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Encyclopedia > List of academic disciplines

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An academic discipline, or field of study, is a branch of knowledge which is taught or researched at the college or university level. Disciplines are defined and recognised by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned societies and academic departments or faculties to which their practitioners belong. Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study or a practical skill. ... This article is about the concept. ... Scientific journals are one type of academic journal An academic journal is a regularly-published, peer-reviewed publication that publishes scholarship relating to an academic discipline. ... A learned society is a society that exists to promote an academic discipline or group of disciplines. ...


Fields of study usually have several sub-disciplines or branches, and the distinguishing lines between these are often both arbitrary and ambiguous.


In medieval Europe, there were only four faculties in a university: Theology, Medicine, Jurisprudence and Arts, with the last one having a somewhat lower status. Current-day university disciplines have their roots in the mid- to late-19th century secularization of universities, when the traditional curriculum was supplemented by non-classical languages and literatures, and by science and technology disciplines such as physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... A faculty is a division within a university. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Secularization or secularisation is a process of transformation as a society slowly migrates from close identification with the local institutions of religion to a more clearly separated relationship. ... For a curriculum vitae, see Résumé. In formal education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses, and their content, offered at a school or university. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ...


In the early 20th century, new disciplines such as education, sociology, and psychology were added. In the 1970s and 1980s, there was an explosion of new disciplines focusing on specific themes, such as media studies, women's studies, and Black studies. Many disciplines designed as preparation for careers and professions, such as nursing, hospitality management, corrections, also emerged in the universities. Finally, the visibility of such interdisciplinary scientific fields as biochemistry and geophysics increased, as their contribution to knowledge became widely recognized. Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Psychological science redirects here. ... Media Studies is the study of the constitution and effects of media. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ... Nursing is a profession focused on assisting individuals, families, and communities in attaining, re-attaining, and maintaining optimal health and functioning. ... Hospitality management is the academic study of the running of hotels, restaurants, and travel and tourism-related business. ... Corrections refers to one of the components of the criminal justice system. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kēme, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...


A "*" denotes a field whose academic status is debated. Note that the area into which some fields should be classified is debated, such as whether anthropology and linguistics are social sciences disciplines or humanities disciplines. Note that some people, particularly critical theorists are critical of the division of disciplines, and virtually every division of disciplines, as well as the structure of the concept of disciplines in general, is disputed by some. Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... For other uses, see Humanities (disambiguation). ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ...


Natural sciences

The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ...

Space sciences

See also Branches of astronomy

Space science, or the space sciences, are fields of science that are concerned with the study or utilisation of outer space. ... The DNA structure might not be the only nucleic acid in the universe capable of supporting life[1] Astrobiology (from Greek: ἀστρο, astro, constellation; βίος, bios, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary study of life in space, combining aspects of astronomy, biology and geology. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... For other uses, see Black hole (disambiguation). ... The interstellar medium (or ISM) is the name astronomers give to the tenuous gas and dust that pervade interstellar space. ... A direct numerical simulation (DNS) is a simulation in computational fluid dynamics in which the Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved without any turbulence model. ... Heliospheric current sheet, the largest structure in the Solar System, resulting from the influence of the Suns rotating magnetic field on the plasma in the interplanetary medium (Solar Wind) [1]. The wavy spiral shape has been likened to a ballerinas skirt, and carries a tiny 10-10 amps... In astrophysics, the questions of galaxy formation and evolution are: How, from a homogeneous universe, did we obtain the very heterogeneous one we live in? How did galaxies form? How do galaxies change over time? A spectacular head-on collision between two galaxies is seen in this NASA Hubble Space... High energy astronomy is the study of astronomical objects that release EM radiation of highly energetic wavelengths. ... Hydrodynamics is fluid dynamics applied to liquids, such as water, alcohol, oil, and blood. ... Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (magnetofluiddynamics or hydromagnetics) is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. ... Star formation is the process by which dense parts of molecular clouds collapse into a ball of plasma to form a star. ... This article is about the physics subject. ... This article is about the astronomical object. ... A computer generated image showing the pattern of a p-mode solar acoustic oscillation both in the interior and on the surface of the sun. ... Projected timeline of the Suns life In astronomy, stellar evolution is the process by which a star undergoes a sequence of radical changes during its lifetime. ... Cross section of a red giant showing nucleosynthesis and elements formed Stellar nucleosynthesis is the collective term for the nuclear reactions taking place in stars to build the nuclei of the heavier elements. ... Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory Observational astronomy is a division of the astronomical science that is concerned with getting data, in contrast with theoretical astrophysics which is mainly concerned with finding out the measureable implications of physical models. ... Gamma-ray astronomy is the astronomical study of gamma rays. ... Infrared astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics which deals with objects visible in infrared (IR) radiation. ... Timeline of cosmic microwave background astronomy 1934 - Richard Tolman shows that black-body radiation in an expanding universe cools but remains thermal 1941 - Andrew McKellar uses the excitation of CN doublet lines to measure that the effective temperature of space is about 2. ... Optical astronomy encompasses a wide variety of observations via telescopes that are sensitive in the range of visible light. ... The Very Large Array, a radio interferometer in New Mexico, USA Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... UV astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics which deals with objects visible in ultraviolet (UV) radiation. ... ROSAT image of X-ray fluorescence of, and occultation of the X-ray background by, the Moon. ... Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (, stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere. ...

Earth sciences

See also Branches of earth sciences

Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... The word edaphology is derived from the Greek words edaphos meaning ground or floor, and logy meaning word, or wisdom. ... Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... Gemology (gemmology outside the United States) is the science, art and profession of identifying and evaluating gemstones. ... Geodetic pillar (1855); Ostend, Belgium Archive with lithography plates for maps of Bavaria in the Landesamt für Vermessung und Geoinformation in Munich Geodesy (IPA North American English ; British, Australian English etc. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other planets, chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils, and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical components in time and space, and their interaction with... Surface of the Earth Geomorphology is the study of landforms, including their origin and evolution, and the processes that shape them. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the part of hydrology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earths crust, (commonly in aquifers). ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... Pedology (pědǒlōgy), (from Russian: pedologiya, from the Greek pedon = soil, earth), is the study of soils and soil formation. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Paleobiology (sometimes spelled palaeobiology) is a growing and comparatively new discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology. ... Planetary science, also known as planetology or planetary astronomy, is the science of planets and the solar system, and incorporates an interdisciplinary approach drawing from diverse sciences. ... Sedimentology is the branch of geology primarily concerned with understanding the characteristics of sediments, sedimentary processes and sedimentary rocks originally deposited in sedimentary basins. ... Soil science deals with soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils per se; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ...

