FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > List of countries with nuclear weapons
Nuclear weapons
One of the first nuclear bombs.
History of nuclear weapons
Nuclear warfare
Nuclear arms race
Weapon design / testing
Nuclear explosion
Delivery systems
Nuclear espionage
Proliferation
Countries
Nuclear weapons states

US · Russia · UK · France
China · India · Pakistan
Israel · North Korea The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... Mushroom cloud of a nuclear explosion. ... US and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2005. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... It has been suggested that Nuclear explosive be merged into this article or section. ... Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... Nuclear espionage is the purposeful giving of state secrets regarding nuclear weapons to other states without authorization (espionage). ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... The United States was the first country in the world to successfully develop nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them in war against another nation. ...

This is a list of countries with nuclear weapons. There are currently seven states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons. Five are considered to be "nuclear weapons states", an internationally recognized status conferred by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In order of acquisition of nuclear weapons these are: the United States of America, Russia (formerly the Soviet Union), the United Kingdom, France, and the People's Republic of China. Since the formulation of the NPT, two non-signatory states of the NPT have conducted nuclear tests: India and Pakistan. Israel is also strongly suspected to have an arsenal of nuclear weapons though it has never confirmed or denied this, and there have been reports that over 100 nuclear weapons might be in its inventory. This status is not formally recognised by international bodies; none of these three countries is currently a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. North Korea has publicly declared itself to possess nuclear weapons though it has not conducted any confirmed tests and its ultimate status is still unknown. Iran has been accused by Western nations of attempting to develop uranium enrichment technology for weapons purposes. As of February 4, 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency referred Iran to the United Nations Security Council in response to Western concerns on their possible nuclear programs. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, internally often referred to as The Agency) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...

Contents


Estimated worldwide nuclear stockpiles

The following is a list of nations that have admitted the possession of nuclear weapons, the approximate number of warheads under their control in 2002, and the year they tested their first weapon. This list is informally known in global politics as the "Nuclear Club". Note that with the exception of Russia and the United States (which have subjected their nuclear forces to independent verification under various treaties) these figures are estimates, in some cases quite unreliable estimates. Also, these figures represent total warheads possessed, rather than deployed. In particular, under the SORT treaty thousands of Russian and U.S. nuclear warheads are in inactive stockpiles awaiting processing. The radioactive fuel contained in the warheads can then be recycled for use in nuclear reactors that drive nuclear power plants and some military submarines and warships. One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... A warhead is an explosive device used in military conflicts, used to destroy enemy vehicles or buildings. ... The Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions (SORT), better known as the Moscow Treaty, is a 2002 treaty between Russia and the United States limiting their nuclear arsenal to 1700-2200 operationally deployed warheads each. ...


From a high of 65,000 active weapons in 1985, there were about 20,000 active nuclear weapons in the world in 2002. Many of the "decommissioned" weapons were simply stored or partially dismantled, not destroyed.[1]

World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. Red: Five "nuclear weapons states" from the NPT. Dark orange: Other known nuclear powers. Yellow: States suspected of having possession of, or suspected of being in the process of developing, nuclear weapons and/or nuclear programs. Purple: States which at one point had nuclear weapons and/or nuclear weapons research programs. Green: Other states capable of developing nuclear weapons within several years if the decision to do so were made.
World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. Red: Five "nuclear weapons states" from the NPT. Dark orange: Other known nuclear powers. Yellow: States suspected of having possession of, or suspected of being in the process of developing, nuclear weapons and/or nuclear programs. Purple: States which at one point had nuclear weapons and/or nuclear weapons research programs. Green: Other states capable of developing nuclear weapons within several years if the decision to do so were made.
Declared nuclear weapons states
Country Warheads active/total* Year of first test
United States United States 5,735/9,960[2] 1945 ("Trinity")
Russia Russia (formerly the Soviet Union) 5,830/16,000[3] 1949 ("RDS-1")
United Kingdom United Kingdom <200[4] 1952 ("Hurricane")
France France 350[5] 1960 ("Gerboise Bleue")
People's Republic of China 130[6] 1964 ("596")
India India 75-115[7] 1974 ("Smiling Buddha")
Pakistan Pakistan 65-90[8] 1998 ("Chagai-I")
North Korea North Korea 0-7[9] none[10]

*All numbers are estimates from the Natural Resources Defense Council, published in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, unless other references are given. If differences between active and total stockpile are known, they are given as two figures separated by a forward slash. If no specifics are known, only one figure is given. Stockpile number may not contain all intact warheads if a substantial amount of warheads are scheduled for but have not yet gone through dismantlement; not all "active" warheads are deployed at any given time. When a spread of weapons is given (e.g., 0-10), it generally indicates that the estimate is being made on the amount of fissile material which has likely been produced, and the amount of fissile material needed per warhead depends on estimates of a country's proficiency at nuclear weapon design. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 49 KB) Description World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 49 KB) Description World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... An early stage in the Trinity fireball, photographed by Berlyn Brixner. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... External links http://gawain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Operation Hurricane was the test of the first British atomic bomb. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... 596 is the codename of the Peoples Republic of Chinas first nuclear weapons test. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... The Smiling Buddha was the first test fission explosion by India on May 18, 1974. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a New York City-based, non-profit environmentalist advocacy group in the United States. ... The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is a journal concerned with global security issues, especially related to the dangers posed nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. ...


