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Encyclopedia > List of basic philosophical topics
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Below is a list of basic topics in philosophy -- topics which will help the beginner become familiar with the field of philosophy. Jump to: navigation, search Philosophy is a discipline or field of study involving the investigation, analysis, and development of ideas at a general, abstract, or fundamental level. ...

Contents


Branches of Philosophy

Axiology = the study of value , from the Greek axia (αξια, value, worth), is the study of value or quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search Aesthetics (also esthetics and æsthetics) is the philosophy of beauty and art. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ethics is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... Jump to: navigation, search Epistemology, from the Greek words episteme (knowledge) and logos (word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge. ... Jump to: navigation, search Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy amongst philosophers (see below). ... Jump to: navigation, search Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ...

Fields of Philosophy

Jump to: navigation, search Philosophy of education is the study of such questions as what education is and what its purpose is, the nature of the knowing mind and the human subject, problems of authority, the relationship between education and society, etc. ... Jump to: navigation, search Philosophy of language is the branch of philosophy that studies language. ... Jump to: navigation, search Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ... Jump to: navigation, search Philosophy of mind is the philosophical study of the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, and consciousness. ... Jump to: navigation, search The philosophy of perception concerns how mental processes and symbols depend on the world internal and external to the perceiver. ... Jump to: navigation, search The philosophy of history asks at least these questions: what is the proper unit for the study of the human past? the individual, the city or sovereign territory, the civilization, or nothing less than the whole of the species?; what broad patterns can we discern through... Jump to: navigation, search Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ... Jump to: navigation, search The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy which studies the philosophical foundations, assumptions, and implications of science, including the natural sciences such as physics and biology, and the social sciences, such as psychology and economics. ... Jump to: navigation, search Political philosophy is the study of the fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, property, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why... Jump to: navigation, search Social philosophy is the philosophical study of interesting questions about social behavior (typically, of humans). ...

Philosophical movements

Philosophical movements of the ancient world

According to Platonic realism, universals exist in a realm (often so called) that is separate from space and time; one might say that universals have a sort of ghostly or heavenly mode of existence, but, at least in more modern versions of Platonism, such a description [[Media:is probably more... Jump to: navigation, search Pythagoreanism is a term used for the esoteric and metaphysical beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers the Pythagoreans, much influenced by mathematics and probably a main inspiration source to Plato and platonism. ... Pyrrhonian skepticism was a school of skepticism founded by Pyrrho in 1st century Alexandria and recorded by Sextus Empiricus in the 3rd century. ... Jump to: navigation, search Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... Jump to: navigation, search A restored Stoa in Athens. ... Jump to: navigation, search Cynicism was originally the philosophy of a group of ancient Greeks called the Cynics (main article), founded by Antisthenes. ... Jump to: navigation, search // Headline text Headline text Headline text Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) was a school of philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century A.D. Though based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists, it interpreted Plato in many new ways, so that Neoplatonism was quite different...

Philosophical movements of the modern world

The Renaissance, Enlightenment, and Romanticism are broader cultural "movements" that happened to characterised by fairly distinctive philosophical concerns. By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Renaissance was a great cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ancient Rome was a civilization that existed in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East between 753 BC and its downfall in AD 476. ... Jump to: navigation, search Rationalism, also known as the rationalist movement, is a philosophical doctrine that asserts that the truth can best be discovered by reason and factual analysis, rather than faith, dogma or religious teaching. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search Empiricism (greek εμπειρισμός, from empirical, latin experientia - the experience), is the philosophical doctrine that all human knowledge ultimately comes from the senses and from experience. ... Jump to: navigation, search Thomas Hobbes portrait by John Michael Wright (National Portrait Gallery, London) Thomas Hobbes (April 5, 1588–December 4, 1679) was a noted English political philosopher, most famous for his book Leviathan (1651). ... ... // What is science? There are various understandings of the word science. According to empiricism, scientific theories are objective, empirically testable, and predictive — they predict empirical results that can be checked and possibly contradicted. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... French materialism combined the associationist psychology and Empiricism of John Locke with the Totality of Isaac Newton to create a complex world view in diametrical opposition to the Cartesian dualist world view. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a German philosopher and scientist (astrophysics, mathematics, geography, anthropology) from East Prussia, generally regarded as one of Western societys and modern Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... Jump to: navigation, search Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Continental philosophy is a general term for several related philosophical traditions that (notionally) originated in continental Europe, in contrast with Anglo_American analytic philosophy. ... Jump to: navigation, search Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Jump to: navigation, search Utilitarianism (from the Latin utilis, useful) is a theory of ethics based on quantitative maximization of some good for society or humanity. ... Jump to: navigation, search Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English gentleman, jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Jump to: navigation, search John Stuart Mill (May 20, 1806 – May 8, 1873), an English philosopher and political economist, was an influential classical liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Jump to: navigation, search Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Jump to: navigation, search Existentialism is a philosophical movement that views human existence as having a set of underlying themes and characteristics, such as anxiety, dread, freedom, awareness of death, and consciousness of existing, that are primary. ... Jump to: navigation, search Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: ) (May 5, 1813 – November 11, 1855), a 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian, has achieved general recognition as the first existentialist philosopher, though some new research shows this may be a more difficult connection than previously thought. ... Jump to: navigation, search Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) was a German philosopher. ... Jean Paul Sartre Jean-Paul Sartre (June 21, 1905–April 15, 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic. ... Jump to: navigation, search Phenomenology is a current philosophy that takes intuitive experience of phenomena (what presents itself to us in conscious experience) as its starting point and tries to extract the essential features of experiences and the essence of what we experience. ... Jump to: navigation, search Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic. ... Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) was a German philosopher. ... Logicism is one of the schools of thought in the philosophy of mathematics. ... Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (November 8, 1848 – July 26, 1925) was a German mathematician, logician, and philosopher who is regarded as a founder of both modern mathematical logic and analytic philosophy. ... Jump to: navigation, search Logical positivism (later referred to as logical empiricism, also referred to as neo-positivism) is a philosophy (of science) that originated in the Vienna Circle in the 1920s. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Vienna Circle was a group of philosophers and scientists organized in Vienna under Moritz Schlick. ... Jump to: navigation, search Bertrand Russell The Right Honourable Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was an influential British logician, philosopher, and mathematician, working mostly in the 20th century. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 – April 29, 1951) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking works to modern philosophy, primarily on the foundations of logic, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ... Jump to: navigation, search Analytic philosophy is the dominant philosophical movement of English-speaking countries, although one of its founders, Gottlob Frege, was German, and another, Ludwig Wittgenstein, was Austrian. ... Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (November 8, 1848 – July 26, 1925) was a German mathematician, logician, and philosopher who is regarded as a founder of both modern mathematical logic and analytic philosophy. ... W. V. Quine Willard Van Orman Quine (June 25, 1908 - December 25, 2000) was one of the most influential American philosophers and logicians of the 20th century. ... Structuralism is a general approach in various academic disciplines that seeks to explore the inter-relationships between some fundamental elements, upon which higher mental, linguistic, social, cultural etc structures are built, through which then meaning is produced within a particular person, system, culture. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search Novelist and philosopher, best known for her philosophy of Objectivism Ayn Rand (February 2, 1905–March 6, 1982; first name pronounced (IPA) (rhymes with mine)), born Alissa Zinovievna Rosenbaum, was best known for her philosophy of Objectivism and her novels The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged. ... The Objectivist movement was a movement to popularize Ayn Rands Objectivist philosophy that began with the founding of the Nathaniel Branden Institute in 1960. ... Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that Modernist project be merged into this article or section. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... Négritude, a concept developed in the 1930s by a group that included future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor and Francophone poet Aimé Césaire, is the belief that one should identify ones blackness without reference to ones homeland, native language, religion or spatial/geographical location. ...


