FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > List of broadcast station classes

This is the list of broadcast station classes. Domestic classes are listed as subitems under international ones. Effective radiated power (ERP) and height above average terrain (HAAT) are listed unless otherwise noted. In radio telecommunications, effective radiated power or ERP is determined by subtracting system losses from system gains. ... HAAT is used extensively in radio, as it is actually much more important than power. ...


North America

The United States, Canada, and Mexico. All broadcast stations within 320 kilometers (about 200 miles) of the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border must get approval by both the domestic and foreign agency. These are the FCC in the U.S. and CRTC in Canada. A broadcast station may be: a radio station a television station It does not include television networks or radio networks. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) (symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ... A mile is any of several units of distance, or, in physics terminology, of length. ... Border has several different, but related meanings: Generic borders A border can consist of a margin around the edge of something, such as a lawn, garden, photograph, or sheet of paper. ... The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent United States government agency, created, directed, and empowered by Congressional statute. ... The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC, in French Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes) was established in 1968 by the Canadian Parliament to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors. ...


  • A (former I): clear channels, 10 kW to 50 kW day and night
  • B (former II and III): 250 W to 50 kW (to 10 kW on 1620 to 1710 kHz)
    • D (former II-D, II-S, III-S): daytime 250 W to 50 kW, nighttime under 250 W or off-air, field strength up to 140mV/m2 at 1 km, no new stations except downgraded B
  • C (former IV): 250 W to 1 kW (also grandfathered 100 W)
  • TIS/HAR: Travelers' Information Stations up to 10 W transmitter output power
  • Unlicensed broadcasting: 50 mW, no license needed (US only?), may be measured at edge of campus for school stations

Notes Clear channel stations are AM radio stations that are designated as such so that only one or two 50,000 watt powerhouses operate at night on each designated frequency, covering a wide area via sky wave propagation. ... In physics, the field strength of a field is its force per unit mass or charge at a point. ... To downgrade can refer to several things. ... In the United States, a grandfather clause is an exception which allows something pre-existing to remain as it is, despite a change to the contrary in the rules applied to newer situations. ... The term pirate radio lacks a specific universal interpretation. ...

  • In the Western Hemisphere (ITU region 2), mediumwave AM broadcasts are on channels spaced 10 kHz apart from 530 kHz to 1710 kHz, with certain classes restricted to subsets of the available frequencies.
  • Class A stations can be found only on the frequencies of 540 kHz, 640 to 780 kHz, 800 to 900 kHz, 940 kHz, 1000 to 1140 kHz, 1160 to 1220 kHz, and 1500 to 1580 kHz.
  • Class B and D stations can be found on any frequencies from 540 kHz to 1700 kHz except where frequencies have been reserved for Class C stations.
  • Class C stations can be found in the lower 48 US states on the frequencies of 1230 kHz, 1240 kHz, 1340 kHz, 1400 kHz, 1450 kHz, and 1490 kHz. Other countries may use other frequencies for their Class C stations.
  • TIS stations can be found on any frequency from 530 kHz to 1700 kHz in the US, but may only carry non-commercial messages without music.
  • Low-power AM stations located on a school campus are allowed to be more powerful, so long as their signal strength does not exceed roughly 14 to 45 µV/m2 (depending on frequency) at a distance of 30 meters (98.4 ft) from campus.
  • AM classes were previously assigned Roman numerals from I to IV in the US, with subclasses indicated by a letter suffix. Current class A is equivalent to the old class I; class B is the old classes II and III, with class D being the II-D, II-S, and III-S subclasses; and class C is the old class IV.

See also: North American Radio Broadcasting Agreement (NARBA) The Western Hemisphere contains The Americas and nearby islands. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ... Japanese secondary school students in uniform A school is most commonly a place designated for learning. ... Campus is Latin for field or open space. English gets the words camp and campus from this origin. ... The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... Suffix has meanings in linguistics and nomenclature. ...