States that have tested a nuclear weapon

An early stage in the "Trinity" fireball, the first nuclear explosion.
An early stage in the "Trinity" fireball, the first nuclear explosion.
  • Soviet Union The USSR tested its first nuclear weapon ("Joe-1") in 1949, in a crash project developed partially with espionage obtained during and after World War II (see: Soviet atomic bomb project). The direct motivation for their weapons development was the development of a balance of power during the Cold War. It tested a primitive hydrogen bomb in 1953 ("Joe-4") and a megaton-range hydrogen bomb in 1955 ("RDS-37"). The Soviet Union also tested the most powerful explosive ever detonated by humans, ("Tsar Bomba"), which had a yield of 100 megatons, but was intentionally reduced to 50. After its dissolution in 1991, its weapons entered officially into the possession of Russia Russia.
  • United Kingdom The United Kingdom tested its first nuclear weapon ("Hurricane") in 1952, drawing largely on data gained while collaborating with the United States during the Manhattan Project. Its program was motivated to have an independent deterrence against the USSR, while also remaining relevant in Cold War Europe. It tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1957.
  • France France tested its first nuclear weapon in 1960, also as an independent deterrence and to retain perceived Cold War relevance (see: Force de frappe). It tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1968.
  • The People's Republic of China tested its first nuclear weapon in 1964, much to the surprise of Western intelligence agencies. It had long sought assistance in becoming a nuclear power from an uneasy USSR, but assistance stopped after the Sino-Soviet split and the weapon was developed as a deterrent against both the USA and the USSR. It tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1967 at Lop Nur. The country is currently thought to have had a stockpile of around 130 warheads, potentially less.[11]
Enlarge
An Indian Agni-II intermediate range ballistic missile displayed at the Republic Day Parade 2004. (Photo: Antônio Milena/ABr)
  • India India is not a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, but tested a "peaceful nuclear device", as it was described by Indian government, in 1974 ("Smiling Buddha"), the first test developed after the creation of the NPT, and created new questions about how civilian nuclear technology could be diverted secretly to weapons purposes (dual-use technology). It appears to have been primarily motivated as a deterrent against China. It tested weaponized nuclear warheads in 1998 ("Operation Shakti"), including a Hydrogen Bomb. In July 2005, it was officially recognized by the United States as a "responsible nuclear" state and agreed to full nuclear cooperation between the two nations. This is seen as an "official" entry into the nuclear club of the above nations.
  • Pakistan Pakistan is not a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Pakistan covertly developed its nuclear weapons over many decades, beginning in the late 1970s. It is contended that Pakistan began its nuclear development programs in response to India's nuclear device. It is unknown when Pakistan began its nuclear development projects, but by the 1980s it was suspected of having successfully developed nuclear warheads. However, this was to remain speculative until 1998 when Pakistan conducted its first nuclear tests at the Chagai Hills, a few days after India conducted its own tests.

Image File history File links The 1945 TRINITY nuclear explosion, early stage of the fireball. ... Image File history File links The 1945 TRINITY nuclear explosion, early stage of the fireball. ... An early stage in the Trinity fireball, photographed by Berlyn Brixner. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... An early stage in the Trinity fireball. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the development of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation at the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... The mushroom cloud from the Mike shot. ... A black and white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Joe One, the first Soviet atomic test. ... Andrei Sakharov (left) with Igor Kurchatov (right) The Soviet project to develop an atomic bomb began during World War II in the Soviet Union. ... The Cold War was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their military alliance partners. ... The first (not true) Soviet Hydrogen (Super) Test, dubbed Joe 4 Joe 4 was an American nickname for the first Soviet test of a hydrogen bomb and was on August 12, 1953. ... RDS-37 was a Soviet name for their first nuclear test of a true hydrogen bomb. ... Tsar Bomba casing on display at Arzamas-16 Site of detonation Tsar Bomba (Russian: , literally Tsar of bombs) is the Western name for the largest, most powerful nuclear explosive ever detonated. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Operation Hurricane was the test of the first British atomic bomb. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... The Redoutable, the first French nuclear missile submarine // a Pluton missile mobile launcher The Force de frappe (literally Striking Force; meant for dissuasion, i. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... Lop Nur (ear-shaped) from space, September 1992 Lop Nur (Lake Lop; alternately Lop Nor, Lo-pu po or Taitema Lake) is a group of small, now seasonal salt lakes and marshes between the Taklamakan and Kuruktag deserts in the southeastern portion of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in northwestern China... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2870x1854, 958 KB) An Indian Agni-II intermediate range ballistic missile on a road-mobile launcher, displayed at the Republic Day Parade on New Delhis Rajpath, January 26, 2004. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2870x1854, 958 KB) An Indian Agni-II intermediate range ballistic missile on a road-mobile launcher, displayed at the Republic Day Parade on New Delhis Rajpath, January 26, 2004. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... The Smiling Buddha was the first test fission explosion by India on May 18, 1974. ... Dual-use is a term often used in politics and diplomacy to refer to technology which can be used for both peaceful and military aims, usually in regard to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Operation Shakti refers to the second round of nuclear tests conducted by India on May 11 and May 13, 1998. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Chagai Hills are those hills which became well-known all over the world after Pakistans Nuclear Explosion, on 28th May 1998, in the era of Nawaz Sharif. ...

Suspected nuclear states

Countries believed to have at least one nuclear weapon, or programs with a realistic chance of producing a nuclear weapon in the near future:

On October 5, 1986, the British newspaper The Sunday Times ran Mordechai Vanunu's story on its front page under the headline: "Revealed — the secrets of Israel's nuclear arsenal."
Enlarge
On October 5, 1986, the British newspaper The Sunday Times ran Mordechai Vanunu's story on its front page under the headline: "Revealed — the secrets of Israel's nuclear arsenal."
  • Israel Israel - Israel is not a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and refuses to officially confirm or deny having a nuclear arsenal, or to having developed nuclear weapons, or even to having a nuclear weapons program. Although Israel claims that the Negev Nuclear Research Center near Dimona is a "research reactor," no scientific reports based on work done there have ever been published. Extensive information about the program in Dimona was also disclosed by technician Mordechai Vanunu in 1986. Imagery analysts can identify weapon bunkers, mobile missile launchers, and launch sites in satellite photographs. It is believed to possess nuclear weapons by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Israel may have tested a nuclear weapon along with South Africa in 1979 (see Vela Incident). According to the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Federation of American Scientists, they may possess 300-400 weapons, a figure which would put them above the median in the declared list.[12]
  • North Korea North Korea - On January 10, 2003 North Korea withdrew from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. In February 2005 they claimed to possess functional nuclear weapons, though their lack of a test has led many experts to question whether or not they have a working weapon.