Life sciences

See also List of biology disciplines

Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... Aerobiology is a branch of biology that studies organic particles, such as bacteria, fungal spores, very small insects and pollen, which are passively transported by the air (Spieksma, 1991). ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of organisms. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kēme, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physics, to questions of biology. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... Chronobiology is a field of science that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms. ... Cryobiology is the study of living organisms, organs, biological tissues or biological cells at low temperatures. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Human ecology is an academic discipline that deals with the relationship between humans and their natural, social and created environments. ... Landscape ecology is a sub-discipline of ecology and geography that address how spatial variation in the landscape affects ecological processes such as the distribution and flow of energy, materials and individuals in the environment (which, in turn, may influence the distribution of landscape elements themselves such as hedgerows). ... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ... Not to be confused with Etymology, the study of the history of words. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Human biology is an interdisciplinary academic field of biology, biological anthropology, and medicine which focuses on humans; it is closely related to primate biology, and a number of other fields. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... Limnology is a discipline that concerns the study of inland waters (both saline and fresh), specifically lakes, ponds and rivers (both natural and manmade), including their biological, physical, chemical, and hydrological aspects. ... Linnaean taxonomy is a method of classifying living things originally devised by, and named for, Carl Linnaeus although it has changed considerably since his time. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Mycology (from the Greek μύκης, meaning fungus) is the study of fungi, their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy, and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicinals (e. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... Paleobiology (sometimes spelled palaeobiology) is a growing and comparatively new discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... Phycology (or algology) (from Greek: φύκος, phykos, seaweed; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), a subdiscipline of botany, is the scientific study of algae. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Human Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. ... Biological systematics is the study of the diversity of life on the planet earth, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... Virology, often considered a part of microbiology or of pathology, is the study of organic viruses: their structure and classification, their ways to infect and exploit cells to reproduce and cause disease, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their potential uses in research and therapy. ... Molecular Virology is the study of viruses at the molecular level. ... Astrobiology (in Greek astron = star, bios = life and logos = word/science), also known as exobiology (Greek: exo = out) or xenobiology (Greek: xenos = foreign) is the term for a speculative field within biology which considers the possible variety of extraterrestrial life. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Cryptozoology (from Greek: κρυπτός, kryptós, hidden; ζῷον, zôon, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge or study – zoology) is the search for animals hypothesized to exist, but for which conclusive proof is missing. ... Not to be confused with Etymology, the study of the history of words. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Herpetology (from greek: ἑρπετόν, creeping animal and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of reptiles and amphibians. ... Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθυ, ikhthu, fish; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. ... Oology is the branch of zoology that deals with the study of eggs, especially birds eggs. ... This article is about the field of zoology. ... Primatology is the study of non-human primates. ... Zootomy is a contraction of zoological and anatomy and refers to the dissection of animals as opposed to that of plants (phytotomy) See also: Androtomy, zootomical terms for location, Cat anatomy La Anatomía comparada estudia diversas especies. ... This is a list of biology disciplines. ...

Chemistry

See also Branches of chemistry

For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kēme, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses the results of theoretical chemistry incorporated into efficient computer programs to calculate the structures and properties of molecules and solids, applying these programs to complement the information obtained by actual chemical experiments, predict hitherto unobserved chemical phenomena, and solve related problems. ... Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ... Theoretical chemistry involves the use of physics to explain or predict chemical phenomena. ... Interface and Colloid Science deals with heterogeneous systems. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ...

Physics

See also Branches of physics

A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Acoustics is the branch of physics concerned with the study of sound (mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... Atomic, molecular, and optical physics is the study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions on the scale of single atoms or structures containing a few atoms. ... Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physics, to questions of biology. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics, as opposed to experimental processes, in an attempt to understand nature. ... Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical algorithms in order to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists. ... Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. ... Cryogenics is a branch of physics (or engineering) that studies the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the elementary constituents of matter and radiation, and the interactions between them. ... Fluid dynamics is the sub-discipline of fluid mechanics dealing with fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Mathematical physics is the scientific discipline concerned with the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories. ... Medical physics is a branch of applied physics concerning the application of physics to medicine. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... Molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of molecules and of the chemical bonds between atoms that bind them into molecules. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... A Plasma lamp In physics and chemistry, a plasma is an ionized gas, and is usually considered to be a distinct phase of matter. ... Fig. ... Solid-state physics, the largest branch of condensed matter physics, is the study of rigid matter, or solids. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... Vehicle dynamics refers to the dynamics of vehicles, here assumed to be ground vehicles. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Physics is the science concerned with the discovery and understanding of the fundamental laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ...

Formal sciences

A formal science is an academic study that is predominantly concerned with abstract formal systems, for instance, logic, mathematics, and the theoretical branches of computer science, information theory, and statistics. ...