Influential philosophers

Jump to: navigation, search Thomas Aquinas (1225 – March 7, 1274) was an Italian Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition. ... Jump to: navigation, search Aristotle, marble copy of bronze by Lysippos. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sir Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans, KC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, spy, freemason and essayist. ... Jump to: navigation, search Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum Roger Bacon (c. ... Jump to: navigation, search Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English gentleman, jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Jump to: navigation, search [edit] Confucius (traditionally September 28 551 BCE–479 BCE) was a famous thinker and social philosopher of China, whose teachings have deeply influenced East Asia for centuries. ... Jump to: navigation, search Bust of Democritus Democritus was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace around 460 BC; died in 370 BC). ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thought has been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ralph Waldo Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was a famous American essayist and one of Americas most influential thinkers and writers. ... Jump to: navigation, search Epicurus (Epikouros or Eπίκουρος in Greek) (born Samos 341 BC–died Athens, 270 BC) was an Ancient Greek philosopher who was the founder of Epicureanism, one of the most popular schools of Hellenistic Philosophy. ... Jump to: navigation, search Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei (Pisa, February 15, 1564 – Arcetri, January 8, 1642), was an Italian physicist, astronomer, and philosopher who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... Jump to: navigation, search Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Jump to: navigation, search Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) was a German philosopher. ... Jump to: navigation, search Thomas Hobbes portrait by John Michael Wright (National Portrait Gallery, London) Thomas Hobbes (April 5, 1588–December 4, 1679) was a noted English political philosopher, most famous for his book Leviathan (1651). ... Jump to: navigation, search David Hume (April 26, 1711 – August 25, 1776) (N.B. The birthdate is May 7 by the Gregorian reckoning of his time; this date being used by the International Humanist and Ethical Union when celebrating his birthday) was a Scottish philosopher and historian and, with Adam... Jump to: navigation, search William James William James (January 11, 1842, New York – August 26, 1910, Chocorua, New Hampshire) was a pioneering psychologist and philosopher. ... Jump to: navigation, search Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a German philosopher and scientist (astrophysics, mathematics, geography, anthropology) from East Prussia, generally regarded as one of Western societys and modern Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... Jump to: navigation, search Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: ) (May 5, 1813 – November 11, 1855), a 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian, has achieved general recognition as the first existentialist philosopher, though some new research shows this may be a more difficult connection than previously thought. ... Jump to: navigation, search Laozi (Chinese 老子, also spelled Lao Tzu) is a major figure in Chinese philosophy whose historical existence is debated. ... Jump to: navigation, search John Locke (August 29, 1632 – October 28, 1704) was a 17th-century English philosopher concerned primarily with society and epistemology. ... Jump to: navigation, search Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name (Moses) Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician... Jump to: navigation, search Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 Trier, Germany – March 14, 1884 London, England) was an influential German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmens Association. ... Jump to: navigation, search John Stuart Mill (May 20, 1806 – May 8, 1873), an English philosopher and political economist, was an influential classical liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ernest Nagel (born November 16, 1901 in Prague, Czechoslovakia, died September 22, 1985 in New York City) was the preeminent philosopher of science of his time. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Jump to: navigation, search Hello, I am Sam, Sam I am. ... Charles Sanders Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American logician, philosopher, scientist, and mathematician. ... Jump to: navigation, search Statue of a philosopher, presumably Plato, in Delphi. ... Jump to: navigation, search Novelist and philosopher, best known for her philosophy of Objectivism Ayn Rand (February 2, 1905–March 6, 1982; first name pronounced (IPA) (rhymes with mine)), born Alissa Zinovievna Rosenbaum, was best known for her philosophy of Objectivism and her novels The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged. ... Jump to: navigation, search Jean-Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Franco-Swiss philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of The Age of Enlightenment. ... Jump to: navigation, search Bertrand Russell The Right Honourable Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was an influential British logician, philosopher, and mathematician, working mostly in the 20th century. ... Jump to: navigation, search Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic. ... Jump to: navigation, search Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882–June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. ... Jump to: navigation, search Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher. ... Jump to: navigation, search Socrates This article is about the ancient Greek philosopher, for all other uses see: Socrates (disambiguation) Socrates (June 4, ca. ... Jump to: navigation, search Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677), was named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in his native Amsterdam. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Vienna Circle was a group of philosophers and scientists organized in Vienna under Moritz Schlick. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 – April 29, 1951) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking works to modern philosophy, primarily on the foundations of logic, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ...

