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Encyclopedia > List of archaeological periods

Names for archaeological periods vary enormously from region to region. This is a list of the main divisions by continent and region. Dating also varies considerably and those given are broad approximations across wide areas.


The three-age system has been used in many areas, referring to the prehistory periods identified by tool manufacture and use, of Stone age, Bronze age and Iron age. Since these ages are distinguished by the development of technology, it is natural that the dates to which these refer vary in different parts of the world. In many regions, the term Stone age is no longer used, as it has been replaced by more specific geological periods. For some regions, there is need for an intermediate Chalcolithic period between the stone age and bronze age. For cultures where indigenous metal tools were in less widespread use, other classifications, such as the lithic stage, archaic stage and formative stage refer to the development of other types of technology and social organisation. The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age The system is most apt in describing the progression of European society, although it has been used... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Prehistoric man. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... In the sequence of North American prehistoric cultural stages first proposed by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips in 1958, the Lithic stage was the earliest period of human occupation in the Americas, covering the earliest, Pleistocene period. ... In the sequence of North American cultural stages first proposed by Gordon Willey and Phillip Phillips in 1958, the Archaic stage was the second period of human occupation in the Americas, from around 8000 BC to 1000 BC although as its ending is defined by the adoption of sedentary farming... The Formative Stage is an archaeological term describing a particular developmental level. ...


Historical periods refer to periods of human development after the development of writing. Historical records in whatever form tend to provide more political insight into the dominant nations, and hence allow categorization according to the ruling empires and cultures, such as Hellenistic, Roman, Viking. Inevitably these definitions of periods only relate to the region of that empire or culture. The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne explorers, traders, and warriors of the Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late...


The Industrial age or Modern era is generally taken to refer to post 1800. From this time, the industrial revolution which began in Western Europe had resulted in global trade as well as global empires. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into modernity. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... A Watt steam engine. ...


Archaeological period articles - by Continent and Region

Continents Regions Periods Articles Major Periods
Africa North Africa North Africa Paleolithic

Epipaleolithic
Neolithic c7500 BC
Iron Age
Roman A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... The Epipalaeolithic (or Epi-Palaeolithic, Epipaleolithic, or Epi-Paleolithic) was a period in the development of human technology that immediately precedes the neolithic period, as an alternative to mesolithic. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...

Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Early Stone Age

Middle Stone Age
Late Stone Age
Neolithic c4000 BC A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe those countries of the African continent that are not... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...

Asia Near East Levantine Stone age (2,000,000 BP - 3300 BCE)

Bronze age (3300 BCE - 1200 BCE)
Iron age (1200 BCE - 586 BCE)
Historical periods (586 BCE - present) World map showing the location of Asia. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Turkey, Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria). ... The following is a refined listing of Levantive archeological periods, expanded from the basic three-age system with finer subdivisions and extension into the modern historical period. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...

South Asia South Asian Periods
East Asia East Asia Periods Neolithic c. 7500 BC Pengtoushan culture
North Asia North Asia Periods
Korea Korean Periods Paleolithic c. 40,000/30,000 - c. 8,000 BC

Jeulmun pottery period c. 8,000 BC - 1500 BC
Mumun pottery period c. 1500 BC - 300 BC
Protohistoric period c. 300 BC - AD 300/400
Three Kingdoms of Korea c. AD 300/400 - AD 668
This article is about the geopolitical region in Asia. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Pengtoushan culture (彭頭山文化) (7500-6100 BC [1]) was a Neolithic culture centered primarily around the central Yangtze River region in northwestern Hunan, China. ... Regions of Asia:  Northern Asia  Central Asia  Western Asia  Southern Asia  Eastern Asia  Southeastern Asia North Asia or Northern Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 or ì¡°ì„ , see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... The chronology of the Korean peninsula is divided into the following archaeological periods: // The earliest radiocarbon dates for this period indicate the antiquity of occupation on the Korean peninsula is between 40,000 and 30,000 B.P. (Bae 2002). ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... The Jeulmun pottery period is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 8000-1500 B.C. (Bale 2001; Choe and Bale 2002; Crawford and Lee 2003; Lee 2001, 2006). ... The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ... The Three Kingdoms of Korea were Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. The Three Kingdoms period in Korea is usually considered to run from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until Sillas triumph over...

Japan Japan Periods Paleolithic c. 100,000 - c. 10,000 BC

Jomon period c. 10,000 BC - 300 BC
Yayoi period c 300 BC - AD 250
Yamato period c. AD 250 - 710 The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Jomon Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yayoi Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ...

Americas North America North America Lithic/Paleo-Indian (pre 8000 BC)

Archaic (c. 8000-1000 BC)
Formative (c. 1000 BC - AD 500)
Classic (c. AD 500 - 1200)
Post-Classic (c.1200 - 1900) World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Many archaeological periods, cultures, complexes, and peoples have been identified in North America. ... In the sequence of North American prehistoric cultural stages first proposed by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips in 1958, the Lithic stage was the earliest period of human occupation in the Americas, covering the earliest, Pleistocene period. ... In the sequence of North American cultural stages first proposed by Gordon Willey and Phillip Phillips in 1958, the Archaic stage was the second period of human occupation in the Americas, from around 8000 BC to 1000 BC although as its ending is defined by the adoption of sedentary farming... The Formative Stage is an archaeological term describing a particular developmental level. ... The Classic Stage is an archaeological term describing a particular developmental level. ... The Post-Classic Stage is an archaeological term describing a particular developmental level. ...