Mathematics

See also Branches of mathematics and AMS Mathematics Subject Classification

For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... This article is about the branch of mathematics. ... Group theory is that branch of mathematics concerned with the study of groups. ... Group representation theory is the branch of mathematics that studies properties of abstract groups via their representations as linear transformations of vector spaces. ... In mathematics, ring theory is the study of rings, algebraic structures in which addition and multiplication are defined and have similar properties to those familiar from the integers. ... Field theory is a branch of mathematics which studies the properties of fields. ... Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerned with the study of vectors, vector spaces (also called linear spaces), linear maps (also called linear transformations), and systems of linear equations. ... In mathematics, a vector space (or linear space) is a collection of objects (called vectors) that, informally speaking, may be scaled and added. ... In mathematics, multilinear algebra extends the methods of linear algebra. ... In mathematics, a Lie algebra is an algebraic structure whose main use is in studying geometric objects such as Lie groups and differentiable manifolds. ... In mathematics, an associative algebra is a vector space (or more generally, a module) which also allows the multiplication of vectors in a distributive and associative manner. ... In mathematics, non-associative algebra is a subfield of abstract algebra, in which are studied algebraic structures endowed with a binary operation that is not assumed to obey the associative law. ... Universal algebra (sometimes called General algebra) is the field of mathematics that studies the ideas common to all algebraic structures. ... Homological algebra is the branch of mathematics which studies the methods of homology and cohomology in a general setting. ... In mathematics, category theory deals in an abstract way with mathematical structures and relationships between them. ... See lattice for other mathematical as well as non-mathematical meanings of the term. ... Order theory is a branch of mathematics that studies various kinds of binary relations that capture the intuitive notion of a mathematical ordering. ... In mathematics, differential rings, differential fields and differential algebras are rings, fields and algebras equipped with a derivation, which is a unary function satisfying the Leibniz product law. ... Analysis has its beginnings in the rigorous formulation of calculus. ... Real analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis dealing with the set of real numbers and functions of real numbers. ... For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). ... Plot of the function f(x)=(x2-1)(x-2-i)2/(x2+2+2i). ... Functional analysis is the branch of mathematics, and specifically of analysis, concerned with the study of spaces of functions. ... In mathematics, operator theory is the branch of functional analysis which deals with bounded linear operators and their properties. ... Non-standard analysis is that branch of mathematics that formulates analysis using a rigorous notion of infinitesimal, where an element of an ordered field F is infinitesimal if and only if its absolute value is smaller than any element of F of the form 1/n, for n a natural... Harmonic analysis is the branch of mathematics that studies the representation of functions or signals as the superposition of basic waves. ... P-adic analysis (p-adic analysis) is a branch of mathematics that deals with functions of p-adic numbers. ... In mathematics, a differential equation is an equation that describes a prescribed relationship between a set of unknowns which are to be regarded as an unknown function and its (ordinary or partial) derivatives. ... In mathematics, and in particular analysis, a partial differential equation (PDE) is an equation involving partial derivatives of an unknown function. ... Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with analysis of random phenomena. ... In mathematics, a measure is a function that assigns a number, e. ... In mathematics, a measure-preserving transformation T on a probability space is said to be ergodic if the only measurable sets invariant under T have measure 0 or 1. ... In the mathematics of probability, a stochastic process is a random function. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... A Möbius strip, an object with only one surface and one edge; such shapes are an object of study in topology. ... In mathematics, general topology or point set topology is that branch of topology which studies elementary properties of topological spaces and structures defined on them. ... Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics in which tools from abstract algebra are used to study topological spaces. ... In mathematics, geometric topology is the study of manifolds and their embeddings, with representative topics being knot theory and braid groups. ... In mathematics, differential topology is the field dealing with differentiable functions on differentiable manifolds. ... Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics which, as the name suggests, combines techniques of abstract algebra, especially commutative algebra, with the language and the problematics of geometry. ... In mathematics, differential topology is the field dealing with differentiable functions on differentiable manifolds. ... Projective geometry is a non-metrical form of geometry. ... In geometry, affine geometry occupies a place intermediate between Euclidean geometry and projective geometry. ... Behavior of lines with a common perpendicular in each of the three types of geometry The term non-Euclidean geometry describes hyperbolic, elliptic and absolute geometry, which are contrasted with Euclidean geometry. ... Convex geometry is the branch of geometry studying convex sets, mainly in Euclidean space. ... Discrete geometry or combinatorial geometry may be loosely defined as study of geometrical objects and properties that are discrete or combinatorial, either by their nature or by their representation; the study that does not essentially rely on the notion of continuity. ... Number theory is the branch of pure mathematics concerned with the properties of numbers in general, and integers in particular, as well as the wider classes of problems that arise from their study. ... Analytic number theory is the branch of number theory that uses methods from mathematical analysis. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In number theory, the geometry of numbers is a topic and method arising from the work of Hermann Minkowski, on the relationship between convex sets and lattices in n-dimensional space. ... Mathematical logic is a major area of mathematics, which grew out of symbolic logic. ... Foundations of mathematics is a term sometimes used for certain fields of mathematics itself, namely for mathematical logic, axiomatic set theory, proof theory, model theory, and recursion theory. ... Set theory is the mathematical theory of sets, which represent collections of abstract objects. ... Proof theory is a branch of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques. ... In mathematics, model theory is the study of the representation of mathematical concepts in terms of set theory, or the study of the structures that underlie mathematical systems. ... Recursion theory, or computability theory, is a branch of mathematical logic dealing with generalizations of the notion of computable function, and with related notions such as Turing degrees and effective descriptive set theory. ... In formal logic, a modal logic is any logic for handling modalities: concepts like possibility, existence, and necessity. ... Intuitionistic logic, or constructivist logic, is the logic used in mathematical intuitionism and other forms of mathematical constructivism. ... Applied mathematics is a branch of mathematics that concerns itself with the mathematical techniques typically used in the application of mathematical knowledge to other domains. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... Mathematical statistics uses probability theory and other branches of mathematics to study statistics from a purely mathematical standpoint. ... Econometrics is concerned with the tasks of developing and applying quantitative or statistical methods to the study and elucidation of economic principles. ... 2003 US mortality (life) table, Table 1, Page 1 Actuarial science applies mathematical and statistical methods to finance and insurance, particularly to the assessment of risk. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of human populations. ... In mathematics, approximation theory is concerned with how functions can be approximated with other, simpler, functions, and with characterising in a quantitative way the errors introduced thereby. ... Numerical analysis is the study of approximate methods for the problems of continuous mathematics (as distinguished from discrete mathematics). ... In mathematics, the term optimization, or mathematical programming, refers to the study of problems in which one seeks to minimize or maximize a real function by systematically choosing the values of real or integer variables from within an allowed set. ... Operations Research or Operational Research (OR) is an interdisciplinary branch of mathematics which uses methods like mathematical modeling, statistics, and algorithms to arrive at optimal or good decisions in complex problems which are concerned with optimizing the maxima (profit, faster assembly line, greater crop yield, higher bandwidth, etc) or minima... In mathematics, linear programming (LP) problems involve the optimization of a linear objective function, subject to linear equality and inequality constraints. ... In engineering and mathematics, a dynamical system is a deterministic process in which a functions value changes over time according to a rule that is defined in terms of the functions current value. ... For other uses, see Chaos Theory (disambiguation). ... A fractal is a geometric object which can be divided into parts, each of which is similar to the original object. ... Mathematical physics is the scientific discipline concerned with the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories. ... Quantum field theory (QFT) is the quantum theory of fields. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... The theory of computation is the branch of computer science that deals with whether and how efficiently problems can be solved on a computer. ... As a branch of the theory of computation in computer science, computational complexity theory investigates the problems related to the amounts of resources required for the execution of algorithms (e. ... Not to be confused with information technology, information science, or informatics. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... Combinatorics is a branch of pure mathematics concerning the study of discrete (and usually finite) objects. ... Coding theory is a branch of mathematics and computer science dealing with the error-prone process of transmitting data across noisy channels, via clever means, so that a large number of errors that occur can be corrected. ... A drawing of a graph. ... Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics that is often used in the context of economics. ... This article attempts to list all lists collecting articles about mathematics in Wikipedia. ...