Basic philosophical concepts

A priori -- A posteriori -- abduction -- absolute -- Aesthetics -- Age of Enlightenment -- Agnosticism -- Altruism -- Ambiguity -- American Philosophical Association -- analytic philosophy -- Aristotle -- atheism -- awareness -- axiom -- Western philosophers have distinguished between two kinds of knowledge: a priori knowledge and a posteriori knowledge. ... Western philosophers have distinguished between two kinds of knowledge: a priori knowledge and a posteriori knowledge. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Absolute is the totality of things, all that is, whether it has been discovered or not. ... Jump to: navigation, search Aesthetics (also esthetics and æsthetics) is the philosophy of beauty and art. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... Jump to: navigation, search Agnosticism is the philosophical view that the truth values of certain claims—particularly theological claims regarding the existence of God, gods, or deities—are unknown, inherently unknowable, or incoherent, and therefore, (some agnostics may go as far to say) irrelevant to life. ... Jump to: navigation, search Altruism is either a practice or habit (in the view of many, a virtue) as well as an ethical doctrine. ... Jump to: navigation, search A word, phrase, sentence, or other communication is called ambiguous if it can be interpreted in more than one way. ... The American Philosophical Association is the main professional organization for philosophers in the United States. ... Jump to: navigation, search Analytic philosophy is the dominant philosophical movement of English-speaking countries, although one of its founders, Gottlob Frege, was German, and another, Ludwig Wittgenstein, was Austrian. ... Jump to: navigation, search Aristotle, marble copy of bronze by Lysippos. ... Jump to: navigation, search Atheism, in its broadest sense, is characterized by an absence of belief in the existence of god(s), thus contrasting with theism. ... Jump to: navigation, search In biological psychology, awareness describes an animals perception and cognitive reaction to a condition or event. ... In epistemology, an axiom is a self-evident truth upon which other knowledge must rest, from which other knowledge is built up. ...


being -- belief -- Buddhist philosophy -- Jump to: navigation, search A being, in the most general sense, is anything that is alive. ... Jump to: navigation, search Look up belief on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Buddhist philosophy is the branch of Eastern philosophy based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha (c. ...


causality -- Cogito, ergo sum -- consciousness -- cosmogony -- cosmology -- continental philosophy -- creation -- Jump to: navigation, search The philosophical concept of causality or causation refers to the set of all particular causal or cause-and-effect relations. ... René Descartes (1596-1650) The Latin phrase cogito ergo sum (I think, therefore I am) is possibly the single best-known philosophical statement and is attributed to René Descartes. ... Jump to: navigation, search Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) world + λογια (logia) discourse) is the study of the universe in its totality and by extension mans place in it. ... Continental philosophy is a general term for several related philosophical traditions that (notionally) originated in continental Europe, in contrast with Anglo_American analytic philosophy. ... Jump to: navigation, search Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions which maintains that one or a group of gods or deities is responsible for creating the universe. ...


deconstruction -- deduction -- determinism -- dialectics -- dualism -- Jump to: navigation, search This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Jump to: navigation, search In traditional Aristotelian logic, deductive reasoning is inference in which the conclusion is of lesser or equal generality than the premises, as opposed to inductive reasoning, where the conclusion is of greater generality than the premises. ... Jump to: navigation, search Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. ... Broadly speaking, a dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a disagreement. ... Jump to: navigation, search The term dualism can refer to a variety of doctrines, mainly in theology and philosophy, each involving the purported existence of two opposites of some kind. ...


