stonemason who fled the island of Arbe (in modern day Croatia) to escape the anti-Christian Romans. He made his refuge on Mount Titano with his Christian followers in 301/305 in the area that acquired the Italian name San Marino (Saint Marinus).

 São Tomé and Príncipe: Saint Marinus was the founder of one of the worlds oldest surviving republics, San Marino, in 301. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The art and craft of the stonemason has existed since the dawn of civilization - creating buildings, structures and sculpture using stone and other raw materials from the earth. ... You might also be looking for the G-protein rab. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Monte Titano amd three fortresses on top of it can be seen from many kilometers away Monte Titano is the highest peak in San Marino, in the Appenines. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Events September 3 - The republic of San Marino is established (traditional date). ... Events May 1 - Diocletian and Maximian, emperors of Rome, retire from office. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sao_Tome_and_Principe. ...

Portuguese for: Saint Thomas and Prince (islands). Portuguese explorers discovered the islands on St. Thomas's Day.

 Saudi Arabia: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jude Thomas. ... For additional context, see History of Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ...

"Saudi" after the House of Saud, the royal family who founded the kingdom and who still rule it. The dynasty takes its name from its ancestor, "Sa`ûd", whose name in Arabic means "a group of stars/planets". The etymology of the term "Arab" or "Arabian" links closely with that of the place-name "Arabia". The root of the word has many meanings in Semitic languages, including "west / sunset", "desert", "mingle", "merchant", "raven" and "comprehensible", all of which appear to have some relevance to the emergence of the name. Remarkably, in Ancient Egyptian the area was already known as "Ar Rabi".

 Scotland (constituent country of the United Kingdom): The House of Saud ( transliteration: ) is the royal family of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... Constituent countries is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping, concerning these countries; thus the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has used the phrase in reference to the parts of former Yugoslavia...

Main article: Etymology of Scotland
Land of the Scots, from Old English Scottas, "inhabitants of Ireland." Old English borrowed the word from late Latin Scotti, of unknown origin. It may possibly have come from an Irish term of scorn, scuit. After the departure of the Romans from Britain in 423, an Irish tribe invaded Scotland, and the name came with them. It later extended to other Irish who settled in the northern regions of Britain.
  • Alba (Gaelic name): The Scots- and Irish-Gaelic name for Scotland derives from the same Celtic root as the name Albion, which designates sometimes the entire island of Great Britain and sometimes the country of England, Scotland's southern neighbour. The term arguably derives from an early Indo-European word meaning 'white', generally held to refer to the cliffs of white chalk around the English town of Dover, ironically located at the furthest end of Great Britain from Scotland itself. Others take it to come from the same root as "the Alps", possibly being an ancient word for mountain.
  • Caledonia, an old Latin name for Scotland, deriving from the Caledonii tribe. Caledonia in Greek also means "good waters".

 Senegal: The founders of Scotland of late medieval legend, Scota with Goídel Glas, voyaging from Egypt, as depicted in a 15th century manuscript of the Scotichronicon of Walter Bower. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about a name for Scotland. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... This article is about the country. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... This article is about the archaic name for Great Britain. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Needles, situated on the Isle Of Wight, are part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation. ... , Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Roman Empire to a northern area of the island of Great Britain. ... The Caledonian Confederacy is a name given by historians to a group of disparate tribes inhabiting the Scottish Highlands at the time of the Roman occupation of Britain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Senegal. ...

After a Portuguese variant of the name of the Berber Zenaga (Arabic Senhaja) tribe, which dominated much of the area to the north of modern Senegal, i.e. present-day Mauritania.
  • Daradia (Latin variant): -?-

 Serbia Afro-Asiatic - Berber - Zenaga Zenaga is a Berber language spoken by some 200 to 300 people between Mederdra and the Atlantic coast in southern Mauritania. ... The Sanhaja were one of the largest Berber tribal confederations of the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and Masmuda History The tribes of the Sanhaja settled at first in the northern Sahara. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...

Exact origin of the name is uncertain (see name of Serbs). The name of the Sorbs in present-day Germany has the same origin.

 Seychelles: Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Seychelles. ...

Named after Jean Moreau de Séchelles, Finance Minister to King Louis XV of France from 1754 to 1756.

 Sierra Leone: Jean Moreau de Séchelles (May 10, 1690 - December 31, 1761) was a French official and politician. ... The finance minister is a cabinet position in a government. ... Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sierra_Leone. ...

Adapted from the Spanish version: Sierra León - of the Portuguese Serra Leoa "Lion Mountains". The Portuguese explorer Pedro de Sintra named the country after the striking mountains that he saw in 1462 while sailing the West African coast. It remains unclear what exactly made the mountains look like lions. Three main explanations exist: that the mountains resembled the teeth of a lion, that they looked like sleeping lions, or that thunder which broke out around the mountains sounded like a lion's roar.
  • Deorum Currus (Latin variant): -?-

 Singapore: World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ...