Computer sciences

See also Branches of computer science and ACM Computing Classification System

Computer science (informally: CS or compsci) is, in its most general sense, the study of computation and information processing, both in hardware and in software. ... The theory of computation is the branch of computer science that deals with whether and how efficiently problems can be solved on a computer. ... “Automata” redirects here. ... In mathematics, logic and computer science, a formal language is a set of finite-length words (i. ... For the branch of mathematical logic called computability theory, see Recursion theory. ... As a branch of the theory of computation in computer science, computational complexity theory investigates the problems related to the amounts of resources required for the execution of algorithms (e. ... The Dining Philosophers, a classic problem involving concurrency and shared resources In computer science, concurrency is a property of systems in which several computational processes are executing at the same time, and potentially interacting with each other. ... Flowcharts are often used to represent algorithms. ... A randomized algorithm or probabilistic algorithm is an algorithm which employs a degree of randomness as part of its logic. ... In computer science, a distributed algorithm is an algorithm that executes on more than one machine or processor. ... In computer science, a parallel algorithm, as opposed to a traditional serial algorithm, is one which can be executed a piece at a time on many different processing devices, and then put back together again at the end to get the correct result. ... A binary tree, a simple type of branching linked data structure. ... A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ... It has been suggested that VHSIC be merged into this article or section. ... In computing, an operating system (OS) is the system software responsible for the direct control and management of hardware and basic system operations. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Not to be confused with information technology, information science, or informatics. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... Wireless networks are telephone or computer networks that use radio as their carrier or physical layer. ... Mobile Computing is a generic term describing your ability to use technology untethered, that is not physically connected, or in remote or mobile (non static) environments. ... This article describes how security can be achieved through design and engineering. ... A protocol and associated execution that ensures a certain relative degree of computing-system operational continuity in any downtime event. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... Fault-tolerance or graceful degradation is the property that enables a system (often computer-based) to continue operating properly in the event of the failure of (or one or more faults within) some of its components. ... Distributed computing is a method of computer processing in which different parts of a program are run simultaneously on two or more computers that are communicating with each other over a network. ... Grid computing is a phrase in distributed computing which can have several meanings: A local computer cluster which is like a grid because it is composed of multiple nodes. ... Parallel computing is the simultaneous execution of the same task (split up and specially adapted) on multiple processors in order to obtain results faster. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Supercomputing. ... Molecule of alanine used in NMR implementation of error correction. ... This article is about the scientific discipline of computer graphics. ... UPIICSA IPN - Binary image Image processing is any form of information processing for which the input is an image, such as photographs or frames of video; the output is not necessarily an image, but can be for instance a set of features of the image. ... A scientific visualization of an extremely large simulation of a Raleigh-Taylor instability caused by two mixing fluids. ... In computer science, computational geometry is the study of algorithms to solve problems stated in terms of geometry. ... Software engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... In computer science and software engineering, formal methods are mathematically-based techniques for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems. ... In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics. ... Other listings of programming languages are: Categorical list of programming languages Generational list of programming languages Chronological list of programming languages Note: Esoteric programming languages have been moved to the separate List of esoteric programming languages. ... A programming paradigm is a paradigmatic style of programming (compare with a methodology which is a paradigmatic style of doing software engineering). ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ... Functional programming is a programming paradigm that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids state and mutable data. ... In theoretical computer science, formal semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages and models of computation. ... At the broadest level, type theory is the branch of mathematics and logic that first creates a hierarchy of types, then assigns each mathematical (and possibly other) entity to a type. ... A compiler is a computer program that translates a computer program written in one computer language (called the source language) into an equivalent program written in another computer language (called the output or the target language). ... Concurrent computing is the concurrent (simultaneous) execution of multiple interacting computational tasks. ... Not to be confused with informatics or information theory. ... This article is about computing. ... A relational database is a database that conforms to the relational model, and refers to a databases data and schema (the databases structure of how that data is arranged). ... A distributed database is a database that is under the control of a central database management system (DBMS) in which storage devices are not all attached to a common CPU. It may be stored in multiple computers located in the same physical location, or may be dispersed over a network... In an object oriented database, information is represented in the form of objects as used in Object-Oriented Programming. ... Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hypermedia is a term used as a logical extension of the term hypertext, in which audio, video, plain text, and non-linear hyperlinks intertwine to create a generally non-linear medium of information. ... Kurt Thearling, An Introduction to Data Mining (also available is a corresponding online tutorial) Dean Abbott, I. Philip Matkovsky, and John Elder IV, Ph. ... Information retrieval (IR) is the science of searching for information in documents, searching for documents themselves, searching for metadata which describe documents, or searching within databases, whether relational stand-alone databases or hypertextually-networked databases such as the World Wide Web. ... AI redirects here. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Automated reasoning is an area of Computer Science dedicated to creating software which allows to perform reasoning on computers completely or nearly completely automatically. ... As a broad subfield of artificial intelligence, machine learning is concerned with the design and development of algorithms and techniques that allow computers to learn. At a general level, there are two types of learning: inductive, and deductive. ... An artificial neural network (ANN), often just called a neural network (NN), is a mathematical model or computational model based on biological neural networks. ... Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and linguistics. ... Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and logical modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. ... Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. ... An expert system is a class of computer programs developed by researchers in artificial intelligence during the 1970s and applied commercially throughout the 1980s. ... Robotics is the science and technology of robots, their design, manufacture, and application. ... // Human–computer interaction (HCI), alternatively man–machine interaction (MMI) or computer–human interaction (CHI)This interactive computer allows the user to intergrate a reaction towards oneself and the primary source that is the http server, the port and Ip address show as the user connects to the imb harddrive , is... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... The term natural science as the way in which different fields of study are defined is determined as much by historical convention as by the present day meaning of the words. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Numerical analysis is the study of approximate methods for the problems of continuous mathematics (as distinguished from discrete mathematics). ... Symbolic computation relates to the use of computers to manipulate mathematical equations and expressions in symbolic form, as opposed to manipulating the approximations of specific numerical quantities represented by those symbols. ... In mathematics, computational number theory is a study of number theory with the aid of computer powers. ... Computational mathematics involves mathematical research in areas of science where computing plays a central and essential role, emphasizing algorithms, numerical methods, and symbolic methods. ... Scientific computing (or computational science) is the field of study concerned with constructing mathematical models and numerical solution techniques and using computers to analyze and solve scientific and engineering problems. ... Computational biology is an interdisciplinary field that applies the techniques of computer science and applied mathematics to problems inspired by biology. ... Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical algorithms in order to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists. ... Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses the results of theoretical chemistry incorporated into efficient computer programs to calculate the structures and properties of molecules and solids, applying these programs to complement the information obtained by actual chemical experiments, predict hitherto unobserved chemical phenomena, and solve related problems. ... Computational neuroscience is an interdisciplinary science that links the diverse fields of neuroscience, cognitive science, electrical engineering, computer science, physics and mathematics. ... Computer-aided Engineering analysis (often referred to as CAE) is the application of computer software in engineering to analyze the robustness and performance of components and assemblies. ... Visualization of how a car deforms in an asymmetrical crash using finite element analysis. ... A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the Space Shuttle during re-entry. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... For other uses, see Humanities (disambiguation). ... A profession is a specialized work function within society, generally performed by a professional. ... Computational economics is a form of economics which relies on mathematical methods, including mathematical economics and econometrics. ... Computational sociology is a recently developed branch of sociology that uses computation to analyze social phenomena. ... Computational finance (also known as financial engineering) is a cross-disciplinary field which relies on mathematical finance, numerical methods and computer simulations to make trading, hedging and investment decisions, as well as facilitating the risk management of those decisions. ... The Digital Humanities, also known as Humanities Computing, is a field of study, research, teaching, and invention concerned with the intersection of computing and the disciplines of the humanities. ... Information System (example) An Information System (IS) is the system of persons, data records and activities that process the data and information in a given organization, including manual processes or automated processes. ... Business informatics (BI) is a discipline combining information technology (IT) – or informatics – with management concepts. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Management Information Systems (MIS), are information systems, typically computer based, that are used within an organization. ... Electronic patient chart of a health information system Health informatics or medical informatics is the intersection of information science, computer science and health care. ... The history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or without the aid of tables. ... Humanistic Informatics is one of several names chosen for the study of the relationship between human culture and technology. ... // Community informatics (CI) , also known as community networking, electronic community networking, community-based technologies or community technology refers to an emerging set of principles and practices concerned with the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for the personal, social, cultural or economic development of and within communities. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ...

Social sciences

The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ...

Anthropology

See also Branches of anthropology

Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Physical anthropology, sometimes called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... Forensic anthropology is the application of the science of physical anthropology and human osteology (the study of the human skeleton) in a legal setting, most often in criminal cases where the victims remains are more or less skeletonized. ... Dual inheritance theory, (or DIT), in sharp contrast to the notion that culture overrides biology, posits that humans are products of the interaction between biological evolution and cultural evolution. ... Human behavioral ecology (HBE) or human evolutionary ecology applies the principles of evolutionary theory and optimization to the study of human behavioral and cultural diversity. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Paleoanthropology, which combines the disciplines of paleontology and physical anthropology, is the study of ancient humans as found in fossil hominid evidence such as petrifacted bones and footprints. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Primatology is the study of non-human primates. ... Anthropological linguistics is the study of language through human genetics and human development. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time, by means of examining languages which are recognizably related through similarities such as vocabulary, word formation, and syntax, as well as the surviving records of ancient languages. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... Ethnolinguistics is a field of linguistic anthropology which studies the language of a particular ethnic group. ... Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The anthropology of religion involves the study of religious institutions in relation to other social institutions, and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures. ... Economic anthropology is a scholarly field that attempts to explain human economic behavior using the tools of both economics and anthropology. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... Ethnohistory uses both historical and ethnographic data as its foundation. ... Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning people) is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyses the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the racial or national divisions of humanity. ... Ethnomusicology (from the Greek ethnos = nation and mousike = music), formerly comparative musicology, is the study of music in its cultural context, cultural musicology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Political anthropology concerns the structure of political systems, looked at from the basis of the structure of societies. ... Psychological anthropology is a highly interdiscplinary subfield of anthropology that studies the interaction of cultural and mental processes. ... Medical anthropology is a branch of anthropology concerned with the application of anthropological and social science theory and method to better understand health, illness and healing. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ...