Eastern philosophy -- epistemic justification -- epistemology -- ethical relativism -- ethics -- existentialism -- existence evil -- evolution -- existence -- Jump to: navigation, search In the West, the term Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of the East, including Iran, China, India, Japan, and the general area. ... This article or section should include material from Episteme Epistemology (from the Greek words episteme=science and logos=word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge. ... Jump to: navigation, search Epistemology, from the Greek words episteme (knowledge) and logos (word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge. ... Moral relativism is the position that moral propositions do not reflect absolute or universal truths. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ethics is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... Jump to: navigation, search Existentialism is a philosophical movement that views human existence as having a set of underlying themes and characteristics, such as anxiety, dread, freedom, awareness of death, and consciousness of existing, that are primary. ... Jump to: navigation, search There is no universally accepted theory of what the word existence means. ... Jump to: navigation, search Evil is a term describing that which is regarded as morally bad, intrinsically corrupt, wantonly destructive, inhumane, or wicked. ... Jump to: navigation, search Charles Darwin, father of the theory of evolution by natural selection. ... Jump to: navigation, search There is no universally accepted theory of what the word existence means. ...


fatalism -- free will -- Jump to: navigation, search Fatalism is the view that human deliberation and actions are pointless and ineffectual in determining events, because whatever will be will be. ... Jump to: navigation, search Free will is the philosophical doctrine that holds that our choices are ultimately up to ourselves. ...


good -- Jump to: navigation, search Theories of Value investigate how people positively and negatively value things and concepts, the reasons they use in making their evaluations, and the scope of a legitimate evaluation across the social world. ...


hedonism -- humanism -- Jump to: navigation, search Hedonism (Greek: hēdonē pleasure + –ism) describes any way of thinking that gives pleasure a central role. ... Jump to: navigation, search Humanism is an active ethical and philosophical approach to life, focusing on human solutions to human issues through rational (reasonable) thought, without recourse to supernatural entities, such as a God or gods, or to sacred texts, traditions or religious creeds. ...


idealism -- Indian philosophy -- induction -- inference -- Jump to: navigation, search Idealism is an approach to philosophical enquiry. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Carvaka philosophy See also Important publications in Indian philosophy This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Jump to: navigation, search Induction or inductive reasoning, sometimes called inductive logic, is the process of reasoning in which the premises of an argument support the conclusion, but do not ensure it. ... Inference is the act or process of drawing a conclusion based solely on what one already knows. ...


justification -- Justification can mean: justification (jurisprudence) justification (typesetting) justification (theology) In epistemology, justification of a belief is what renders it worth believing in terms of its probable truth. ...


knowledge -- Jump to: navigation, search Knowledge is the state of understanding something and being capable to utilize the fact for doing something. ...


law of non-contradiction -- logic -- In logic, the law of noncontradiction judges as false any proposition P asserting that both proposition Q and its denial, proposition not-Q, are true at the same time and in the same respect. In the words of Aristotle, One cannot say of something that it is and that it... Jump to: navigation, search Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy amongst philosophers (see below). ...


Marxism -- materialism -- meaning of life -- metaphysics -- monism -- moral absolutism -- morality -- Jump to: navigation, search Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Jump to: navigation, search Materialism is the philosophical view that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions. ... Jump to: navigation, search The question “What is the meaning of life?” means different things to different people. ... Jump to: navigation, search Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Jump to: navigation, search Monism is the metaphysical view that there is only one principle, essence, substance or energy. ... Jump to: navigation, search Moral absolutism is the position that there are absolute standards against which moral questions can be judged, and that certain actions are right or wrong, regardless of the context of the act. ... Jump to: navigation, search Morality, in the strictest sense of the word, deals with that which is innately regarded as right or wrong. ...


nature -- nihilism -- noumenon -- Jump to: navigation, search The deepest visible-light image of the universe, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. ... Jump to: navigation, search Gods death or nonexistence is a quintessential nihilistic concern. ... --In the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a noumenon or thing in itself (German Ding an sich) is an unknowable, indescribable reality that, in some way, lies behind observed phenomena. ...


ontology -- origin beliefs -- Jump to: navigation, search In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek ὄν, genitive ὄντος: being (part. ... Jump to: navigation, search The term origin belief refers to stories and explanations which describe the beginnings of humanity, earth, life, and the universe (cosmogony). ...


pantheism -- perception -- perception -- phenomenon (a la Kant) -- philosopher -- philosophy -- physicalism -- Plato -- Plato's Republic or The Republic of Plato -- Platonism -- pluralism -- positivism (also: logical empiricism; logical positivism) -- pragmatism -- Pantheism (Greek: pan = all and Theos = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... PSYCHOLOGY In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Jump to: navigation, search The philosophy of perception concerns how mental processes and symbols depend on the world internal and external to the perceiver. ... A phenomenon (plural: phenomena) is an observable event, especially something special (literally something that can be seen from the Greek word phainomenon = observable). ... Jump to: navigation, search A philosopher is a person devoted to studying and producing results in philosophy. ... Jump to: navigation, search Philosophy is a discipline or field of study involving the investigation, analysis, and development of ideas at a general, abstract, or fundamental level. ... Jump to: navigation, search Physicalism is the metaphysical position that everything is physical; that is, that there are no kinds of things other than physical things. ... Jump to: navigation, search Statue of a philosopher, presumably Plato, in Delphi. ... The Republic is an influential dialogue by Plato, written in the first half of the 4th century BC. This Socratic dialogue mainly is about political philosophy and ethics. ... The Republic is perhaps Platos best-known dialogue and one of his most influential. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Jump to: navigation, search In the social sciences, pluralism is a framework of interaction in which groups show sufficient respect and tolerance of each other, that they fruitfully coexist and interact without conflict or assimilation. ... Jump to: navigation, search Positivism can have several meanings. ... Logical positivism (later referred to as logical empiricism) holds that philosophy should aspire to the same sort of rigor as science. ... Jump to: navigation, search Logical positivism (later referred to as logical empiricism, also referred to as neo-positivism) is a philosophy (of science) that originated in the Vienna Circle in the 1920s. ... Jump to: navigation, search Pragmatism is a school of philosophy which originated in the United States in the late 1800s. ...