from Hebrew Wikipedia This work is copyrighted. ... from Hebrew Wikipedia This work is copyrighted. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in Leap years). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sunday Times is the name of several Sunday newspapers. ... Mordechai Vanunu in the garden of St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Institute 2, Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Dimona, photographed by Mordechai Vanunu The Negev Nuclear Research Center is an israeli nuclear installation located in the Negev desert, near the city of Dimona. ... Dimona is an Israeli city in the Negev desert, 36 kilometers to the south of Beer-Sheva and 35 kilometers west of the Dead Sea in the Southern District of Israel. ... Mordechai Vanunu in the garden of St. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, internally often referred to as The Agency) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ... Orthographic projection centered on the Prince Edward Islands, the location of the Vela incident For the covert CIA assassination program during the Vietnam War sometimes known as Operation Phoenix, see Phoenix Program The Vela Incident (sometimes known as the South Atlantic Flash) was the possible detection of a nuclear weapon... The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a New York City-based, non-profit environmentalist advocacy group in the United States. ... The Federation of American Scientists is a non-profit organization dedicated to the proper use of science and technology for the benefit of mankind. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...

States suspected of having clandestine nuclear programs

The question of whether individual states without nuclear weapons are trying to develop them is often a controversial one. Accusations of clandestine nuclear programs are often vehemently denied, and may be politically motivated themselves, or simply erroneous. Below are countries who have been accused by a number of governments and intergovernmental agencies as currently attempting to develop nuclear weapons technology who are not suspected as yet having developed it.

At the Uraniums Conversion Facility in Isfahan, Iran, yellowcake is converted into uranium hexafluoride as part of Iran's nuclear fuel cycle, which has been alleged to be part of a clandestine attempt to develop nuclear weapons.
At the Uraniums Conversion Facility in Isfahan, Iran, yellowcake is converted into uranium hexafluoride as part of Iran's nuclear fuel cycle, which has been alleged to be part of a clandestine attempt to develop nuclear weapons.
  • Iran Iran - Iran signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and says its interest in nuclear technology, including enrichment, was for civilian purposes only (a right guaranteed under the treaty), but the United States of America's CIA and some other western countries suspect that this may be a cover for a nuclear weapons program, claiming that Iran has little need to develop nuclear power domestically and that it has consistently chosen nuclear options which were dual-use technology rather than those which could only be used for power generation.[13] However, some suspect that these accusations are in preparation for an American invasion of Iran[citation needed]. The Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi stated on the intentions of his country's nuclear ambitions: "Iran will develop nuclear power abilities and these have to be recognized by the treaties."[14] As of February 4, 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency referred Iran to the United Nations Security Council in response to Western concerns on their possible nuclear programs. On April 11, 2006, Iran's president announced that the country had successfully enriched uranium to reactor-grade levels for the first time. On April 22, 2006, Iran's envoy to the U.N. nuclear watchdog agency stated the Islamic republic had reached a "basic deal" with the Kremlin to form a joint uranium enrichment venture on Russian territory.[15]

Isfahans Uranium Conversion Facility, Iran. ... Isfahans Uranium Conversion Facility, Iran. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Powdered yellowcake in a drum Yellowcake (also known as urania and uranic oxide) is concentrated uranium oxide, obtained through the milling of uranium ore. ... Uranium hexafluoride, or UF6, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Dual-use is a term often used in politics and diplomacy to refer to technology which can be used for both peaceful and military aims, usually in regard to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. ... Kamal Kharrazi (Persian: کمال خرازی) (born December 1, 1944 in Tehran), is the Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs, serving since August 20, 1997. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, internally often referred to as The Agency) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ... The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations (UN). ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

States formerly possessing nuclear weapons

Nuclear weapons have been present in many nations, often as staging grounds under control of other powers. However, in only a few instances have nations given up nuclear weapons after being in control of them; in most cases this has been because of special political circumstances. The fall of the USSR, for example, left several former Soviet-bloc countries in possession of nuclear weapons.

  • Ukraine Ukraine - signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Ukraine inherited about 5,000 nuclear weapons when it became independent from the USSR in 1991, making its nuclear arsenal the third-largest in the world.[16] By 1996, Ukraine had voluntarily disposed of all nuclear weapons within its territory, transferring them to Russia.[17]
  • Belarus Belarus – Belarus had 81 single warhead missiles stationed in their territory after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. They were all returned to Russia by 1996. Belarus signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[18]
  • Kazakhstan Kazakhstan – Kazakhstan inherited 1,400 nuclear weapons from the Soviet Union, and returned them all to Russia by 1995. They have signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[19]
  • South Africa South Africa – South Africa produced six nuclear weapons in the 1980s, but disassembled them in the early 1990s, and thus is the only nation known to have willingly given up nuclear status after developing their own weapons. South Africa possibly tested a low-yield device in 1979, perhaps with Israel, over the southern oceans in the Vela Incident. They have signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[20]

Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Orthographic projection centered on the Prince Edward Islands, the location of the Vela incident For the covert CIA assassination program during the Vietnam War sometimes known as Operation Phoenix, see Phoenix Program The Vela Incident (sometimes known as the South Atlantic Flash) was the possible detection of a nuclear weapon...

States formerly possessing nuclear programs

These are nations known to have initiated serious nuclear weapons programs, with varying degrees of success. All of them are now regarded as currently no longer actively developing, or possessing, nuclear arms. All of the listed countries (or their descendants) signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...