Archaeology

See also Branches of archaeology

For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Classical archaeology is a term given to archaeological investigation of the great Mediterranean civilizations of Ancient Greece and Rome. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ... Experimental archaeology employs a number of different methods, techniques, analyses, and approaches in order to generate and test hypotheses or an interpretation, based upon archaeological source material, like ancient structures or artifacts. ... Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline that studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of vessels, shore side facilities, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes. ... Near Eastern Archaeology (sometimes known as Middle Eastern archaeology) is a regional branch of the wider, global discipline of Archaeology. ... Paleoanthropology, which combines the disciplines of paleontology and physical anthropology, is the study of ancient humans as found in fossil hominid evidence such as petrifacted bones and footprints. ... History is the study of the past using written records. ... As with most academic disciplines, there are a number of archaeological sub-disciplines typically characterised by a focus on a specific method or type of material, geographical or chronological focus, or other thematic concern. ...

Area studies

See also Branches of area studies

This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... American studies or American civilization is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of the United States. ... Appalachian studies is the area studies field concerned with the Appalachian region of the United States. ... An Africanist is a specialist in African affairs, cultures, or languages. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Canadian Studies is a Collegiate study of Canadian culture, Canadian languages, literature, Quebec, agriculture, history, and their government and politics. ... Celtic Studies is the academic discipline occupied with the study of any sort of cultural output relating to a Celtic people. ... European studies is a field of study offered by many academic colleges and universities that focuses on the current development of European integration. ... German studies is the field of humanities that researches, documents, and disseminates German language and literature in both its historic and present forms. ... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ... Ferdowsis Shahnameh Iranian Studies or Iranistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of the Iranian cultural region (or the Iranian cultural continent). It incorporates the study of history, literature, art and culture of Iran (Persia). ... Japanology is the study of Japanese language, culture, history etc. ... Latin American Studies (sometimes abbreviated LAS) is an academic discipline which studies the history and experience of peoples and cultures in the Americas. ... Sinology is the study of China, and things related to China, using a combination of Western and traditional Chinese methodologies, concepts, and theories. ... Scandinavian studies is an interdisciplinary academic field of area studies that covers topics related to Scandinavia and the Nordic countries, including their languages, literature, history, culture and society, in countries other than these. ... Slavistics or Slavic Studies is the study of Slavic languages, literature and culture. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ...

Economics

See also Branches of economics

Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Agricultural economics originally applied the principles of economics to the production of crops and livestock - a discipline known as agronomics. ... Nobel Prize in Economics winner Daniel Kahneman, was an important figure in the development of behavioral finance and economics and continues to write extensively in the field. ... Bioeconomics is a field of resource economics including the dynamics of living resources in economical modelling. ... Computational economics is a form of economics which relies on mathematical methods, including mathematical economics and econometrics. ... Related terms: Consumer Science, Microeconomics, Consumer Movement Consumer Economics, as a field of research and an acamedic major, is a branch of both Consumer Science and Economics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Econometrics is concerned with the tasks of developing and applying quantitative or statistical methods to the study and elucidation of economic principles. ... Economic geography is the study of the location, distribution and spatial organisation of economic activities across the Earth. ... Economic history is the study of economic change, and of economic phenomena in the past. ... Economic sociology may be defined as the sociological analysis of economic phenomena. ... A new start for the article is proposed under Energy economics/new. ... Entrepreneurial Economics If entrepreneurship remains as important to the economy as ever, then the continuing failure of mainstream economics to adequately account for entrepreneurship indicates that fundamental principles require re-evaluation. ... Environmental economics is a subfield of economics concerned with environmental issues (other usages of the term are not uncommon). ... Evolutionary economics is a relatively new economic methodology that is modeled on biology. ... Experimental economics is the use of experimental methods to evaluate theoretical predictions of economic behaviour. ... Feminist economics broadly refers to a developing branch of economics that applies feminist insights and critiques to mainstream economics. ... Financial economics is the branch of economics concerned with resource allocation over time. ... Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics that is often used in the context of economics. ... Green economics is an unconventional approach to economics by non-economists. ... Human development theory is an economic theory that merges older ideas from ecological economics, sustainable development, welfare economics, and feminist economics. ... Industrial organization is the field of economics that studies the behavior of firms, the structure of markets and of their interactions. ... Institutional economics focuses on understanding the role of human-made institutions in shaping economic behavior. ... International economics is a branch of economics with two main subdisciplines international trade and international finance. ... Islamic economics is economics in accordance with Islamic law. ... Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning of the market for labour. ... Law and economics, or economic analysis of law is an approach to legal theory that applies methods of economics to law. ... Circulation in macroeconomics Macroeconomics is a branch of economics that deals with the performance, structure, and behavior of a national economy as a whole. ... Managerial economics (also called business economics), is a branch of economics that applies microeconomic analysis to specific business decisions. ... Mathematical economics is the sub-field of economics that explores the mathematical aspects of economic systems. ... Microeconomics (or price theory) is a branch of economics that studies how individuals, households, and firms make decisions to allocate limited resources,[1] typically in markets where goods or services are being bought and sold. ... Central Bank or Finance Ministry based economics where the interest rate plays a pivotal role in the cost of money and the amounts banks must hold in their reserves. ... Neuroeconomics combines neuroscience, economics, and psychology to study how we make choices. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Public economics is the study of the public sector and its influence on the economy and society. ... Real estate economics is the application of economic techniques to real estate markets. ... The field of resource economics includes the study of environmental economics, agricultural production and marketing, bioeconomics, community economic development, resource utilization, and environmental policy. ... Socialist economics is a broad, and sometimes controversial, term. ... Socioeconomics or Socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. ... Transport economics is a cross-disciplinary study linking civil engineering and economics. ... Welfare economics is a branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to simultaneously determine the allocational efficiency of a macroeconomy and the income distribution associated with it. ... Economics, is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of resources. ...

Ethnic studies

Ethnic studies is an academic discipline dedicated to the study of ethnic minorities. ... // Introduction Asian American Studies is an academic discipline which studies the experience of people of Asian ancestory in America. ... African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ... African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ... Chicano studies is an academic discipline. ... Latino/a Studies is an academic discipline which studies the experience of people of Hispanic ancestory in America. ... Native American Studies is an academic discipline which studies the experience of people of Native American ancestory in America. ...

Gender and Sexuality studies

Gender and sexuality studies is a collective term for the interdisciplinary study of human gender and sexuality. ... Feminine psychology is a term sometimes used to describe and categorize issues concerning the gender related psychology of female human identity, as well as the issues that females confront during their lives. ... Gender studies is a theoretical work in the social sciences or humanities that focuses on issues of sex and gender in language and society, and often addresses related issues including racial and ethnic oppression, postcolonial societies, and globalization. ... Gender studies is a theoretical work in the social sciences or humanities that focuses on issues of sex and gender in language and society, and often addresses related issues including racial and ethnic oppression, postcolonial societies, and globalization. ... Heterosexism is the presumption that everyone is straight or heterosexual (i. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... For other uses, see Intersection theory (mathematics). ... Robert A. Johnsons He: Understanding Masculine Psychology Masculine psychology is a term sometimes used to describe and categorize issues concerning the gender related psychology of male human identity, as well as the issues that males confront during their lives. ... Mens studies - also sometimes called masculinity studies - is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to topics concerning men, gender, and politics. ... Queer studies is the study of issues relating to sexual orientation and gender identity. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... An early 20th century post card documents the problem of unwanted pregnancy. ... Sexology is the systematic study of human sexuality. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Geography