realism -- reality -- relativism -- Republic -- Jump to: navigation, search Realism is commonly defined as a concern for fact or reality and rejection of the impractical and visionary. ... Jump to: navigation, search Reality in everyday usage means everything that exists. ... Jump to: navigation, search Relativism is the view that the meaning and value of human beliefs and behaviors have no absolute reference. ... Jump to: navigation, search In a broad definition a republic is a state whose political organization rests on the principle that the citizens or electorate constitute the ultimate root of legitimacy and sovereignty. ...


scholasticism -- semantics -- skepticism (or scepticism) -- social contract -- solipsism -- sophistry -- stoicism -- spirituality -- Symposium (by Plato) -- Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100 - 1500. ... In the main, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... Occams razor non sunt multiplicanda entia praeter necessitatem or plurality should not be posited without necessity is a central tenet of skeptical thought. ... Skepticism (Commonwealth spelling: Scepticism) can mean: Philosophical skepticism - a philosophical position in which people choose to critically examine whether the knowledge and perceptions that they have are actually true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have absolutely true knowledge; or Scientific skepticism - a scientific, or practical... Jump to: navigation, search For political policies of the same name see Bob Raes Social Contract (Ontario) and Harold Wilsons Social Contract (Britain) Social contract (or contractarianism) is a phrase used in philosophy, political science and sociology to denote a real or hypothetical agreement within a state regarding... Jump to: navigation, search Solipsism (from the Latin ipse = self and solus = alone) is the epistemological belief that ones self is the only thing that can be known with certainty and verified (sometimes called egoism). ... Sophism was originally a term for the techniques taught by a highly respected group of philosophy and rhetoric teachers in ancient Greece. ... Jump to: navigation, search A restored Stoa in Athens. ... Jump to: navigation, search Spirituality is, in a narrow sense, a concern with matters of the spirit, however that may be defined; but it is also a wide term with many available readings. ... Symposium is a Socratic dialogue by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, student of Socrates. ...


tabula rasa -- thing in itself or thing-in-itself -- Thus Spoke Zarathustra -- Jump to: navigation, search Tabula rasa (Latin: scraped tablet, though often translated blank slate) is the notion that individual human beings are born blank (with no built-in mental content), and that their identity is defined entirely by events after birth. ... In the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a noumenon or thing in itself (German Ding an sich) is an unknowable, undescribable reality that, in some way, lies behind observed phenomena. ... In the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a noumenon or thing in itself (German Ding an sich) is an unknowable, undescribable reality that, in some way, lies behind observed phenomena. ... The cover for the first part of the first edition. ...


universals (problem of) -- utilitarianism -- Jump to: navigation, search The problem of universals is a phrase used to refer to a nest of intertwined problems about universals within cognitive psychology, epistemology, and ontology. ... Jump to: navigation, search Utilitarianism (from the Latin utilis, useful) is a theory of ethics based on quantitative maximization of some good for society or humanity. ...


virtue -- virtue ethics -- Jump to: navigation, search Virtue (Greek αρετη; Latin virtus) is the habitual, well-established, readiness or disposition of mans powers directing them to some goodness of act. ... Jump to: navigation, search In philosophy, the phrase virtue ethics refers to ethical systems that focus primarily on what sort of person one should try to be. ...


Western philosophy -- Western philosophy is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in Ancient Greece, and including the predominant philosophical thinking of Europe and its former colonies, and continues to this day. ...


Zeno's paradoxes Zenos paradoxes are a set of paradoxes devised by Zeno of Elea to support Parmenides doctrine that all is one and that contrary to the evidence of our senses, the belief in plurality and change is mistaken, and in particular that motion is nothing but an illusion. ...


The Isms (doctrines, schools, and principles) of philosophy

absolutism -- accidentalism -- aestheticism -- agnosticism -- altruism -- anarchism -- animism -- anthropomorphism -- aristotelianism -- asceticism -- atheism -- atomism -- authoritarianism -- automatism The term absolutism can mean: A belief in absolute truth moral absolutism, the belief that there is some absolute standard of right and wrong political absolutism, a political system where one person holds absolute power, also called apolytarchy from Gr. ... Jump to: navigation, search Accidentalism is a term used in philosophy for any system of thought which denies the causal nexus and maintains that events succeed one another haphazardly or by chance (not in the mathematical but in the popular sense). ... The Aesthetic movement is a loosely defined movement in art and literature in later nineteenth century Britain. ... Jump to: navigation, search Agnosticism is the philosophical view that the truth values of certain claims—particularly theological claims regarding the existence of God, gods, or deities—are unknown, inherently unknowable, or incoherent, and therefore, (some agnostics may go as far to say) irrelevant to life. ... Jump to: navigation, search Altruism is either a practice or habit (in the view of many, a virtue) as well as an ethical doctrine. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about anarchism, an anti-authoritarian philosophy that rejects capitalism. ... Jump to: navigation, search Animism has been used in a number of ways since Edward Tylor used it (in 1871) as a label to define the essence of religion as the belief in spirits (i. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Jump to: navigation, search Asceticism denotes a life which is characterised by refraining from worldly pleasures (austerity). ... Jump to: navigation, search Atheism, in its broadest sense, is characterized by an absence of belief in the existence of god(s), thus contrasting with theism. ... Atomism is the theory that all the objects in the universe are composed of very small, indestructible particles. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article applies to political ideologies. ... Automatism is the practice or theory of the spontaneous production of words (speech or writing), drawing, painting or other creative production, or behavior in general, without conscious self-control or self-censorship. ...