  • Argentina Argentina – Argentina created its National Atomic Agency in 1950 for developing and controlling nuclear energy for peaceful purposes in the country but conducted a nuclear weapon research program under military rule of 1978, at a time when it had signed, but not ratified, the Treaty of Tlatelolco. This program was abandoned after democratisation in 1983. [21]. However, unofficial reports and U.S. intelligence postulate that Argentina continued some kind of nuclear weapons program during the 1980s (as an attempt to build a nuclear submarine), mainly because of rivalry with Brazil [22] but the program was cancelled. In the early 1990s, Argentina and Brazil established a bilateral inspection agency to verify both countries' pledges to use nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes and on February 10, 1995, Argentina acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
  • Australia Australia – Following World War II, Australian defence policy initiated joint nuclear weapons development with the United Kingdom. Australia provided uranium, land for weapons and rocket tests, and scientific and engineering expertise. Canberra was also heavily involved in the Blue Streak ballistic missile program. In 1955, a contract was signed with a British company to build the Hi-Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR). HIFAR was considered the first step toward the construction of larger reactors capable of producing substantial volumes of plutonium for nuclear weapons. However, Australia's nuclear ambitions were abandoned by the 1960s, and the country signed the NPT in 1970 (ratified in 1973). [23]
  • Brazil Brazil – Military régime conducted a nuclear weapon research program (code-named "Solimões") to acquire nuclear weapons in 1978, in spite of having ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1968. When an elected government came in to power in 1985, though, the program was ended.[24] On July 13, 1998 President Fernando Henrique Cardoso signed and ratified both the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), denying that Brazil had developed nuclear weapons.[25]
  • Egypt Egypt – Had a nuclear weapon research program from 1954 to 1967. Egypt has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. [26]
  • Nazi Germany Nazi Germany – During World War II, Germany, under Nazi rule, researched possibilities to develop a nuclear weapon; however, adequate resources were not invested into the effort, and the project was found to be many years from completion by the end of the war. The research site also was sabotaged by British spies and Norwegian partisans, which slowed down their research (see Norwegian heavy water sabotage). Historian Rainer Karlsch, in his 2005 book Hitlers Bombe, has suggested that the Nazis may have tested some sort of "atom bomb" in Thuringia in the last year of the war; it may have been a radiological weapon (rather than a fission weapon), though little reliable evidence of this has surfaced. (See: German nuclear energy project).
  • Germany Germany - Germany is now a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Although it has an advanced science and technology infrastructure and would be capable of creating a nuclear weapons program (and could probably be considered a "nuclear capable" state), the government has decided to decrease even the civil use of nuclear energy.
  • Iraq Iraq – Iraq has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. They had a nuclear weapon research program during the 1970s and 1980s. In 1981, Israel destroyed Iraqi nuclear reactor Osiraq. In 1996, the UN's Hans Blix reported that Iraq had dismantled or destroyed all of their nuclear capabilities. In 2003, the United States of America invaded Iraq, based on internationally unianimous (with the execption of UN inspectors) reports that they possessed weapons prohitited to them by the UN, which they did not, that likely included some form of nuclear program, which they apparrently didn't. However, in 2004 the Duelfer Report concluded Iraq's nuclear program was terminated in 1991.[27]
  • Imperial Japan – Japan conducted research into nuclear weapons during World War II though made little headway.[28] (see Japanese atomic program). Japan signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. While Japan has the technological capabilities to develop nuclear weapons in a short time there is no evidence they are doing so. Japan's constitution forbids it from producing nuclear weapons and the country has been active in promoting non-proliferation treaties. There exists some suspicion that nuclear weapons may be located in US bases in Japan.[29]
  • Libya Libya – Signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. On December 19, 2003, in response to the American-led invasion of Iraq, Libya admitted to posessing a nuclear weapon program and simultaneously announced its intention to end it and dismantle all existing weapons of mass destruction to be verified by unconditional inspections.[30]
  • Poland Poland – Nuclear research began in Poland in the early 1960s, with the first controlled nuclear fission reaction being achieved in late 1960s. During the 1970s further research resulted in the generation of fusion neutrons through convergent shockwaves. In the 1980s research focused on the development of micro-nuclear reactions, and was under military control. Currently Poland operates the MARIA nuclear research reactor under the control of the Institute of Atomic Energy, in Świerk near Warsaw. Poland signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and officially possess no nuclear weapons.
  • Romania Romania – Signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1970. In spite of this, under Nicolae Ceauşescu, in the 1980s, Romania had a secret nuclear-weapons development program that was ended after his overthrow in 1989. Now Romania runs a nuclear power plant of two reactor units (with three more under construction) built with Canadian support. It also mines and enriches its own uranium for the plant and has a research program.[31]
  • South Korea – Began a nuclear weapons program in the early 1970s, which was believed abandoned after signing NPT in 1975. However there have been allegations that program may have been continued after this date by the military government.[32] In late 2004, the South Korean government disclosed to the IAEA that scientists in South Korea had extracted plutonium in 1982 and enriched uranium to near-weapons grade in 2000. (see South Korean nuclear research programs)
  • Sweden Sweden – During the 1950s and 1960s, Sweden seriously investigated nuclear weapons, intended to be deployed over coastal facilities of an invading enemy (the Soviet Union). A very substantial research effort of weapon design and manufacture was conducted resulting in enough knowledge to allow Sweden to manufacture nuclear weapons. A weapon research facility was to be built in Studsvik. Saab made plans for a supersonic nuclear bomber, the A36. However Sweden decided not to pursue a weapon production program and signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
  • Switzerland Switzerland – Between 1946 and 1969 Switzerland had a secret nuclear program that came into light in 1995. By 1963 theoretical basics with detailed technical proposals, specific arsenals, and cost estimates for Swiss nuclear armaments were made. This program was, however, abandoned partly because of financial costs and by signing the NPT on November 27, 1969.
  • Republic of China The Republic of China (Taiwan) – Conducted a covert nuclear weapon research program from 1964 until 1988 when it was stopped as a result of U.S. pressure.[33] Signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1968. According to a previously classified 1974 U.S. Defense Department memorandum, Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger expressed a view during a meeting with Ambassador Leonard Unger that U.S. nuclear weapons housed in Taiwan needed to be withdrawn.[34] The ROC is said to be currently developing the Tien Chi, a short-range ballistic missile system that could reach the coast of mainland China.[35]
  • Yugoslavia
    •  Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia's nuclear ambitions began as early as 1950s when scientists considered both uranium enrichment and plutonium reprocessing. In 1956, the Vinča fuel reprocessing site was constructed, followed by research reactors in 1958 and 1959, for which the Soviets provided heavy water and enriched uranium. In 1966, plutonium reprocessing tests began in Vinča laboratories, resulting in gram quantities of reprocessed plutonium. During the 1950s and 1960s there was also cooperation in plutonium processing between Yugoslavia and Norway. In 1960 Tito froze the nuclear program for unknown reasons, but restarted it, after India's first nuclear tests, in 1974. The program continued even after Tito's death in 1980, divided into two components – for weapons design and civilian nuclear energy, until a decision to stop all nuclear weapons research was made in July 1987. The civilian nuclear program however resulted in a nuclear power plant Krško built in 1983, now co-owned by Slovenia and Croatia, and used for peaceful production of electricity.
    • Serbia and Montenegro Federal Republic of Yugoslavia inherited the Vinča laboratories and 50 kilograms of highly enriched uranium stored at the site. During the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999, Vinča was never hit because NATO was aware of the HEU; indeed, it may have been a reason for the NATO intervention. After the end of NATO bombings the U.S. government and the Nuclear Threat Initiative transported the HEU to Russia – the place from which Yugoslavia originally acquired it.

Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Seal of the CNEA The Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica - CNEA (National Atomic Energy Commission) is the Argentine government agency in charge of nuclear energy research and development. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dirty War. ... Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean Opened for signature 14 February 1967 at Mexico City Entered into force 25 April 1969 Conditions for entry into force Deposit of ratifications (Art. ... Democracy is, literally, rule by the people (from the Greek demos, people, and kratos, rule). The methods by which this rule is exercised, and indeed the composition of the people are central to various definitions of democracy, but useful contrasts can be made with oligarchies and autocracies, where political authority... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... The Blue Streak missile was a British ballistic missile development programme of the mid to late-1950s, the initial design being based on licensed U.S. technology. ... HIFAR (High Flux Australian Reactor) was Australias first nuclear reactor. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean Opened for signature 14 February 1967 at Mexico City Entered into force 25 April 1969 Conditions for entry into force Deposit of ratifications (Art. ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Fernando Henrique Cardoso (born June 18, 1931) was the president of the Federative Republic of Brazil from January 1, 1995 to January 1, 2003. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... National Socialism redirects here. ... The Norwegian heavy water sabotage was a series of actions taken by Norwegian saboteurs during World War II to prevent the Germans from acquiring heavy water which could be used to produce nuclear weapons. ... Rainer Karlsch (b. ... Hilters Bombe (Hitlers Bomb) is a nonfiction book by the German historian Rainer Karlsch published in March 2005 which claims to have evidence concerning the development and testing of a possible nuclear weapon by Nazi Germany in 1945. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) lies in central Germany and is among the smaller of the countrys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), being eleventh in size with an area of 16,200 km² and twelfth most populous with 2. ... A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive contamination, either to kill, or to deny the use of an area (a modern version of salting the earth) and consists of a device (such as a nuclear or conventional explosive) which spreads... The German experimental nuclear pile at Haigerloch The German nuclear energy project was an endeavor by scientists during World War II in Nazi Germany to develop nuclear energy and an atomic bomb for practical use. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Osiraq was a 40 MW light water nuclear materials testing reactor (MTR) in Iraq. ... Hans Blix in Vienna 2002. ... The Iraq Survey Group (ISG) was a fact finding mission sent by the coalition after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq to find Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) programs developed by Iraq under the regime of Saddam Hussein. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_(bordered). ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... It has been suggested that Japanese development of nuclear energy be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Libya. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA ) (January 26, 1918 - December 25, 1989) was the leader of Communist Romania from 1965 until shortly before his execution. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea_(bordered). ... In the autumn of 2004, South Korea publicly revealed for the first time the extent of its highly-secretive nuclear research programs, including some experiments which were conducted without reporting them to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in violation of its status as a Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty signatory... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Saab is an aircraft and automobile concern based in Sweden, founded 1937 in Linköping. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... The Republic of China on Taiwan denies having chemical or nuclear weapons. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... Seal of the United States Department of Defense The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate, and is a member of the Cabinet. ... James Rodney Schlesinger (born 15 February 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1974 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... The highlighted area in the map is what is commonly known as mainland China. Mainland China (Simplified Chinese: 中国大陆; Traditional Chinese: 中國大陸; Pinyin: Zhōnggúo Dàlù, lit. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages, Југославија in Serbian and Macedonian Cyrillic) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Official language Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian, Bosnian, Macedonian Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Area (1991)  - Total  - % water Ranked xxst 255,804 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Ranked xxth 20,522,972 80/km² Currency Yugoslav dinar Time zone  - in summer CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) National anthem... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... Area: 344. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia_and_Montenegro. ... Official language Serbian written in Cyrillic alphabet1 Capital Belgrade2 President3 Svetozar Marović Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 105th 102,350 km² 0. ... The NATO bombing campaign in Yugoslavia took place during the Kosovo War. ... The Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) is a an American public charity founded by Ted Turner and Sam Nunn which exists to strengthen global security by reducing the the spread of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, and also to reduce the risk that they will actually be used. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ...