Singapura (in Malay) derives from Sanskrit Simhapura (or Singhapura) which means "Lion City". Earlier the island was known as Temasik from Malay or Javanese root tasik meaning lake. Singapore is the anglicized form of the Malay name which is still in use today along with variants in Chinese and Tamil, the 4 official languages of Singapore.

 Slovakia: Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Javanese is a term used to describe a native of the Indonesian island of Java. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ...

From the Slavic "Slavs". The origin of the word Slav itself remains controversial.
See also: origin of the term Slav

 Slovenia:  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ...

From the Slavic "Slavs". The origin of the word Slav itself remains controversial.
See also: origin of the term Slav

 Solomon Islands:  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Solomon_Islands. ...

The Spanish explorer Alvaro de Mendaña y Neyra named the islands in 1567/8. Expecting to find a lot of gold there, he named them after the Biblical King Solomon of Israel, renowned for his great wisdom, wealth, and power.

 Somalia: Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira or Neyra (1541 - November 1595) was a Spanish navigator. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Somalia. ...

Takes its name from the Somalis, its indigenous people. The eytmology of their name remains uncertain, but various sources have proposed the following:
  • From a Cushitic word meaning "dark," or "black," a reference to the color of their own skin.
  • From a local phrase soo maal which means "go and milk," implying a friendly people who offered milk to their guests.
  • From the name of an ancient and mythical figure-patriarch, whom almost all Somalis directly link to, known Samaale.

 South Africa: Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ...

Takes its name from its geographical location on the continent of Africa.
  • Suid-Afrika (Afrikaans): "South[ern] Africa"
  • Aifric Theas (Irish): "Southern Africa"
  • Azania (alternative name): some opponents of the white-minority rule of the country used the name Azania in place of "South Africa" . The origin of this name remains uncertain, but the name has referred to various parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, two suggestions for the origin of the word have emerged. The first cites the Arabic `ajam ("foreigner, non-Arab"). The second references the Greek verb azainein ("to dry, parch"), which fits the identification of Azania with arid sub-Saharan Africa.
See also Africa on the Placename etymology page.

 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (territory of the United Kingdom): A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Republic of South Africa (listen) is a republic at the southern tip of the African continent. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ern is: An alternate spelling of Erne, another name for the White-tailed Eagle An Enochian cacodemon Category: ... Azania is the name that has been applied to various parts of sub-Saharan Africa. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... // The ancient Romans used the name Africa terra --- land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) --- for the northern part of the continent, corresponding to modern-day Tunisia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Georgia_and_the_South_Sandwich_Islands. ... Motto Leo Terram Propriam Protegat(Latin) Let the Lion protect his own land or May the Lion protect his own land Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Grytviken (King Edward Point) Official languages English Government British overseas territory  -  Head of State Queen Elizabeth II  -  Commissioner Alan Huckle Area  -  Total 3...

On 17 January 1775 the British Captain James Cook landed on the main island and named it the "Isle of Georgia" in honour of King George III of the United Kingdom. He named the South Sandwich Islands after John Montagu, the 4th Earl of Sandwich, who served as the First Lord of the Admiralty at the time and who had helped fund Cook's explorations.

 South Korea: is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the British explorer. ... “George III” redirects here. ... John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, 1783, by Sir Thomas Gainsborough For other persons of the same name, see John Montagu. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ...

After the location in Korea.
See also Korea above

 Soviet Union: This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ...

Shortening of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The word soviet (Russian: совет), a Russian abstract noun, means 'advice', 'counsel', or 'council', and comes from Slavic roots connoting "shared or common" and "knowledge".
  • Whereas most languages, like English, has adopted the Russian loanword soviet as the national denominator of the Soviet Union. Examples are اتحاد سوفييتي, Itihad sofieti (Arabic), Union soviétique (French), Szovjetunió (Hungarian), Unión Soviética (Spanish) and Umoja wa Kisovyeti (Swahili). However, in some languages the term 'soviet', literally meaning 'council', was translated into a corresponding term. Examples are Nõukogude Liit (Estonian), Neuvostoliitto (Finnish), Padomju Savienība (Latvian), Tarybų Sąjunga (Lithuanian) and Союз Радянських (Ukrainian, see rada). In Polish, both Związek Radziecki as well as Związek Sowiecki has been used. In Persian the name is اتحاد شوروی, itehad shuravi (in Tajik 'Иттиҳоди Шӯравӣ'), shuravi stemming from the Arabic word shura.

 Spain: Soviet redirects here. ... A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... Look up advice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up counsel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see Kiswahili for a discussion of the nomenclature) is an agglutinative Bantu language widely spoken in East Africa. ... Rada is the term for council or assembly borrowed by Polish from Middle High German Rat (council) and later passed into Czech, Ukrainian, and Belarusian languages. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Shura is an Arabic word for consultation. It is believed to be the method by which pre-Islamic Arabian tribes selected leaders and made major decisions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ...