behaviorism -- Buddhism Jump to: navigation, search John B. Watson was one of the important influences on the development of behaviorism. ... Jump to: navigation, search A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had...


capitalism -- Cartesianism -- christianism -- classicism -- collectivism -- communalism -- communism -- communitarianism -- conceptualism -- Confucianism -- consequentialism -- constructivism -- cynicism Jump to: navigation, search In common usage capitalism refers to an economic system in which all or most of the means of production are privately owned and operated and where the investment of capital, and the production, distribution and prices of commodities (goods and services) are determined mainly in a... Cartesian means of or relating to the French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes. ... For other uses of the term Christian, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Jump to: navigation, search Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic. ... Collectivism, in general, is a term used to describe a theoretical or practical emphasis on the group, as opposed to (and seen by many of its opponents to be at the expense of) the individual. ... Communalism is a modern term that describes a broad range of social movements and social theories which are in some way centered upon the community. ... Jump to: navigation, search Communism refers to a theoretical system of social organization and a political movement based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Jump to: navigation, search Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosphies began in the late 20th century, opposing aspects of liberalism and capitalism while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... Conceptualism is a doctrine in philosophy intermediate between nominalism and realism, that universals exist only within the mind and have no external or substantial reality. ... Jump to: navigation, search Confucianism (Chinese: 儒家, Pinyin Rújiā, The School of the Scholars; or, less accurately, 孔教 Kŏng jiào, The Religion of Confucius) is an East Asian ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. ... Jump to: navigation, search Consequentialism is the belief that what ultimately matters in evaluating actions or policies of action are the consequences that result from choosing one action or policy rather than the alternative. ... Jump to: navigation, search In education, constructivism is a learning theory which holds that knowledge is not transmitted unchanged from teacher to student, but instead that learning is an active process of recreating knowledge. ... Jump to: navigation, search Cynicism was originally the philosophy of a group of ancient Greeks called the Cynics (main article), founded by Antisthenes. ...


deconstructionism -- defeatism -- deism -- deontologism -- determinism -- dialectical materialism -- dogmatism -- dualism -- dynamism The term deconstruction is often used in a loose way as a synonym of critical analysis, especially the kind of uncooperative critical analysis that subjects a work or a text to close scrutiny in order to expose contradictions, poor logic or unwelcome affinities with other works or cultural objects. ... Defeatism is acceptance and content with defeat without struggle. ... Jump to: navigation, search Historical and modern Deism is defined by the view that reason, rather than revelation or tradition, should be the basis of belief in God. ... In moral philosophy, deontology is the view that morality either forbids or permits actions, which is done through moral norms. ... Jump to: navigation, search Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. ... Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that Marxist philosophy of nature be merged into this article or section. ... This article is on dogma in religion. ... Jump to: navigation, search The term dualism can refer to a variety of doctrines, mainly in theology and philosophy, each involving the purported existence of two opposites of some kind. ... Dynamism is a term coined by libertarian pundit Virginia Postrel to describe her social philosophy that embraces cultural change, individual choice, and the open society. ...


eclecticism -- egalitarianism -- egoism -- emanationism -- emotivism -- empiricism -- epicureanism -- epiphenomenalism -- essentialism -- eudaimonism -- existentialism -- expressionism -- externalism Eclecticism is an approach to thought that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions or conclusions, but instead draws upon multiple theories to gain complementary insights into phenomena, or applies only certain theories in particular cases. ... Jump to: navigation, search Egalitarianism is the moral doctrine that equality ought to prevail throughout society. ... Jump to: navigation, search Egoism may refer to any of the following: psychological egoism - the doctrine that holds that individuals are motivated by self-interest. ... Emanationism is a component in the cosmology of certain religious or philosophical systems that argue a Supreme Being did not directly create the physical universe, but instead emanated into different spiritual powers that created the world. ... Non-cognitivism is the meta-ethical view that ethical statements (such as Killing is wrong) do not assert propositions; that is to say, they do not express factual claims or beliefs and therefore are neither true nor false (they are not truth-apt). ... Jump to: navigation, search Empiricism (greek εμπειρισμός, from empirical, latin experientia - the experience), is the philosophical doctrine that all human knowledge ultimately comes from the senses and from experience. ... Jump to: navigation, search Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... Epiphenomenalism is the view in philosophy of mind according to which physical events have mental effects, but mental events have no effects of any kind. ... Jump to: navigation, search Essentialism is the belief and practice centered on a philosophical claim that for any specific kind of entity it is at least theoretically possible to specify a finite list of characteristics, all of which any entity must have to belong to the group defined. ... The word eudaimonism comes from the Greek word for happiness (eudaimonia), and refers to any conception of ethics that puts human happiness and the complete life of the individual at the center of ethical concern. ... Jump to: navigation, search Existentialism is a philosophical movement that views human existence as having a set of underlying themes and characteristics, such as anxiety, dread, freedom, awareness of death, and consciousness of existing, that are primary. ... Jump to: navigation, search On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Recently internalism and externalism have become part of the standard jargon of philosophical discourse, and have become central to certain important debates. ...


fatalism -- fideism -- formalism -- foundationalism -- Freudianism -- functionalism Jump to: navigation, search Fatalism is the view that human deliberation and actions are pointless and ineffectual in determining events, because whatever will be will be. ... In Christian theology, fideism is any of a number of positions. ... The word formalism has several meanings: A certain school in the philosophy of mathematics, stressing axiomatic proofs through theorems specifically associated with David Hilbert. ... Foundationalism is any theory in epistemology (typically, theories of justification, but also of knowledge) that holds that beliefs are justified (known, etc. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... Functionalism is a term with several senses: For functionalism in sociology, see Functionalism (sociology). ...