  • C: 100 kW, 300 m to 600 m, 91.8 km
  • C0: 100 kW, 300 m to 450 m, 83.4 km
  • C1: up to 100 kW, under 300 m, 72.3 km
  • C2: up to 50 kW, up to 150 m, 52.2 km
  • C3: up to 25 kW, up to 100 m, 39.1 km
  • B: up to 50 kW, up to 150 m, 65.1 km
  • B1: up to 25 kW, up to 100 m, 44.7 km
  • A: 100 W to 6 kW, up to 100 m, 28.3 km
    • AA (Mexico): up to 3 kW, the former limit for A
  • D: up to 250 W ERP, except U.S. non-translators to 10 W TPO
    • L1 (U.S., also LP100): 50 W to 100 W ERP, up to 30 m, 5.6 km
    • L2 (U.S., also LP10): 1W to 10 W ERP, up to 30 m
  • Unlicensed: 250 µV/m2 at 3 m in U.S., 100µV/m2 at 30 m in Canada
  • Canada protects all radio stations out to a signal strength of 0.5mV/m2, whereas only commercial B stations in the U.S. are. Commercial B1 in the U.S. is 0.7mV/m2, and all other stations are 1.0 mV/m2. Noncommercial-band stations (88.1 to 91.9) are not afforded this protection, and are treated as C3 and C2 even when they are B1 or B. C3 and C2 may also be reported internationally as B1 and B, respectively.
  • Class C0 is for former C stations, demoted at request of another station which needs the downgrade to accommodate its own facilities.
  • In practice, many stations are above the maximum HAAT for a particular class, and correspondingly must downgrade their power to remain below the reference distance. Conversely, they may not increase power if they are below maximum HAAT.
  • All class D (including L1 and L2 LPFM and translator) stations are secondary in the U.S., and can be bumped or forced off-air completely, even if they are not just a repeater and are the only station a licensee has.
  • The United States is divided into separate regions that have different restrictions for FM stations. Zone I (much of the U.S. Northeast and Midwest) and I-A (most of California, plus Puerto Rico) is limited to classes B and B1, while Zone II (everything else) has only the C classes. All areas have the same classes for A and D.
  • Power and height restrictions were put in place in 1962. A number of previously-existing stations were grandfathered in, such as KRUZ in Santa Barbara, California and WMC-FM in Memphis, Tennessee.

In broadcasting, a translator is an FM radio station or a TV station which acts as a full-duplex repeater. ... Transmitter power output (TPO) is the actual amount of power (in watts) of RF energy that a transmitter produces at its output. ... A radio station is a site configured for broadcasting sound. ... In telecommunications, and particularly in radio, signal strength is the measure of how strong a signal is. ... Low-power broadcasting is the concept of broadcasting at very low power and low cost, to a small community area. ... The U.S. Northeast is a region of the United States of America defined by the US Census Bureau. ... Midwest States (United States of America, ND to OH) The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... In the United States, a grandfather clause is an exception which allows something pre-existing to remain as it is, despite a change to the contrary in the rules applied to newer situations. ... Stearns Wharf is the extension into the sea of State Street, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County, California, United States. ... WMC (99. ... City nickname: The River City or The Bluff City Location in the state of Tennessee County Shelby County, Tennessee Area  - Total  - Water 763. ...