  • Historical geography
See also Branches of geography

Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... Population density by country, 2006 Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with the environment, with particular reference to the causes and consequences of the spatial distribution of human activity on the Earths surface. ... Cultural geography is a sub-field within human geography. ... Feminist geography is an approach to study in human geography which applies the theories, methods and critiques of feminism to the study of the human environment, society and geographical space. ... Economic geography is the study of the location, distribution and spatial organisation of economic activities across the Earth. ... Development geography is the study of the Earths geography and its relationship with economic development. ... Historical Geography is the study of the: Human Physical Fictional Theoretical and Real geographies of the past. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Political geography is the field of human geography that is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures. ... Geopolitics is the study which analyses geography, history and social science with reference to international politics. ... ... Strategic geography is concerned with the control of, or access to, spatial areas that have an impact on the security and prosperity of nations. ... Map of world population density as of 1994. ... Social geography studies how society affects geographical features and how environmental factors affect society. ... Behavioral geography is an approach to Human Geography that examines human behavior using a disaggregate approach. ... Childrens Geographies is an area of study in human geography, studying the places and spaces of childrens lives. ... Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care. ... Tourism Geography (or the Geography of Tourism) is the study of travel and tourism as an industry, as a human activity, and especially as a place phenomenon. ... Urban geography is the study of urban areas. ... Environmental geography is the branch of geography that describes the spatial aspects of interactions between humans and the natural world. ... True-color image of the Earths surface and atmosphere Physical geography (also know as geosystems or physiography) is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time,[1] and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences. ... Paleoclimatology is the study of climate change taken on the scale of the entire history of the earth. ... Coastal geography is the study of the dynamic interface between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography(i. ... Surface of the Earth Geomorphology is the study of landforms, including their origin and evolution, and the processes that shape them. ... Geodetic pillar (1855); Ostend, Belgium Archive with lithography plates for maps of Bavaria in the Landesamt für Vermessung und Geoinformation in Munich Geodesy (IPA North American English ; British, Australian English etc. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Hydrography focuses on the measurement of physical characteristics of waters and marginal land. ... Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... Limnology is a discipline that concerns the study of inland waters (both saline and fresh), specifically lakes, ponds and rivers (both natural and manmade), including their biological, physical, chemical, and hydrological aspects. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... Landscape ecology is a sub-discipline of ecology and geography that address how spatial variation in the landscape affects ecological processes such as the distribution and flow of energy, materials and individuals in the environment (which, in turn, may influence the distribution of landscape elements themselves such as hedgerows). ... Paleogeography (sometimes spelled palaeogeography) is the study of the ancient geologic environments of the Earths surface as preserved in the stratigraphic record. ... Regional geography is a study of regions throughout the world in order to understand or define the unique characteristics of a particular region which consists of natural as well as human elements. ... Geography - (from the Greek words Geo (γη) or Gaea (γαία), both meaning Earth, and graphein (γράφειν) meaning to describe or to writeor to map) is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. ...

Political science

See also Branches of political science

The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... The Federal Government of the United States was established by the United States politics is dominated by the two major parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. ... System of government Canada is a constitutional monarchy as a Commonwealth Realm (see Monarchy in Canada) with a federal system of parliamentary government, and strong democratic traditions. ... Civics is the science of comparative government and means of administering public trusts—the theory of governance as applied to state institutions. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Comparative politics is a subfield of political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method. ... Geopolitics is the study which analyses geography, history and social science with reference to international politics. ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... For the political science journal, see: International Organization An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ... Peace and conflict studies can be defined as the inter-disciplinary inquiry into war as human condition and peace as human potential, as an alternative to the traditional Polemology (War Studies) and the strategies taught at Military academies. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Policy analysis or Policy studies is the systematic evaluation of alternative means of achieving social and public policy goals. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For closely related theories in sociology, see collective behavior. ... Political culture can be defined as [1] // Kavanagh defines political culture as A shorthand expression to denote the set of values within which the political system operates. Pye describes it as the sum of the fundamental values, sentiments and knowledge that give form and substance to political process. It is... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, and leaders. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Psephology is a term for the statistical study of elections. ... Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... Basic topics in political science include: // Nature of political science Main article: Political science Branches of political science Bold textBold text== History of political science == Main article: History of political science Basic political science concepts Political science scholars Leaders in political science Political science lists Main article: List of...

Psychology

See also Branches of psychology, Types of psychotherapy

Psychological science redirects here. ... Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ... Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior is interesting and worthy of scientific research. ... In psychology, biological psychology or psychobiology[1] is the application of the principles of biology to the study of mental processes and behavior. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Solution focused brief therapy (SFBT) (often referred to as simply solution focused therapy or brief therapy) is a type of talking therapy that is based upon social constructionist philosophy. ... A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapy based on modifying cognitions, assumptions, beliefs and behaviors, with the aim of influencing disturbed emotions. ... Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy and family systems therapy, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development. ... Gestalt Therapy is an existential and experiential psychotherapy that focuses on the individuals experience in the present moment, the therapist-client relationship, the environmental and social contexts in which these things take place, and the self-regulating adjustments people make as a result of the overall situation. ... Group therapy is a form of psychotherapy during which one or several therapists treat a small group of clients together as a group. ... Play therapy is generally employed with children ages 3 to 11, play provides a way forchildrento express their experiences and feelings through a natural, self-guided, self-healing process. ... Psychodrama is a method of psychotherapy which explores, through action, the problems of people. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Community Psychology makes use of the perspectives of Psychology to address issues of communities, the relationships within them, and peoples attitudes about them. ... Differential psychology is concerned with the study of individual differences in humans. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, i. ... Evolutionary developmental psychology, (or EDP), is the application of the basic principles of Darwinian evolution, particularly natural selection, to explain contemporary human development. ... Evolutionary educational psychology is the study of the relation between inherent folk knowledge and abilities and accompanying inferential and attributional biases as these influence academic learning in evolutionarily novel cultural contexts, such as schools and the industrial workplace. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Health psychology concerns itself with understanding how biology, behavior, and social context influence health and illness. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Legal psychology involves the application of empirical psychological research to legal institutions and people who come into contact with the law. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organizational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, personnel psychology or talent assessment) concerns the application of psychological theories, research methods, and intervention strategies to workplace issues. ... Early parapsychological research employed the use of Zener cards in experiments designed to test for possible telepathic communication. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Positive psychology is a relatively young branch of psychology that studies the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... For the psychology discipline see psychometrics. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Quantitative psychology is the application of statistical and mathematical methods to the study of psychology. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... Sport psychology is a specialization within psychology that seeks to understand psychological/mental factors that affect performance in sports, physical activity and exercise and apply these to enhance individual and team performance. ... Media psychology emerged due to a social and commercial demand for the application of psychological theory and research into media effects in both academic and non-academic settings. ... Psychological science redirects here. ...