gnosticism Jump to: navigation, search Gnosticism is a blanket term for various mystical initiatory religions and sects, which were most prominent in the first few centuries CE. It is also applied to modern revivals of these sects and, sometimes, by analogy to all religious movements based on secret knowledge gnosis, thus...


hedonism -- Hegelianism -- henotheism -- historicism -- holism -- humanism Jump to: navigation, search Hedonism (Greek: hÄ“donÄ“ pleasure + –ism) describes any way of thinking that gives pleasure a central role. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... In religion and philosophy, henotheism is a term coined by Max Müller, meaning devotion to a single god while accepting the existence of other gods. ... Historicism has developed different and divergent, though loosely related, meanings. ... Holism (from holon, a Greek word meaning entity) is the idea that the properties of a system cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its components alone. ... Jump to: navigation, search Humanism is an active ethical and philosophical approach to life, focusing on human solutions to human issues through rational (reasonable) thought, without recourse to supernatural entities, such as a God or gods, or to sacred texts, traditions or religious creeds. ...


idealism -- immortalism -- indeterminism -- individualism -- instrumentalism -- intellectualism -- internalism -- intuitionism -- irrationalism Jump to: navigation, search Idealism is an approach to philosophical enquiry. ... Immortality is the concept of existing for a potentially infinite or indeterminate length of time. ... Indeterminism is the philosophical belief that free will and determinism are incompatible, and that there are events which do not correspond with determinism. ... Jump to: navigation, search Individualism is a political and social philosophy, which emphasizes individual liberty, belief in the primary importance of the individual, and in the virtues of self-reliance and personal independence. Individualism embraces opposition to authority (except for other individualists, which are worshipped as heroes), and to all... In the philosophy of science, instrumentalism is the view that concepts and theories are merely useful instruments whose worth is measured not by whether the concepts and theories are true or false (or correctly depict reality), but how effective they are in explaining and predicting phenomena. ... An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... Recently internalism and externalism have become part of the standard jargon of philosophical discourse, and have become central to certain important debates. ... In the philosophy of mathematics, intuitionism, or neointuitionism (opposed to preintuitionism), is an approach to mathematics as the constructive mental activity of humans. ... The philosophical movements of irrationalism and aestheticism were a cultural reaction against positivism that took place during the early twentieth century. ...


Kantianism Kantianism is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant. ...


legalism -- liberalism -- libertarianism -- logical Positivism -- logicism Legalism has several meanings. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article discusses liberalism as a major political ideology, not the usage of the term in specific countries. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about libertarianism, a liberal individualist philosophy favoring private property (the most common meaning of the term today in most English-speaking countries). ... Jump to: navigation, search Logical positivism (later referred to as logical empiricism, also referred to as neo-positivism) is a philosophy (of science) that originated in the Vienna Circle in the 1920s. ... Logicism is one of the schools of thought in the philosophy of mathematics. ...


marxism -- materialism -- mechanism -- mentalism -- meliorism -- modernism -- monism -- monotheism -- moral absolutism -- moral relativism -- mysticism Jump to: navigation, search Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Jump to: navigation, search Materialism is the philosophical view that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions. ... Mechanism is the following: In general, a mechanism is part of a chain of causes leading to some object or process. ... Jump to: navigation, search Mentalism is a performing art in which the practitioner uses his five senses to create the illusion of a sixth. ... Meliorism is the idea in metaphysical thinking that progress is a real concept leading to an improvement of the world. ... Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that Modernist project be merged into this article or section. ... Jump to: navigation, search Monism is the metaphysical view that there is only one principle, essence, substance or energy. ... Jump to: navigation, search Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... Jump to: navigation, search Moral absolutism is the position that there are absolute standards against which moral questions can be judged, and that certain actions are right or wrong, regardless of the context of the act. ... Jump to: navigation, search In philosophy, moral relativism is the position that moral or ethical propositions do not reflect absolute or universal truths but instead are relative to social, cultural, historical or personal references, and that there is no single standard by which to assess an ethical propositions truth. ... Jump to: navigation, search Mysticism, from the Greek (mueo, to conceal), is the pursuit of achieving communion with, or conscious awareness of ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct, personal experience (intuition or insight) rather than rational thought; the belief in the existence of realities beyond perceptual...


naturalism -- necessitarianism -- neo-Confucianism -- neo-Platonism -- nihilism -- nominalism Naturalism refers to a number of different topics: Philosophical naturalism: the view that nothing exists but the world — that there are no supernatural entities. ... Necessitarianism (Principle in metaphysics) — Necessitarianism is determinism applied to human beings: the doctrine that human beings do not have free will but are determined in their actions by antecedent, external causes. ... Jump to: navigation, search Neo-Confucianism (理學 Pinyin: Lǐxué) is a term for a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang dynasty. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... Jump to: navigation, search Gods death or nonexistence is a quintessential nihilistic concern. ... Jump to: navigation, search Nominalism is the position in metaphysics that there exist no universals outside of the mind. ...


objectivism -- optimism -- organicism Jump to: navigation, search Objectivism is the philosophy developed by Russian-born American philosopher and author Ayn Rand. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: Optimism Optimism, the opposite of pessimism, exemplifies a lifeview where one looks upon the world as a positive place. ... Organicism is a biological doctrine that stresses the organization, rather than the composition, of organisms. ...