Phoenician/Punic אי שפנים ʾÎ-šəpānîm "isle of hyraxes". The Phoenician settlers found hares in abundance, and mistook them for hyraxes of Africa; thus they named the land in their Canaanite dialect. The Latin-speaking Romans adapted the name as Hispania. The Latin name was altered among the Romance languages, and entered English from Norman French Spagne.

 Sri Lanka: Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region then called PÅ«t in Ancient Egyptian, Canaan in Phoenician, Hebrew and Aramaic, and Phoenicia in Greek and Latin. ... Genera Procavia Heterohyrax Dendrohyrax A hyrax (from Greek shrewmouse; Afrikaans: klipdassie) is any of four species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... For other uses, see Hare (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Canaanite languages are a subfamily of the Semitic languages, spoken by the ancient peoples of the Canaan region, including Canaanites, Hebrews, Phoenicians, and eventually Philistines. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ...

"Resplendent Lanka" in Sanskrit, the name "Lanka" sometimes appears translated as "island" - "magnificent island".
  • Serendip (ancient name): derived from the Sanskrit "sharan-dweepa", meaning "island of salvation".
  • Ceylon (English), Ceilão (Portuguese), Seilan (former names): from the Pali Sinhalana meaning "land of the lions".

 Sudan: Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ...

From the Arabic Bilad as-Sudan, "Land of the blacks". Originally referred to most of the Sahel region.

 Suriname: This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Suriname. ...

After the Surinen people, the earliest known native American inhabitants of the region.

 Svalbard (territory of Norway): Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ...

Name from Norse roots meaning "cold edge".

 Swaziland: Image File history File links Flag_of_Swaziland. ...

Named after the Swazi people, the dominant ethnic group in the country. The word "Swazi" derives from Mswati I, a former king of Swaziland.

 Sweden: Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ...

An old English plural form of Swede. The exact development of the ethnonym remains uncertain, but it certainly derives from the Old English Sweoðeod, in Old Norse: Sviþjoð. The etymology of the first element, Svi, links to the PIE *suos (one's own, of one's own kin). The last element, þjoð, means "people", cognate with deut in Deutsch and teut in Teutons.
  • Sverige (native name): derives from the phrase Svia Rike, meaning "the realm of the Swedes". Rike has the same meaning as German reich, Norwegian rike, or Danish rige meaning realm/empire/kingdom. See Austria (Österreich), Germany (older name Deutsches Reich) and Norway (Norge.
  • An tSualainn (Irish name): means (literally) Swedeland and is formed from an ethnonym Sua, evidently derived from Svia (see above) and -lann, a common suffix denoting abstract nouns in Irish. The inclusion of an, the singular definite article, as well as the elipsis t is necessary for grammatical purposes.
  • Ruotsi (Finnish), Rootsi (Estonian), Rūotšmō (Livonian), Ruoŧŧa (Sami): probably from a Varangian people called the Rus', originating from Roslagen in Svealand. Scholars debate the meaning of rus, but it probably originates from the element roþs- ("relating to rowing") which has the same origin as row.
See also Etymology of Rus and derivatives and Russia above

 Switzerland: Old English redirects here. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Svitjod or SvíÞjóð, is an ancient name for Sweden. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Deutsch is: the German word for german a misspelling of the word Dutch, see Dutch (disambiguation) one of the three cognates of medieval Dietsch // A German family name Diana Deutsch, British-born, American cognitive psychologist Felix Deutsch, Helene Deutsch, Austrian-born American psychologist, Morton Deutsch Alexander Nikolaevich Deutsch, Russian astronomer... This entry is about the tribe of the Teutons. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Rus’ (????, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular (but by no means only) theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly with Scandinavian roots. ... Roslagen is the name of the coastal areas of Uplandia in Sweden, which also constitutes the northern part of the Stockholm Archipelago. ... Svealand Swedens historical four lands. ... Originally Rus (Русь, Rus’) was a medieval country and state that comprised mostly Early East Slavs. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ...

From the toponym Schwyz (see there) first attested AD 972 as Suittes derived from an Alemannic proper name Suito
  • Helvetia (ancient Latin name), after the Celtic Helvetii people

 Syria: The town of   (French: , Italian: ) is the capital of the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland. ... Alemannic German (Alemannisch) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. ... Helvetia on a 25 centime Swiss postage stamp, 1881 Helvetia is the Roman name for an ancient region of central Europe occupying a plateau between the Alps and the Jura Mountains. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... A map of Gaul showing the northern Alpine position of the Helvetii. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ...

From the ancient Greek name of the country, Συρία 'Syria'. probably related to the name of the ancient state of Assyria, although the original heartland of ancient Assyria actually lay in modern Iraq. Before the Greeks, the area of the modern state of Syria had the name Aram, after which the Aramaic language, a former lingua franca of the Middle East still spoken in a few villages there today, takes its name.