Mesoamerica Mesoamerica Lithic/Paleo-Indian (pre 8000 BC)

Archaic (c. 8000-1000 BC)
Formative (c. 1000 BC - AD 250)
Classic ( AD 250 - 900)
Post-Classic (AD 900 -1515) The cultural areas of Mesoamerica Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Spanish: Mesoamérica) was a geographical culture area extending from central Honduras and northwestern Costa Rica on the south, and, in Mexico, from the Soto la Marina River in Tamaulipas and the Rio Fuerte in Sinaloa on the north. ... The chronology of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica is usually divided into the following eras: // One of the most enduring classifications of archaeological periods & cultures was established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips 1958 book They divided the archaeological record in the Americas into 5 phases. ... In the sequence of North American prehistoric cultural stages first proposed by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips in 1958, the Lithic stage was the earliest period of human occupation in the Americas, covering the earliest, Pleistocene period. ... In the sequence of North American cultural stages first proposed by Gordon Willey and Phillip Phillips in 1958, the Archaic stage was the second period of human occupation in the Americas, from around 8000 BC to 1000 BC although as its ending is defined by the adoption of sedentary farming... The Formative Stage is an archaeological term describing a particular developmental level. ... The Classic Stage is an archaeological term describing a particular developmental level. ... The Post-Classic Stage is an archaeological term describing a particular developmental level. ...

South America South America
(Peru)
Lithic/Paleo-Indian (pre c. 8200 BC)

Archaic (c. 8200 - 1000 BC)
Formative (c. 1000 BC - AD 500)
Classic (c. AD 500 - 1200)
Post-Classic (c. AD 1200 - 1900) South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... In the sequence of North American prehistoric cultural stages first proposed by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips in 1958, the Lithic stage was the earliest period of human occupation in the Americas, covering the earliest, Pleistocene period. ... In the sequence of North American cultural stages first proposed by Gordon Willey and Phillip Phillips in 1958, the Archaic stage was the second period of human occupation in the Americas, from around 8000 BC to 1000 BC although as its ending is defined by the adoption of sedentary farming... The Formative Stage is an archaeological term describing a particular developmental level. ... The Classic Stage is an archaeological term describing a particular developmental level. ... The Post-Classic Stage is an archaeological term describing a particular developmental level. ...

Australasia Australia Australia
New Zealand New Zealand Archaic period (AD 1000 - 1350/1650)

Classic period (AD 1350-1800) or (1650-1800 in eastern South Island) Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... The South Island The South Island is one of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the North Island. ...

Oceania Oceania
Europe Northern Europe Northern Europe Mesolithic

Neolithic
Bronze Age
Iron Age
Roman Iron Age (c. AD 1 - 400)
Germanic Iron Age (c. AD 400- 800)
Viking Age (c. AD 800 - 1066)
Medieval period (1066 - c. 1500)
Post-medieval period (c. 1500 - c. 1800)
Industrial/Modern Look up Oceania in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... The following is a refined listing of Northern European archaeological periods, expanded from the basic three-age system with finer subdivisions and extension into the modern historical period. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Roman Bronze figurine, Öland, Sweden The Roman Iron Age (1-400) is the name that Swedish archaeologist Oscar Montelius gave to a part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia, Northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... The Germanic Iron Age is the name given to the period 400 CE–800 AD in Northern Europe, and it is part of the continental Age of Migrations. ... The Viking Age is the name of the period between 793 and 1066 AD in Scandinavia and Britain, following the Germanic Iron Age (and the Vendel Age in Sweden). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Post-medieval archaeology is term used in Europe to describe the study of the material past over the last 500 years. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into modernity. ...

Western Europe Western Europe Paleolithic

Mesolithic
Neolithic
Bronze Age
Iron Age
Roman
Early medieval period (c. AD 400- 800)
Medieval period (800 - c. 1500)
Post-medieval period (c. 1500 - c. 1800)
Industrial/Modern A common post-WWII understanding of Western Europe Western Europe in its most common understanding is a socio-political concept coined and used during the Cold War. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Post-medieval archaeology is term used in Europe to describe the study of the material past over the last 500 years. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into modernity. ...

South eastern Europe South eastern Europe Paleolithic

Epipaleolithic
Neolithic
Chalcolithic
Bronze Age
Iron Age
Hellenistic
Roman
Byzantine period This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... The Epipalaeolithic (or Epi-Palaeolithic, Epipaleolithic, or Epi-Paleolithic) was a period in the development of human technology that immediately precedes the neolithic period, as an alternative to mesolithic. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...

See also


The table gives a rough picture of the relationships between the various principal cultures of Prehistory outside the Americas, Antarctica, Australia and Oceania. ...

Three-age system: Stone Age | Bronze Age | Iron Age The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age The system is most apt in describing the progression of European society, although it has been used... Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


List of archaeological periods


  Results from FactBites:
 
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Archaeological methods were developed by both interested amateurs and professionals, including Augustus Pitt Rivers and William Flinders Petrie.
The first major phase in the history of archaeological theory is commonly referred to as cultural, or culture, history, which was developed during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
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This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age; for the mythological Chou Age see Ages of Man.
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