FM zones

Zone I in the U.S. includes all of Connecticut, the District of Columbia, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and West Virginia. It also includes the areas south of latitude 43.5°N in Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont; as well as coastal Maine, southeastern Wisconsin, and northern and eastern Virginia. State nickname: The Constitution State Other U.S. States Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Governor M. Jodi Rell Official languages English Area 14,371 km² (48th)  - Land 12,559 km²  - Water 1,809 km² (12. ... ... State nickname: The First State Other U.S. States Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Governor Ruth Ann Minner Official languages None Area 6,452 km² (49th)  - Land 5,068 km²  - Water 1,387 km² (21. ... State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State Other U.S. States Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Governor Rod Blagojevich Official languages English Area 149,998 km² (25th)  - Land 143,968 km²  - Water 6,030 km² (4. ... State nickname: The Hoosier State Other U.S. States Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Governor Mitch Daniels Official languages English Area 94,321 km² (38th)  - Land 92,897 km²  - Water 1,424 km² (1. ... State nickname: Bay State Other U.S. States Capital Boston Largest city Boston Governor Mitt Romney Official languages English Area 27,360 km² (44th)  - Land 20,317 km²  - Water 7,043 km² (25. ... State nickname: Old Line State; Free State Other U.S. States Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Governor Robert L. Ehrlich Official languages English Area 32,160 km² (42nd)  - Land 25,338 km²  - Water 6,968 km² (21%) Population (2000)  - Population 5,296,486 (19th)  - Density 165 /km² (5th) Admission into... State nickname: The Garden State Other U.S. States Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Governor Richard Codey (acting) Official languages None defined Area 22,608 km² (47th)  - Land 19,231 km²  - Water 3,378 km² (14. ... State nickname: The Buckeye State Other U.S. States Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Governor Bob Taft Official languages None Area 116,096 km² (34th)  - Land 106,154 km²  - Water 10,044 km² (8. ... State nickname: The QUENESE PERSON STATE Other U.S. States Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Governor Ed Rendell Official languages None Area 119,283 km² (33rd)  - Land 116,074 km²  - Water 3,208 km² (2. ... State nickname: The Ocean State Other U.S. States Capital Providence Largest city Providence Governor Donald Carcieri Official languages None Area 4,005 km² (50th)  - Land 2,709 km²  - Water 1,296 km² (32. ... State nickname: Mountain State Other U.S. States Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Governor Joe Manchin Official languages English Area 62,809 km² (41st)  - Land 62,436 km²  - Water 376 km² (0. ... Latitude, denoted by the Greek letter φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ... State nickname: Wolverine State or Great Lakes State Other U.S. States Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Governor Jennifer Granholm Official languages English Area 250,941 km² (11th)  - Land 147,255 km²  - Water 103,687 km² (41. ... State nickname: The Granite State Other U.S. States Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Governor John Lynch Official languages English Area 24,239 km² (46th)  - Land 23,249 km²  - Water 814 km² (3. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... State nickname: The Green Mountain State Other U.S. States Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Governor Jim Douglas Official languages None Area 24,923 km² (45th)  - Land 23,974 km²  - Water 949 km² (3. ... State nickname: The Pine Tree State Other U.S. States Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Governor John Baldacci Official languages None Area 86,542 km² (39th)  - Land 80,005 km²  - Water 11,724 km² (13. ... One of the periods of glaciation was also termed the Wisconsin glaciation. ... State nickname: Old Dominion Other U.S. States Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner Official languages English Area 110,862 km² (35th)  - Land 102,642 km²  - Water 8,220 km² (7. ...

Zone I-A includes California south of 40°N, as well as Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ...


  • full-service stations:
    • VHF low (2-6): 100 kW video, 10 kW audio; 20 kW digital
    • VHF high (7-13): 325 kW video, 32.5 kW audio; 65.0 kW digital
    • UHF all (14-69): 5 MW video, 500 kW audio; 1MW digital
  • class A stations (U.S.):
    • VHF all (2-13): 3 kW video, 300 W audio
    • UHF all (14-69): 150 kW video, 15 kW audio
  • LPTV (secondary):
  • Unlicensed: not allowed except for medical telemetry, and certain wireless microphones

Broadcast translators, boosters, and other LPTV stations are secondary, unless they have upgraded to class A. Class A is still considered LPTV with respect to stations in Canada and Mexico. Low-power broadcasting is the concept of broadcasting at very low power and low cost, to a small community area. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... Telemetry is a technology which allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator. ... Wireless is an old-fashioned term for a radio receiver, referring to its use as a wireless telegraph. ... A microphone with a cord A microphone, sometimes called a mic (pronounced mike), is a device that converts sound into an electrical signal. ... In broadcasting, a translator is an FM radio station or a TV station which acts as a full-duplex repeater. ... A booster may mean: a person who promotes his or her town or region – see boosterism a booster rocket used in space flight to achieve escape velocity a co-channel repeater in broadcasting, used to improve signal strength a booster seat, used by children after outgrowing a highchair a booster... A television station is a type of radio station that broadcasts both audio and video to television receivers in a particular area. ...

External links



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m