For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... The term Aram can refer to: Aram (אֲרָם or ), the son of Shem, according to the Table of nations of Genesis 10 in the Hebrew Bible. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

T

Taiwan (Republic of China): Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...

The Han characters used today mean "Terraced Bay" in Chinese (terraced rice fields typify the Taiwanese landscape). However, older characters (e.g. 台員) have entirely different meanings. Moreover, some scholars believe the characters serve merely as convenient phonetic vehicles for writing down an older Austronesian name. In the early 17th century, when the Dutch East India Company came to build a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia (today's Tainan), they allegedly adopted the name of an aboriginal tribe transliterated as "Tayouan" or "Teyowan" in their records. Chinese merchants (and, later, Chinese officials) also adopted this same name, although different transliteration into Han characters tended to obscure the real etymology by sound, and often evoked varying myths and imaginings. An old-fashioned story traced "Taiwan" to a Hokkien (Minnan) phrase (埋冤) with the same pronunciation, meaning "burying the unjustly dead," suggesting the riskiness of the sea journey to Taiwan. But this kind of story has given way to more persuasive evidence from ethnological and colonial sources.
  • Formosa (former name): Portuguese for beautiful, Presumably because of the beauty of the island.

 Tajikistan: Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... This article is about the trading company. ... Overview of Fort Zeelandia in Tainan, Taiwan/ painted around 1635/ 73 x 103 cm/ The Hague National Bureau of Archives, Netherlands Fort Zeelandia (Chinese: 熱蘭遮城; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was a fortress built over ten years from 1624–1634 by the Dutch Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, in the town of Anping (Tainan) on the... Tainan is the name of a city and a county in southwestern Taiwan. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Mǐn Nán (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name Bân-lâm-gú; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... This article is about the history, geography, and people of the island known as Taiwan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tajikistan. ...

Main article: Tajiks
"Tajikistan" or "Tojikiston" (alternative name) means "land of the Tajiks", with "Tajik" being an alternative name of the Persians. Tajikistan is the only country from all of Soviet Union Commonwealth which is persian speaking and its history goes back to Persian Empire.
The root word "Toj" is derived from Persian language meaning "crown". Because of the influence of Russians during the Soviet period, the root word "Toj" changed slightly and by the time the word became "tojik". Literally meaning of "Tajikistan" is "place where people have crowns."
Another possible root is the Tibetans call all Persians "Tag Dzig" (Pronounced "Tajik") but in Tibetan this also means "tiger-leopard"[citation needed]. This could explain why so many Tibetan legends about their western neighbours feature tiger/leopard combinations. The suffix -stan, from Persian, means "land".

 Tanzania: Tajiks are Central Asian Iranians or East-Iranians. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Leopard (disambiguation). ... The suffix -stan (spelled ـستان in the Perso-Arabic script) is Persian for place of, and -sthan (स्थान in the DevanāgarÄ« script) is a cognate Sanskrit suffix with the same meaning. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tanzania. ...

A combination of the names of two states that merged to form this country, Tanganyika, and Zanzibar. Tanganyika takes its name from the lake in the area, first visited by a European in 1858 in the person of Sir Richard Burton. Burton explained the meaning from local language as tou tanganyka meaning "to join", giving the sense "where waters met". In 1871, however, Henry Stanley said the word came from Tonga, "island" and hika, "flat". Both theories remain uncertain. — Zanzibar derives its name from the Zengi or Zengj, a local people whose own name means "black". This root joined to the Arabic barr, which means "coast" or "shore".

 Thailand: Flag of Deutsch-Ostafrika (1885-1919) Flag of Tanganyika (1919-1961) Flag of the Republic of Tanganyika 1962–64 Tanganyika is the name of an East African territory lying between the largest of the African great lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika, after which it was named. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070... For other persons named Richard Burton, see Richard Burton (disambiguation). ... See: Henry Stanley, 4th Earl of Derby (1531-1593) Henry Morton Stanley This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ...

According to the Wikipedia article on Thailand: "The word Thai (ไทย) is not, as commonly believed to be, derived from the word Thai (ไท) meaning "freedom" in the Thai language; it is, however, the name of an ethnic group from the central plains. With that in mind the locals seemed to have also accepted the alternative meaning and will verbally state that it means "Land of the free". This might be due to language barriers and the avoidance of long difficult explanations."
  • Siam (former name): The Thai people called their land by this name from the Sukhothai period. It became the name of the country from the reign of King Rama VI or King Chulalongkorn. The name was changed to Thailand in the reign of King Rama VII by the government of Siam at that time. The word "Siam" is probably derived from the Pāli toponym Suvarnabhuma "Land of Gold", the ultimate root being the Pāli root sama which variously denoted different shades of color, most often brown or yellow, but sometimes green or black.