Other nuclear-capable states

Virtually any industrialized nation today has the technical capability to develop nuclear weapons within several years if the decision to do so were made. Nations already possessing substantial nuclear technology and arms industries could do so in no more than a year or two, perhaps even as fast as a few months or weeks, if they so decided to. The larger industrial nations (Japan and Germany for example) could, within several years of deciding to do so, build arsenals rivaling those of the states that already have nuclear weapons. This list below mentions some notable capabilities possessed by certain states that could potentially be turned to the development of nuclear arsenals. This list represents only strong nuclear capability, not the political will to develop weapons. All of the listed countries have signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

  • Canada Canada - Canada has a well developed nuclear technology base, large uranium reserves and markets reactors for civilian use. While Canada has the technological capabilities to develop nuclear weapons, there is no hard evidence it has done so, nor has Canada ever shown the intention to join the nuclear club outright, although rumors that Prime Minister John Diefenbaker had developed nuclear weapons are still present. Canada has been an important contributor of both expertise and raw materials to the American program in the past, and had even helped with the Manhattan Project. In 1959, NATO proposed to Canada that the RCAF assume a nuclear strike role in Europe. Thus in 1962 six Canadian CF-104 squadrons based in Europe were formed into the RCAF Nuclear Strike Force armed with B28 nuclear bombs (originally Mk 28) under the NATO nuclear weapons sharing program; the Force was disbanded in 1972 when Canada opted out of the nuclear strike role. Canada accepted having American W-40 nuclear warheads under dual key control on Canadian soil in 1963 to be used on the Canadian BOMARC missiles. The Canadian air force also maintained a stockpile of AIR-2 Genie unguided nuclear air-to-air rockets as the primary wartime weapon on the CF-101 Voodoo all-weather interceptor after 1965. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau declared Canada would be a nuclear weapon-free country in 1971, and the last American warheads were withdrawn in 1984. Canada also produces the renowned CANDU reactor and has sold the technology to several countries, including China, South Korea, India, Romania, Argentina, and Pakistan. However there is no credible evidence that CANDU reactors were used to breed weapons grade material for either India and Pakistan. Canada nevertheless cut-off nuclear trade with those two countries after they detonated nuclear weapons.
  • Germany Germany - While Germany is a signatory of the NPT, it has the means to easily equip itself rapidly with nuclear weapons. It has an advanced nuclear industry capable of manufacturing reactors, enriching uranium, fuel fabrication, and fuel reprocessing and it operates 19 power reactors producing one third of its total electrical needs. On the other hand, Germany has since 1945 made no serious attempts of acquiring or developing its own strategic delivery systems. Considerable numbers of nuclear weapons have been stationed both in East and West Germany during the Cold War, starting as early as 1955. Under the nuclear sharing scheme, West German soldiers would in theory have been authorized to use nuclear weapons provided by the US in event of a massive Warsaw Pact attack. Several dozen such weapons reputedly remain on bases in western Germany. Since 1998, Germany has adopted a policy of eliminating nuclear power, although slow progress had been made.[36] On January 26, 2006, the former defence minister, Rupert Scholz, said that Germany may need to build its own nuclear weapons to counter terrorist threats, a notion which caused outcry in the german media.[37] The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany also specified that Germany wouldn't acquire nuclear weapons.
  • Japan - While Japan has no political will for the acquisition of nuclear weapons, the country does make extensive use of nuclear energy in nuclear reactors, generating a significant percentage of the electricity in Japan. Japan has the third largest nuclear energy production after the U.S. and France, and plans to produce over 40% of its electricity using nuclear power by 2010. Significant amounts of plutonium are created as a by-product of the energy production, and Japan had 4.7 tons of plutonium in December 1995. Experts believe Japan has the technology, raw materials, and the capital to produce nuclear weapons within one year if necessary, and some analysts consider it a "de facto" nuclear state for this reason. Others have noted that Japan's most advanced space exploration rocket, the M-5 three-stage solid fuel rocket, is in fact a close copy of the U.S. LG-118A Peacekeeper ICBM. Japan has been quietly reconsidering its nuclear status because of the ongoing crisis over North Korean nuclear weapons.[38]
  • Italy Italy - Italy has operated a number of nuclear reactors, both for power and for research. The country was also a base for the GLCM nuclear-armed ground-launched variant of the Tomahawk cruise missile during the 1980s, despite strong public outcry. While no evidence suggests that Italy intends to develop or deploy nuclear weapons, such a capability exists - estimates from as far back as the mid-80s show that Italy could begin and complete a nuclear weapons program in as little as 2 to 3 years.
  • Lithuania Lithuania - Nuclear power reactors produce 77% of Lithuania's electricity and it has 2 of the world's most powerful reactors in its territory. However, one of these reactors was recently shut down. Lithuania has the means of legally acquiring fissile materials for power plants. Lithuania also has former launch sites for Soviet Union missiles. However, there is no political will at present to develop nuclear weapons in Lithuania.
  • Netherlands Netherlands - Operates a power reactor at Borsele, producing 452 MW, which satisfies 5% of its electrical needs and has an advanced nuclear research and medical isotopes facility at Petten. Several Dutch companies are key participants in the tri-national Urenco uranium enrichment consortium. By the year 2000 the Netherlands had about 2 tonnes of separated reactor grade plutonium. There is no evidence for nuclear weapon programs in the Netherlands. Also in light of the fierce opposition against nuclear weapon deployment in the 1980s, it is highly unlikely that such a program will ever exist.
  • Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia - In 2003 members of the government stated that due to the worsening relations with the USA, Saudi Arabia was being forced to consider the development of nuclear weapons. However, so far they have denied that they are making any attempt to produce them.[39] It has been rumored that Pakistan has transferred several nuclear weapons to Saudi Arabia, but this is unconfirmed.[40] In March 2006 the German magazine Cicero reported that Saudi Arabia had since 2003 received assistance from Pakistan to acquire nuclear missiles and warheads. Satellite photos allegedly reveal an underground city and nuclear silos with Ghauri rockets south of the capital Riyadh.[41] Pakistan has denied aiding Saudi Arabia in any nuclear ambitions.[42]

Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... Atomic Energy of Canada Limited or AECL is a Canadian federal Crown corporation with the responsibility to manage Canadian nuclear policy, promote nuclear energy and research, and to oversee nuclear waste developed by Canadian nuclear reactors as well as manage the decommissioning of older reactors. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (September 18, 1895 – August 16, 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the development of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation at the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... The CF-104 (CF-111, CL-90) was a modified version of the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter supersonic fighter aircraft built in Canada by Canadair under licence. ... B28RE The B28 (originally Mk 28) was a thermonuclear bomb carried by U.S. tactical fighter bombers and bomber aircraft. ... Nuclear sharing is a concept in NATOs policy of nuclear deterrence, which involves member countries without nuclear weapons of their own in the planning for the use of nuclear weapons by NATO, and in particular provides for the armed forces of these countries to be involved in delivering these... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The Bomarc Missile Program was a joint United States of America-Canada effort during 1957 to 1971 to protect against the USSR bomber threat. ... An AIR-2 Genie on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force The Genie was an unguided air-to-air rocket with a nuclear warhead, used by interceptor aircraft of the United States Air Force and Royal Canadian Air Force. ... Two 409 Squadron CF-101s in the mountains of British Columbia The CF-101 Voodoo was an all-weather interceptor aircraft operated by the Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Forces between 1961 and 1984. ... Pierre Elliott Trudeau (October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000) was the fifteenth Prime Minister of Canada from April 20, 1968 to June 4, 1979, and from March 3, 1980 to June 30, 1984. ... The CANDU reactor is a pressurized-heavy water, natural-uranium power reactor designed in the 1960s by a partnership between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario as well as several private industry participants. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Nuclear sharing is a concept in NATOs policy of nuclear deterrence, which involves member countries without nuclear weapons of their own in the planning for the use of nuclear weapons by NATO, and in particular provides for the armed forces of these countries to be involved in delivering these... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rupert Scholz (born May 23, 1937 in Berlin) is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union. ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_(bordered). ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space: the technologies, science, and politics regarding space endeavors. ... A Redstone rocket, part of the Mercury program The traditional definition of a rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust gas from within a rocket engine. ... M-V rocket with the ASTRO-E satellite (Febr. ... Test launch of a Peacekeeper ICBM by the 576 Flight Test Squadron, Vandenberg AFB, CA (USAF) The LG-118A Peacekeeper was a land-based ICBM deployed by the United States starting in 1986. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Ground Launched Cruise Missile, or GLCM, (designated BGM-109G, and commonly called Gryphon) was the US Air Forces answer to the portable medium range nuclear missiles deployed by the Soviet Union in Eastern Bloc European countries during the latter years of the Cold War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Borsele is a municipality in the southwestern Netherlands on Zuid_Beveland. ... Petten is a village in North Holland. ... Almelo is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Ghauri (Urdu: غوری) is an intermediate-range ballistic missile in development by Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) of Pakistan. ...

See also

Weapons of
mass destruction
By type
Biological weapons
Chemical weapons
Nuclear weapons
Radiological weapons
By country
Algeria Argentina
Brazil Australia
Canada P.R. China
France Germany
India Iran
Iraq Israel
Italy Japan
Netherlands North Korea
Pakistan Poland
Russia South Africa
ROC (Taiwan) United Kingdom
United States

Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) generally include nuclear, biological, chemical and, increasingly, radiological weapons. ... Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) generally include nuclear, biological, chemical and, increasingly, radiological weapons. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive contamination, either to kill, or to deny the use of an area (a modern version of salting the earth) and consists of a device (such as a nuclear or conventional explosive) which spreads... The Peoples Republic of China is said to have an arsenal of about 400 nuclear weapons stockpiled as of 1999, although this number is questionable because the Chinese government releases little information regarding nuclear weapons. ... The Republic of China on Taiwan denies having chemical or nuclear weapons. ... Nuclear disarmament is the proposed undeployment and dismantling of nuclear weapons particularly those the United States and the Soviet Union (later Russia) targeted on each other. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina, Australia...