Sociology

See also Branches of sociology

Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sociological practice. ... Political sociology is the study of power and the intersection of personality, social structure and politics. ... Public sociology is an approach to the discipline which seeks to transcend the academy and engage wider audiences. ... Social engineering has several meanings: Social engineering (political science) Social engineering (computer security) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The term collective behavior was first used by Robert E. Park, and employed definitively by Herbert Blumer, to refer to social processes and events which do not reflect existing social structure (laws, conventions, and institutions), but which emerge in a spontaneous way. ... Social movements are broader political associations focussed on specific issues. ... // Community informatics (CI) , also known as community networking, electronic community networking, community-based technologies or community technology refers to an emerging set of principles and practices concerned with the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for the personal, social, cultural or economic development of and within communities. ... A social network is a map of the relationships between individuals, indicating the ways in which they are connected through various social familiarities ranging from casual acquaintance to close familial bonds. ... Comparative Sociology Comparative sociology generally refers to sociological analysis that involves comparison of social processes between nation-states, or across different types of society (for example capitalist and socialist). ... In sociology, conflict theory states that the society or organization functions so that each individual participant and its groups struggle to maximize their benefits, which inevitably contributes to social change such as changes in politics and revolutions. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... United States criminal justice system flowchart. ... Environmental sociology is typically defined as the study of societal-environmental interactions, or the relationships between modern societies and their biophysical environments. ... Feminist sociology approaches sociology by observing gender and its role in social structure. ... Futures studies researches the medium-term to long-term future of societies and of the physical world, mechanisms of change, and the driving forces of change. ... Human ecology is an academic discipline that deals with the relationship between humans and their natural, social and created environments. ... Interactionism is a generic sociological perspective that brings under its umbrella a number of subperspectives: phenomenology ethnomethodology Symbolic interactionism (social psychology) Interactionism is an American sociological current that analyzes the social interaction. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Ethnomethodology (literally, the study of peoples methods) is a sociological discipline which focuses on the way people make sense of the world and display their understandings of it. ... Symbolic interactionism is a sociological perspective which examines how individuals and groups interact, focusing on the creation of personal identity through interaction with others. ... For the learning theory, see Social Constructivism (Learning Theory). ... Medical sociology is the study of individual and group behaviors with respect to health and illness. ... Science studies is an interdisciplinary research area that seeks to situate scientific expertise in a broad social, historical, and philosophical context. ... Science and technology studies (STS) is the study of how social, political, and cultural values affect scientific research and technological innovation, and how these in turn affect society, politics, and culture. ... Social capital is a core concept in business, economics, organizational behaviour, political science, and sociology, defined as the advantage created by a persons location in a structure of relationships. ... Social control refers to social mechanisms that regulate individual and group behavior, in terms of greater sanctions and rewards. ... Pure Sociology is an approach invented by Donald Black, initially to explain variation in legal behavior and later applied to a broad range of forms of conflict management as well as to the distribution of ideas, science, art, and God. ... Demography is the study of human population dynamics. ... Social economy refers to a third sector in economies between the private sector and business or, the public sector and government. ... Social philosophy is the philosophical study of interesting questions about social behavior (typically, of humans). ... The scope of social psychological research. ... Social policy is the study of the welfare state, and the range of responses to social need. ... Social research refers to research conducted by social scientists (primarily within sociology, but also within other disciplines such as social policy, human geography, social anthropology and education). ... Computational sociology is a recently developed branch of sociology that uses computation to analyze social phenomena. ... Economic sociology may be defined as the sociological analysis of economic phenomena. ... Socioeconomics or Socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. ... Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ... For other meanings of development used in and outside social sciences, see development. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The sociology of deviance is the sociological study of deviant behavior, the recognized violation of cultural norms, and the creation and enforcement of those norms. ... The sociology of education is the study of how social institutions and individual experiences affect educational processes and outcomes. ... Sociology of gender is a prominent subfield of sociology. ... Sociology of the family is the study of the family unit from a sociological viewpoint. ... The sociology of knowledge is the study of the relationship between human thought and the social context within which it arises, and of the effects prevailing ideas have on societies. ... An approach to law stressing the actual social effects of legal institutions, doctrines, and practices and vice versa. ... // The sociology of religion is primarily the study of the practices, social structures, historical backgrounds, development, universal themes, and roles of religion in society. ... Sociology of sport is an area of sociology that focuses on sport as a social phenomenon and on the social structures, patterns, and organizations or groups engaged in sport. ... Industrial Sociology (also known as sociology of industrial relations or sociology of work) is the study of the interaction of people within industry it includes the study of boss-subordinate, inter-departmental, and management / trade-union relationships´. Moreover, on a macrosociological scale, it is the study of the impact of... Social theory refers to the use of abstract and often complex theoretical frameworks to explain and analyze social patterns and large-scale social structures. ... social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ... Sociological theory can refer to: contemporary sociological theory social theory sociological paradigms (also known as perespectives or frameworks) See also list of theories in sociology. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Sociocybernetics is an independent chapter of science in sociology based upon the General Systems Theory and Cybernetics. ... Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Urban sociology is the sociological study of the various statistics among the population in cities. ... Rural sociology is a field of sociology associated with the study of life in small towns and the country. ... Visual sociology is an area of sociology concerned with the visual dimensions of social life. ... Sociology has many subfields. ...

Humanities

For other uses, see Humanities (disambiguation). ...

History

See also Branches of history

This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... Pre-Colonial America For details, see the main Pre-Colonial America article. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... Sometimes referred to as Rankian History, diplomatic history focuses on politics, politicians and other high rulers and views them as being the driving force of continuity and change in history. ... Ethnohistory uses both historical and ethnographic data as its foundation. ... This article discusses the history of the continent of Europe. ... The history of science and technology (HST) is a field of history which examines how humanitys understanding of science and technology has changed over the millennia. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Modern history describes the history of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages. ... Intellectual history means either: the history of intellectuals, or: the history of the people who create, discuss, write about and in other ways propagate ideas. ... Cultural history (from the German term Kulturgeschichte), at least in its common definition since the 1970s, often combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. ... Economic history is the study of economic change, and of economic phenomena in the past. ... World History is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s. ... History is systematically collected information about the past. ...

Philosophy

See also Branches of philosophy

For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Philosophy of language is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language. ... Philosophical logic is the application of formal logical techniques to problems that concern philosophers. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... A philosophical movement is either the appearance or increased popularity of a specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject. ... Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. ... Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ... Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ... Feminist philosophy refers to philosophy approached from a feminist perspective. ... The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification ( or rebuttal) of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Learning Theories The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, process, nature and ideals of education. ... // Philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics. ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... Philosophy is a broad field of knowledge in which the definition of knowledge itself is one of the subjects investigated. ...

Religion

See also List of religions

map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Baháí House of Worship attracts an average of four million visitors a year (around 13,000 each day). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jewish studies also known as Judaic studies is a subject area of study available at many colleges and universities in the Western World. ... Statue of Jain God Bahubali in Shravanabelagola, Karnataka attracts thousands of devotees. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... map showing the prevalence of Dharmic, and Abrahamic religions in each country. ... Clothed statues of Matsu / Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... Religion in Africa is multifaceted. ... Egyptian goddess Isis protecting a mummified pharaoh, a late Ptolemic relief from the Philae Temple, which was first built in the thirtieth dynasty, c. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... A new religious movement or NRM appears as a religious, ethical or spiritual grouping that has not (yet) become recognised as a standard denomination, church, or body, especially when it has a novel belief system and when it is not a sect. ... ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities... The Major religious groups of the world. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The following is a list of religions. ...

Languages and linguistics

See also List of languages, Branches of linguistics, Anthropological linguistics

For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and logical modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. ... Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and linguistics. ... Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyzing written, spoken or signed language use. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... Interlinguistics is the study of various aspects of international communication. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Composition Studies (also referred to as Composition and Rhetoric, College Composition, or simply Composition) is the professional field of writing instruction, especially at the college level in the United States. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... Standard English is a nebulous term generally used to denote a form of the English language that is thought to be normative for educated users. ... Business English is English especially related to international trade. ... According to Tom McArthur (1992), New Englishes is a term for recently emerging and increasingly autonomous variet[ies] of English, especially in a non-western setting, such as India, Nigeria, or Singapore. ... A modern language is any human language that is used by societies in the world today. ... This list of languages is alphabetical by English name. ... Below is a list of basic topics in linguistics -- topics which will help the beginner become familiar with the field of linguistics. ...