 Togo: Sukhothai may mean the following: the historic Thai kingdom; see Sukhothai kingdom the province Sukhothai the historic city Sukhothai, now the Sukhothai historic park the city Sukhothai, sometimes called New Sukhothai This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Statue of His Majesty King Rama VI of Siam in Lumphini Park, central Bangkok Vajiravudh (January 1, 1880 - November 25, 1925) (also known as Rama VI, reigning title Phra Mongkut Klao Chaoyuhua) was King of Siam (now Thailand) from 1910 until his death. ... His Majesty King Rama V of Siam, with his son, later King Rama VI (portrait in National History Museum, Bangkok) King Chulalongkorn the Great or Rama V (royal name Phra Chula Chomklao Chaoyuhua) (September 20, 1853 - October 23, 1910) was the fifth king of the Chakri dynasty of Thailand. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Togo. ...

From the settlement Togo, currently Togoville. In Ewe, to means "water" and go, "shore".
  • French Togoland (former name): See Togo (above) and France (above).

 Tokelau (territory of New Zealand): Ewe (native name , the language) is a Kwa language spoken in Ghana and Togo by approximately three million people. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ...

From the Tokelauan "North" or "Northern", describing the islands' location relative to Samoa. The Tokelauan people traditionally originated as settlers from Samoa.

 Tonga: Image File history File links Flag_of_Tonga. ...

From the Tongan "South" or "southern", describing the islands' location relative to Samoa.
  • Friendly Islands (former name): named by Captain James Cook in 1773 after the friendliness and hospitality of the people he met on the islands.

 Trinidad and Tobago: The Kingdom of Tonga is an archipelago in the southern Pacific Ocean, about a third of the way between New Zealand and Hawaii. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago. ...

Christopher Columbus encountered the island of Trinidad on July 31, 1498 and named it after the Holy Trinity. Columbus reported seeing Tobago, which he named Bella Forma, but did not land on the island. The name Tobago probably derivesfrom the tobacco grown and smoked by the natives.
  • "Kairi" or "Iere" (old Amerindian name for Trinidad): Usually translated as The Land of the Hummingbird, although others have reported that it simply meant island.

Tromelin Island (territory of France): Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... For other uses, see Hummingbird (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

From the Chevalier de Tromelin, a French Royal Navy officer, captain of the French corvette La Dauphine, who visited the island in 1776 [2].

 Tunisia: The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ...

After its capital Tunis, whose name possibly derives from a Berber word signifying a small cape ([3] in French).

 Turkey: Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ...

The Turkish name Türkiye consists of two parts: Türk, which means strong in Turkish and usually refers to the inhabitants of Turkey or a member of Turkish nation; and the Arabic suffix iye which means owner or related to. The root appears commonly among early Altaic tribal ethnonyms, and also appears in the name of the modern inhabitants of Turkmenistan.
  • Rum (Р'ом, ڕۆم Kurdish variant): after the Sultanate of Rûm. When the Persians met the Byzantines, these called themselves Rhomaioi ("Romans"), which gave the name Rûm to the region where the Turks would settle.

 Turkmenistan: Look up Turk in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the beverage. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is the language spoken by Kurds. ... Sultanate controlling virtually all of Anatolia Capital Ä°znik Konya Political structure Empire Sultans  - 1060-1077 Kutalmish  - 1303-1308 Mesud II History  - Division from the Great Seljuk Empire 1077  - Internal struggles 1307 The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was the Seljuk Turkish sultanate that ruled in direct lineage from 1077 to 1307... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Rûm, also Roum or Rhum (in Arabic الرُّومُ ar-RÅ«m, Turkish Rum), is a very indefinite term used at different times in the Muslim world for Europeans generally and for the Byzantine Empire in particular, for the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in Asia Minor, and for Greeks inhabiting... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmenistan. ...

From Turkmen and -stan. -stan as a Persian suffix means "land". Thus: "land of the Turkmen people.
See also Turkey, above

 Turks and Caicos Islands (territory of the United Kingdom): The suffix -stan (spelled ـستان in the Perso-Arabic script) is Persian for place of, and -sthan (स्थान in the DevanāgarÄ« script) is a cognate Sanskrit suffix with the same meaning. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Turkmen (Türkmen or Түркмен, plural Türkmenler or Түркменлер) are a Turkic people found primarily in the Central Asian states of Turkmenistan and Afghanistan and in northeastern Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Turks_and_Caicos_Islands. ...

"Turks" after the indigenous Turk's Head "fez" cactus; and "Caicos" from the indigenous Lucayan term "caya hico", meaning "string of islands".

 Tuvalu: The Lucayan were those Arawak which inhabited the Bahamas at the time of Christopher Columbus landing. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tuvalu. ...