pacifism -- panpsychism -- pantheism -- perspectivism -- pessimism -- phenomenalism -- physicalism -- Platonism -- pluralism -- polytheism -- positivism -- post modernism -- pragmatism -- prescriptivism -- probabilism -- psychologism -- pythagoreanism Vereschagins painting Apotheosis of War (1871) came to be admired as one of the earliest artistic expressions of pacifism. ... Panpsychism, in philosophy, is either the view that all parts of matter involve mind, or the more holistic view that the whole universe is an organism that possesses a mind. ... Pantheism (Greek: pan = all and Theos = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Jump to: navigation, search Perspectivism is the philosophical view that all perception takes place from a specific perspective. ... Pessimism, generally, describes a belief that things are bad, and tend to become worse; or that looks to the eventual triumph of evil over good; it contrasts with optimism, the contrary belief in the goodness and betterment of things generally. ... Jump to: navigation, search In the philosophy of perception, phenomenalism is the view that physical objects, properties, events (whatever is physical) are reducible to mental objects, properties, events. ... Jump to: navigation, search Physicalism is the metaphysical position that everything is physical; that is, that there are no kinds of things other than physical things. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Jump to: navigation, search In the social sciences, pluralism is a framework of interaction in which groups show sufficient respect and tolerance of each other, that they fruitfully coexist and interact without conflict or assimilation. ... Jump to: navigation, search Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... Jump to: navigation, search Positivism can have several meanings. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Jump to: navigation, search Pragmatism is a school of philosophy which originated in the United States in the late 1800s. ... In linguistics, prescription is the laying down or prescribing of normative rules of the language. ... In theology and philosophy, probabilism (from Latin probare, to test, approve) holds that in the absence of certainty, probability is the best criterion. ... Psychologism in the philosophy of mathematics is the explanation or derivation of mathematical or logical laws in terms of psychological facts. ... Jump to: navigation, search Pythagoreanism is a term used for the esoteric and metaphysical beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers the Pythagoreans, much influenced by mathematics and probably a main inspiration source to Plato and platonism. ...


rationalism -- realism -- reductionism -- relativism -- representationalism -- romanticism Jump to: navigation, search Rationalism, also known as the rationalist movement, is a philosophical doctrine that asserts that the truth can best be discovered by reason and factual analysis, rather than faith, dogma or religious teaching. ... Jump to: navigation, search Philosophical realism refers to various philosophically unrelated positions, in some cases diametrically opposed ones, which are termed realism. ... Jump to: navigation, search Reductionism in philosophy describes a number of related, contentious theories that hold, very roughly, that the nature of complex things can always be reduced to (be explained by) simpler or more fundamental things. ... Jump to: navigation, search Relativism is the view that the meaning and value of human beliefs and behaviors have no absolute reference. ... Representationalism, or the representational theory of perception, is a philosophical doctrine that in any act of perception, the immediate (direct) object of perception is a sense-datum that represents an external object, which is the mediate (indirect) object of perception. ... Jump to: navigation, search Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ...


scholasticism -- scientism -- secularism -- sensationalism -- skepticism -- social Darwinism -- socialism -- solipsism -- sophism -- spiritualism -- stoicism -- subjectivism -- syncretism Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100 - 1500. ... Jump to: navigation, search Scientism is a relatively newly coined word that refers to certain epistemologies based on science. ... Jump to: navigation, search Secularism is commonly defined as the idea that religion should not interfere with or be integrated into the public affairs of a society. ... Sensationalism is a manner of being extremely controversial, loud, attention-grabbing, or otherwise sensationalistic. ... Jump to: navigation, search Philosophical skepticism or nihilistic skepticism [1] (UK spelling, scepticism) is the philosophical school of thought in which one critically examines whether the knowledge and perceptions one has are true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have true knowledge. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... Jump to: navigation, search Solipsism (from the Latin ipse = self and solus = alone) is the epistemological belief that ones self is the only thing that can be known with certainty and verified (sometimes called egoism). ... Jump to: navigation, search Sophism was originally a term for the techniques taught by a highly respected group of philosophy and rhetoric teachers in ancient Greece. ... Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that Spiritualist Church be merged into this article or section. ... Jump to: navigation, search A restored Stoa in Athens. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Jump to: navigation, search Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ...


taoism -- theism -- Thomism -- totalitarianism -- transcendentalism Jump to: navigation, search The Yin-Yang or Taiji diagram, often used as a symbol in Taoism. ... Jump to: navigation, search Theism is the belief in one or more gods or goddesses. ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of St. ... Jump to: navigation, search Totalitarianism is a typology employed by political scientists to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Jump to: navigation, search Transcendentalism was the name of a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that advocates that there is an ideal spiritual state that transcends the physical and empirical and is only realized through a knowledgeable intuitive awareness that is conditional upon the individual. ...


utilitarianism Jump to: navigation, search Utilitarianism (from the Latin utilis, useful) is a theory of ethics based on quantitative maximization of some good for society or humanity. ...


vitalism -- voluntarism Vitalism is the doctrine that life cannot be explained solely by mechanism. ... Voluntarism (lat. ...


General Online Philosophy Resources


  Results from FactBites:
 
List of basic philosophical topics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (736 words)
Below is a list of basic topics in philosophy -- topics which will help the beginner become familiar with the field of philosophy.
The Renaissance, Enlightenment, and Romanticism are broader cultural "movements" that happened to characterised by fairly distinctive philosophical concerns.
For a more complete list, including definitions, see the List of philosophical isms
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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