Notes

  1. ^ Webster, Paul (July/August 2003). "Just like old times," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 59:4: 30-35. [1]
  2. ^ Norris, Robert S. and Hans M. Kristensen. "U.S. nuclear forces, 2006," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 61:1 (January/February 2005): 68-71, [2]
  3. ^ Norris, Robert S. and Hans M. Kristensen. "Russian nuclear forces, 2006," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 62:2 (March/April 2006): 64-67, [3]
  4. ^ Norris, Robert S. and Hans M. Kristensen. "British nuclear forces, 2005," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 61:6 (November/December 2005): 77-79, [4]
  5. ^ Norris, Robert S. and Hans M. Kristensen. "French nuclear forces, 2005," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 61:4 (July/August 2005): 73-75,[5]
  6. ^ Norris, Robert S. and Hans M. Kristensen. "Chinese nuclear forces, 2006," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 62:3 (May/June 2006): 60-63, [6]; Lewis, Jeffery. "The ambiguous arsenal," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 61:3 (May/June 2005): 52-59. [7].
  7. ^ Norris, Robert S. and Hans M. Kristensen. "India's nuclear forces, 2005," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 61:5 (September/October 2005): 73-75,[8]
  8. ^ Norris, Robert S. and Hans M. Kristensen. "Pakistan's nuclear forces, 2001," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 58:1 (January/February 2002): 70-71,[9]
  9. ^ Norris, Robert S. and Hans M. Kristensen. "North Korea's nuclear program, 2005," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 61:3 (May/June 2005): 64-67,[10]
  10. ^ globalsecurity.org. Nuclear Weapons Testing - North Korean Statements
  11. ^ Norris, Robert S. and Hans M. Kristensen. "Chinese nuclear forces, 2006," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 62:3 (May/June 2006): 60-63, [11]; Lewis, Jeffery. "The ambiguous arsenal," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 61:3 (May/June 2005): 52-59. [12].
  12. ^ Federation of American Scientists (fas.org) (August 17, 2000). Israel's Nuclear Weapons
  13. ^ Nuclear Threat Intiative (nti.com) Iran: Nuclear Chronology; Federation of American Scientists (fas.org) (June 16, 2005). Iran - Nuclear Weapons Recent Developments
  14. ^ Fox News (June 12, 2004). Iran Wants to Be Part of 'Nuclear Club'
  15. ^ CBS News (April 22, 2006). Iran To Enrich Uranium In Russia
  16. ^ globalsecurity.org. Ukraine Special Weapons
  17. ^ Federation of American Scientists (fas.org). Ukraine Special Weapons
  18. ^ Federation of American Scientists (fas.org). Belarus Special Weapons
  19. ^ Federation of American Scientists (fas.org). Kazakhstan Special Weapons
  20. ^ Federation of American Scientists (fas.org) (May 29, 2000). Nuclear Weapons Program (South Africa)
  21. ^ Federation of American Scientists (fas.org) (October 2, 1999). Nuclear Weapons Program - (Argentina)
  22. ^ Sharon Squassoni and David Fite, "Brazil's Nuclear History", Arms Control Today (October 2005); Federation of American Scientists (fas.org) (October 2, 1999). Nuclear Weapons Programs - (Brazil)
  23. ^ Green Left Weekly (March 21, 2001). Review of Australia and the atomic empire
  24. ^ Sharon Squassoni and David Fite, "Brazil's Nuclear History", Arms Control Today (October 2005).
  25. ^ Federation of American Scientists (fas.org) (October 2, 1999). Nuclear Weapons Programs - (Brazil)
  26. ^ Federation of American Scientists (fas.org) (February 4, 2005). Nuclear Weapons Program - (Egypt)
  27. ^ Nuclear Threat Intiative (nti.org) (May 2005). Iraq profile - Nuclear Overview
  28. ^ Federation of American Scientists (fas.org) (April 16, 2000) Nuclear Weapons Program - Japan
  29. ^ Nuclear Threat Intiative (nti.org) (May 2005). Japan Overview
  30. ^ Nuclear Threat Initiative (nti.org) (February 2006). Libya Nuclear Overview
  31. ^ Federation of American Scientists (fas.org). Romania Special Weapons
  32. ^ Nuclear Threat Intiative (nti.org) (August 2003). South Korea Overview
  33. ^ Federation of American Scientists (fas.org) (April 4, 2000). Taiwan Nuclear Weapons
  34. ^ Defense Department memorandum of conversation (April 12 1974). "Call by Ambassador (Leonard) Unger"
  35. ^ Nuclear Threat Intiative (nti.org) (January 2003). Taiwan Overview
  36. ^ Carey Sublette. "Nuclear Weapons Frequently Asked Questions" nuclearweaponarchive.org (August 2001)
  37. ^ "Germany May Need Own Nuclear Weapons: Scholz" by DPA, Liberty Post, January 26, 2006
  38. ^ Washington Times (August 8, 2005). North Korean threat nudges Japan to rethink nukes
  39. ^ The Guardian (September 18, 2003). Saudis consider nuclear bomb
  40. ^ Akaki Dvali. Center for Nonproliferation Studies (nti.org) (March 2004). Will Saudi Arabia Acquire Nuclear Weapons?; Arnaud de Borchgrave. Washington Times (October 22, 2003) Pakistan, Saudi Arabia in secret nuke pact
  41. ^ "Saudia Arabia working on secret nuclear program with Pakistan help - report ", AFX News[13]
  42. ^ "Pakistan rejects report on N-help to Saudis", Daily Times (Pakistan), (30 March 2006).

Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... A CBS News Special Report ident card CBS News is the news division of American television and radio network CBS. Its current president is Sean McManus who is also head of CBS Sports. ...

External links

Nuclear Technology
v·d·e
Nuclear engineering Nuclear physics | Nuclear fission | Nuclear fusion | Radiation | Ionizing radiation | Atomic nucleus | Nuclear reactor | Nuclear safety
Nuclear material Nuclear fuel | Fertile material | Thorium | Uranium | Enriched uranium | Depleted uranium | Plutonium
Nuclear power Nuclear power plant | Radioactive waste | Fusion power | Future energy development | Pressurized water reactor | Boiling water reactor | Generation IV reactor | Fast breeder reactor | Fast neutron reactor | Magnox reactor | Advanced gas-cooled reactor | Gas cooled fast reactor | Molten salt reactor | Liquid metal cooled reactor | Lead cooled fast reactor | Supercritical water reactor | Very high temperature reactor | Pebble bed reactor | Integral Fast Reactor | Nuclear propulsion | Nuclear thermal rocket | Radioisotope thermoelectric generator
Nuclear medicine PET | Radiation therapy | Tomotherapy | Proton therapy | Brachytherapy
Nuclear weapons History of nuclear weapons | Nuclear warfare | Nuclear arms race | Nuclear weapon design | Effects of nuclear explosions | Nuclear testing | Nuclear delivery | Nuclear proliferation | List of countries with nuclear weapons | List of nuclear tests
The world Lists of countries with rankings *Includes map
Geography

Demographics  

Economy

Politics

Emissions

Consumption

  Results from FactBites:
 
List of countries with nuclear weapons - definition of List of countries with nuclear weapons in Encyclopedia (1900 words)
Since the nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan, both nations have publicly declared themselves to be in possession of a nuclear arsenal, but this status is not formally recognized by international bodies; neither of the two countries have signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
The following is a list of nations that have admitted the possession of nuclear weapons, the approximate number of warheads under their control in 2002, and the year they tested their first weapon.
Israel is not a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and refuses to officially admit or deny having a nuclear arsenal, or to having developed nuclear weapons, or even to having a nuclear weapons program.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Nuclear weapon (2252 words)
A nuclear weapon is a weapon that derives its energy from the nuclear reactions of fission and/or fusion.
The detonation of a nuclear weapon is accompanied by a blast of neutron radiation.
Nuclear weapons have been at the heart of many national and international political disputes, and have played a major part in popular culture since their dramatic public debut in the 1940s, and have usually symbolized the ultimate ability of mankind to utilize the strength of nature for destruction.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m