From the native "eight islands" or "eight standing with each other" (Tuvalu actually consists of nine isands in Tuvalu - only eight of them traditionally inhabited). An earlier name, Niulakita, the name of the first atoll settled in 1949, became suppressed.
  • Ellice Islands (former name): named after Edward Ellice, a British politician and merchant, by Captain Arent de Peyster, who sighted the islands in 1819 sailing on the ship Rebecca. Ellice owned the cargo of the ship. The Ellice Islands received the name Tuvalu following a vote for secession from the Gilbert Islands (now Kiribati) in 1975/1976.

Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tuvalu is an island nation located in the Pacific Ocean midway between Hawaii and Australia. ... There have been two British politicians named Edward Ellice: Edward Ellice (1783-1863) - merchant and politician, and a prime mover behind the Reform Bill of 1832, Edward Ellice (1810-1880) - son of the above, also a Whig politician. ...

U

 Uganda: Image File history File links Flag_of_Uganda. ...

From the Swahili version of "Buganda", the kingdom of the 52 clans of the Baganda people, the largest of the traditional kingdoms in present-day Uganda. British officials adopted the name Uganda in 1894.

 Ukraine: 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ...

From the Slavic words krai (kraj) and its derivative krajina, both originally meaning 'borderland', 'marches', or from a later, more generic use of the same word krajina or ukrajina in the meaning 'land', 'region', 'principality'. For details, see Name of Ukraine.

 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics:  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Krai (Russian: край; British English transliteration: kray), is a term used to refer to several of Russias 89 administrative regions (federal subjects). ... A kraj (plural: kraje) is the highest-level administrative unit in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and historically in Czechoslovakia. ... Krajina, meaning border, is a Slavic toponym which might mean: Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosanska Krajina, same, but around Banja Luka and encompassing a larger area Cazinska Krajina, borderland of Bosnia towards Croatia around the city of Cazin. ... Krajina, meaning border, is a Slavic toponym which might mean: Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosanska Krajina, same, but around Banja Luka and encompassing a larger area Cazinska Krajina, borderland of Bosnia towards Croatia around the city of Cazin. ... Anthem Ще не вмерла України ні слава, ні воля(Ukrainian) Shche ne vmerla Ukrayiny ni slava, ni volya(transliteration) Ukraines glory has not yet perished, nor her freedom Ukraine() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Kiev (Kyiv) Official languages Ukrainian Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Viktor Yushchenko  -  Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych Independence from the Soviet... The name Ukraine (Ukrainian: , ) has been used in a variety of ways since the twelfth century. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... CCCP redirects here. ...

Also called the Soviet Union for short. The word soviet (Russian: совет), a Russian abstract noun, mean 'advice', 'counsel', or 'council', but became an adjective denoting persons from the country.

 United Arab Emirates: Soviet redirects here. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... Look up advice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up counsel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates. ...

The etymology of the term "Arab" or "Arabian" links with that of the place name "Arabia". The root of the word has many meanings in Semitic languages, including "west / sunset", "desert", "mingle", "merchant", "raven" and "comprehensible", all of which appear to have some relevance to the emergence of the name. Emirate refers to a territory ruled by an emir.
  • Trucial States, Trucial Oman (former names): Before 1971 English-speakers knew the area as the "Trucial States" or "Trucial Oman", in reference of a nineteenth-century truce between the British and Arab sheikhs. It borders Oman and Saudi Arabia.

 United Kingdom: Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... National motto: none Official language Arabic Capital and largest city Abu Dhabi Area 75,150 km² (29,016 mi²) Population  - Total (2005)  - Density Ranked 136th 2,563,212 46/km² HDI (2003) 0. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ...

Shortened form of the full name: "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". Originally (from 1801) called "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland", referring to the union between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland. The name was officially changed to its present style in 1927 following the separation from the Union of the then Irish Free State (now the Republic of Ireland).
See also "Britain", "England", "Northern Ireland", "Scotland" and "Wales".

 United States of America: For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... This article is about the prior state. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

The term "United States" comes from the end of the Declaration of Independence: "We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in general congress, assembled...". The preamble to the U.S. Constitution reiterated the phrase: "We the People of the United States...". The authors of these two documents probably used the phrase "united states" in place of a list of colonies/states because they remained uncertain (at the time of drafting) which colonies/states would sign off on the sentiments therein. - The geographic term "America" specifies the states' home on the American continent, believed to derive from the Latinized version of the explorer Amerigo Vespucci's name, Americus Vespucius, in its feminine form, America. He chose the feminine to match the ending of all other known continents at the time; Asia, Africa, and (as known in Latin) Europa. Here is a list of U.S. state name etymologies, as well as lists of U.S. county name etymologies.

 Uruguay: U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is a document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ... Look up Preamble in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454 - February 22, 1512) was an Italian merchant, explorer and cartographer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... These are lists of U.S. county name etymologies. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ...

The name comes from the Uruguay River, (indeed its official name Republica Oriental del Uruguay — "oriental" meaning "east" — references its position east of the river). The word "Uruguay" itself may derive from the Guaraní words "urugua" ("shellfish") and "i" ("water"), meaning "river of shellfish". Another possible explanation holds that the name "Uruguay" divides into three component Guaraní words: "uru" (a kind of bird that lived near the river); "gua" ("to proceed from"); and "i" ("water").

 U.S. Virgin Islands (territory of the United States of America): Sunset in the Uruguay River Map of the Uruguay River The Uruguay River (in Spanish, Río Uruguay, pronounced ) is a river in South America. ... For other uses, see Guaraní (disambiguation). ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States_Virgin_Islands. ...

Christopher Columbus named the islands in 1493 after St. Ursula and her 11,000 virgins, as he gained the impression of a seemingly endless number of islands.
  • Danish West Indies (former name): after the former colonial ruler (Denmark).
See also United States of America above.

 Uzbekistan: Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... Ursula (small female bear in Latin) is a Christian saint. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ...

Comes from three words: "Uz", meaning "self" in Turkic; "Bek" meaning "master" in the Sogdian language, and "Stan" meaning "land" in Persian. Thus, "Uzbekistan" = "Land of the Self Masters."

Sogdiana, ca. ...

V

 Vanuatu: Image File history File links Flag_of_Vanuatu. ...

Derived from a phrase found in some of the languages of Vanuatu meaning "Our Land"

 Vatican City: The New Hebrides are an island group in the South Pacific that now form the nation of Vanuatu. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Vatican_City. ...

"Vatican" from the Latin vaticinari, "to prophesy", by way of the name of the hill "Mons Vaticanus" of which the Vatican City forms a part. Fortune-tellers and sooth-sayers used the streets beneath in Roman times.

 Venezuela: For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ...

Main article: Venezuela#Etymology
"Little Venice", from the diminutive form of "Venezia". The native stilt-houses built on Lake Maracaibo impressed the European explorers Alonso de Ojeda and Amerigo Vespucci and reminded them of buildings in Venice.

 Vietnam: For other uses, see Venezuela (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... A map showing the location of Lake Maracaibo. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Alonso de Ojeda (c. ... Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454 - February 22, 1512) was an Italian merchant, explorer and cartographer. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ...

(Cognate of the Chinese: 越南), "Beyond the southern border", as referred to by ancient Chinese, or "South Yue", after the Yue peoples of ancient southeast China.

Yue (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yüeh4; also seen as Yueh, Yuet, Việt) refers to ancient semi-Sinicized or non-Sinicized Chinese peoples of southern China, originally those along the eastern coastline of present-day Zhejiang province and Shanghai. ...

W

 Wake Island (territory of the United States of America): Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... An incorporated territory of the United States is a specific area under the jurisdiction of the United States, over which the United States Congress has determined that the United States Constitution is to be applied to the territorys local government and inhabitants in its entirety (e. ...

Named after the British Captain William Wake, who sighted the island in 1796 in his boat the Prince William Henry (though the Spanish explorer Mendaña may have sighted it 1568).

 Wales (constituent country of the United Kingdom): William Wake (1657-1737), English archbishop, was born in Blandford Forum, Dorset, on January 26 1657, and educated at Christ Church, Oxford. ... Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira or Neyra (1541 - November 1595) was a Spanish navigator. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_2. ... This article is about the country. ... Constituent countries is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping, concerning these countries; thus the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has used the phrase in reference to the parts of former Yugoslavia...

From Old English Waelisc, Walh, meaning "Celtic" or more generally "foreign" (Old English Waelisc also provides the source of English word Welsh). Anglo-Saxons used their version of an Old Teutonic term to apply to speakers of Celtic languages as well as to speakers of Latin. The same etymology applies to walnuts as well as to Cornwall in Britain and to Wallonia in Belgium. Old Church Slavonic also borrowed the term from the Germanic, and it served as the origin of the name of the Romanian region of Wallachia. Gaul or Gallia, as well as Gael and Gaelic share the same etymology, as G and W are often interchangeable between English and French (wasp/guêpe, ward/garde, etc.). In fact, the French word for Wales is "Pays de Galles", and Welsh is translated as "Gallois".

 Wallis and Futuna (territory of France): Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Look up Gaelic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

The "Wallis" comes from the English explorer Samuel Wallis, who sailed there in 1797.

 Western Sahara (claimed by Morocco and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic): Samuel Wallis (c. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Western_Sahara. ... Motto: حرية ديمقراطية وحدة (Arabic) Liberty, Democracy, Unity Anthem: Yābaniy Es-Saharā  listen This map indicates the territory claimed by the SADR, viz. ...

After its geographic position in the west of the Sahara desert. Sahara, is an English pronunciation of the word for desert in Arabic. The local nationalist group the Polisario Front have named their government in exile the "Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic" after its people, the Sahrawis (or Saharawis).
See also Spain above.

Arabic redirects here. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The Polisario, Polisario Front, or Frente Polisario, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro (Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and [[Río de Oro]]) is a Sahrawi rebel movement working for the separation... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ... “Sahraoui” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Spanish Sahara was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was ruled by Spain, created from the Spanish territories of Rio de Oro and La Aguera in 1924. ...

Y

 Yemen: Image File history File links Flag_of_Yemen. ...

From the Arabic root ymn, expressing the basic meaning of "right"; however, its exact meaning remains in dispute. Some sources claim it comes from the form yamîn, meaning "right-hand side" and by extension "south" (many Semitic languages, including Arabic and Hebrew, show traces of a system with south on the right and north on the left). Other sources claim that it originates from the form yumn, meaning "happiness" or "blessings" (arising from the widespread idea that right = good.) The name (to the classical world Arabia Felix - "fortunate Arabia") originally referred to the entire southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

 Yugoslavia (former name): Arabic redirects here. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabia redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...

From "Jugoslavija", which means "Land of the South Slavs" (South Slavic jug means in English south).

Z

 Zambia: Image File history File links Flag_of_Zambia. ...

After the River Zambezi, which flows through the east of the country and also forms the border with Zimbabwe.

 Zimbabwe: This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ... Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes, PC, DCL, (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British colony situated immediately to the north of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zimbabwe. ...

"Great House of Stone" or "Big House of Stone" in Shona, referring to the stone-built capital city of the ancient trading empire of Great Zimbabwe. The literally translates to "big house stone." The proper way of saying it when speaking Shona is "zimba re bwe." The "zi" part is used to describe something huge. The word "imba" means house in Shona and the word 'bwe' means stone. The plural form of the word 'imba' is 'dzimba,' and the plural form of the word 'bwe' is 'mabwe.'

ShonaThe word Shona is derived from the Ndebele word itshonalanga(where the sun set)(or ChiShona) is native language of Zimbabwe and southern Zambia; the term is also used to identify those Bantu-language speaking peoples in Southern Africa who speak one of the Shona languages(dialects) namely Zezuru,Karanga... Great Zimbabwe is the name given to the remains of stone, sometimes referred to as the Great Zimbabwe Ruins, of an ancient Southern African city, located at in present-day Zimbabwe which was once the centre of a vast empire known as the Munhumutapa Empire (also called Monomotapa or Mwene... Shona is the principle language of Zimbabwe, in southern Africa. ... Shona is the principle language of Zimbabwe, in southern Africa. ... Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British colony situated immediately to the north of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes, PC, DCL, (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Gweru (formerly Gwelo) is a city near the centre of Zimbabwe at . ... Gweru (formerly Gwelo) is a city near the centre of Zimbabwe at . ...

See also

This article provides a collection of the etymology of the names of subnational entities. ... This is a list of the etymologies of continent names. ... There are a number of places named after famous people. ... This is a list of etymological lists. ... Double placenames prominently feature the placenames of two or more constituent geopolitical entities. ... Toponymy is the taxonomic study of toponyms (place-names), their origins and their meanings. ... Etymologies redirects here. ...

References

  • Room, Adrian. Brewer's Names: People. Places. Things. Cassell, 1992. ISBN 0-304-34077-4
  • Room, Adrian. Placenames of the World, Origins and Meanings. McFarland and Company, Inc, Publishers, 1997. ISBN 0-7864-0172-9

Notes

  1. ^ Anguilla's History, Government of Anguilla website
  2. ^ http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/encounter/collection/B12985211_259_3.htm
  3. ^ http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/encounter/collection/B12985211_259_3.htm
  4. ^ Webster's third international dictionary; Merriam-Webster 1993, p.381
  5. ^ Curtis, Glenn E. (2004). Georgia a Country Study. Kessinger Publishing, 89. ISBN 1419121650. 
  6. ^ Nasmyth, Peter (2001). Georgia: In the Mountains of Poetry. Routledge, 9. ISBN 0700713956. 
  7. ^ Wilson, Nigel Guy (2006). Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. Routledge, 320. ISBN 0415973341. 
  8. ^ Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pg. 378 n. 10
  9. ^ http://www.singto.co.uk/History/History.htm

Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/List of country name etymologies (8238 words)
The name "Cambodia" derives from that of the ancient Khmer kingdom of Kambuja (Kambujadesa).
Named for Lake Chad (or Tchad) in the country's southwest.
According to Hesiod, the Macedonians were named for king Makedon, the founder of the kingdom, a son of Zeus and a grandson of Deucalion, the common ancestor of all Greeks.
Science Fair Projects - List of country name etymologies (10698 words)
It was named by the French in reference to the ivory that was present in the country.
Magyarország (native name - land of the Magyars): According to a Hungarian legend, the Hungarians descended from Magor, the son of Nimrod of the Hebrew Bible.
The legal name of the modern country remains currently a matter of dispute between the inhabitants of Greece (who claim the name "Macedonia" as their own cultural patrimony) and the Slavic inhabitants of the "Macedonian" republic (who claim the right to use such a term).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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