Literature

Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... The Color Purple by Alice Walker African American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. ... Jewish American literature holds an essential place in the literary history of the United States. ... Southern literature (sometimes called the literature of the American South) is defined as American literature about the Southern United States or by writers from this region. ... Australian literature in English began soon after the settlement of the country by Europeans. ... British literature is literature from the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. ... The term Welsh literature may be used to refer to any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. ... Canadian literature may be divided into two parts, based on their separate roots: one stems from the culture and literature from France; the other from Britain. ... Indian literature is generally acknowledged, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. ... Irish writing of 8th century For a comparatively small country, Ireland has made a disproportionate contribution to world literature in all its branches. ... New Zealand claims as its own many writers, even those immigrants born overseas or those emigrants who have gone into exile. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Postcolonial literature is a branch of Postmodern literature concerned with the political and cultural independence of peoples formerly subjugated in colonial empires. ... Postmodern literature arose after World War II as a series of reactions against the perceived norms of modernist literature. ... World literature refers to literature from all over the world, including American literature, European literature, Latin American literature, Asian literature, African literature, Arabic literature and so on. ... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... Comparative literature (sometimes abbreviated Comp. ... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... German literature comprises those literary texts originating within Germany proper and written in the German language. ... Hindi literature (Hindi: हिंदी साहित्य) Hindi poetry is divided into four prominent forms or styles, being Bhakti (devotional - Kabir, Raskhan); Shringar (beauty - Keshav, Bihari); Veer-Gatha (extolling brave warriors); and Adhunik (modern). ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... Italian literature is literature written in the Italian language, particularly by citizens of Italy. ... Latin American literature rose to particular prominence during the second half of the 20th century, largely thanks to the international success of the style known as magical realism. ... See List of Brazilian writers Categories: Literature stubs | Literature by country | Brazilian literature ... Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia or its émigrés, and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Russia or the Soviet Union. ... The term Spanish literature refers to literature written in the Spanish language, including literature composed in Spanish by writers not necessarily from Spain. ... Yiddish literature encompasses all belles lettres written in Yiddish, the language of Ashkenazic Jewry which is related to Middle High German. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Aristotles Poetics aims to give an account of poetry. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Creative writing is a term used to distinguish certain imaginative or different types of writing from technical writing. ... Creative nonfiction, also known as literary journalism and narrative journalism, is a type of writing which uses literary skills in the writing of nonfiction. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... For the book by Chuck Palahniuk titled Non-fiction, see Stranger Than Fiction: True Stories. ... Creative nonfiction is a genre of literature, also known as literary journalism, which uses literary skills in the writing of nonfiction. ... This article is about the art form. ... Screenwriting refers to the art and craft of writing screenplays for film or television. ...

Visual arts

The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... Creative Arts is an academic discipline that is generally used as an umbrella for Dramatic Arts/Theatre Arts (Dramaturgy), Music (Music theory, Music history, Musicology), and Visual arts. ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... Fine art is a term used to refer to fields traditionally considered to be artistic. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ... Studio art is made of art and studio, and the term has several implications depending on the context used. ... Sculptor redirects here. ...

Architecture, design and applied arts

This article is about building architecture. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... Example of a cup figuring a tortise. ... This article is about building architecture. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Interior decoration be merged into this article or section. ... Interior decoration is the art of decorating a room so it looks good, is easy to use, and functions well with the existing architecture. ... Central Park, like all parks, is an example of landscape architecture. ... Landscape planning is a branch of landscape architecture. ... Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Fashion design is the applied art dedicated to the design of clothing and lifestyle accessories created within the cultural and social influences of a specific time. ... Textile art is the creation of textiles or creation with textiles. ... Visual communication is the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be read or looked upon. ... Graphics are often utilitarian and anonymous,[1] as these pictographs from the US National Park Service illustrate. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Performing arts

The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... A typical accompaniment pattern of a Mozart concert or aria. ... Arts administration is a college or university discipline which prepares people for careers as arts administrators and managers of arts and cultural organizations such as orchestras, theater companies, or museums. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... Christian music is music created by or adapted for the Christian church. ... Musical composition is a phrase used in a number of contexts, the most commonly used being a piece of music. ... A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... A concert band, also called wind band, symphonic band, symphonic winds, wind orchestra, wind symphony, or wind ensemble, is a performing ensemble consisting of several members of the woodwind instrument family, brass instrument family and percussion instrument family. ... Early music is commonly defined as European classical music from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Baroque. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music. ... Music theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ... A History of Western Music Seventh Edition by J. Peter Burkholder, Donald J. Grout, and Claude V. Palisca is one of several popular books used to teach Music History in North America. ... Music theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ... For album by Prince, see Musicology (album). ... Ethnomusicology (from the Greek ethnos = nation and mousike = music), formerly comparative musicology, is the study of music in its cultural context, cultural musicology. ... Buskers perform in San Francisco A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... Piano, a well-known instance of keyboard instruments A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a musical keyboard. ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Singer (disambiguation). ... Harry Belafonte singing, photograph by C. van Vechten Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, which is often contrasted with speech. ... A woodwind instrument is an instrument in which sound is produced by blowing against an edge or by a vibrating with air a thin piece of wood known as a reed. ... Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ... Percussion redirects here. ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... Look up Choreography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dance notation is the symbolic representation of dance movement, it is analogous to Movement notation but can be limited to representing human movement and specific forms of dance such as Tap dance. ... Ethnochoreology is the study of dance through the application of a number of disciplines such as Anthropology, Musicology, Ethnography, etc. ... Dancing is historically entwined with many cultures around the world. ... Film theory seeks to develop concise, systematic concepts that apply to the study of film/cinema as art. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films, individually and collectively. ... Film theory debates the essence of the cinema and provides conceptual frameworks for analyzing, among other things, the film image, narrative structure, the function of film artists, the relationship of film to reality, and the film spectators position in the cinematic experience. ... Television studies is an academic discipline that deals with critical approaches to television. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Arts administration is a college or university discipline which prepares people for careers as arts administrators and managers of arts and cultural organizations such as orchestras, theater companies, or museums. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Acting is the work of an actor or actress, which is a person in theatre, television, film, or any other storytelling medium who tells the story by portraying a character and, usually, speaking or singing the written text or play. ... A theatre director is a principal in the theatre field who oversees and orchestrates the mounting of a play by unifying various endeavors and aspects of production. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... Dramaturgy is the art of dramatic composition and the representation of the main elements of drama on the stage. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scenographer. ...

Professions and Applied sciences

A profession is an occupation, vocation or career where specialized knowledge of a subject, field, or science is applied. ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...

Agriculture and forestry

A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Agronomy is a branch of agricultural science that deals with the study of crops and the soils in which they grow. ... Zoology (Greek zoon = animal and logos = word) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... The word agrology is derived from the Greek words agros meaning land, or farm, and logy meaning word, or wisdom. ... Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... Agricultural economics originally applied the principles of economics to the production of crops and livestock - a discipline known as agronomics. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... Beekeeping, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (14th century) Honey seeker depicted on 6000 year old cave painting near Valencia, Spain Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, a bee) is the practice of intentional maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. ... Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of one or more hives of honeybees. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Silviculture is the art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values of landowners, society and the many cultures throughout the globe // Forest regeneration is the act of renewing tree cover by establishing young trees naturally or artificially, generally...

Business

In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... Accounting scholarship is an academic discipline oriented towards the profession of accounting, usually taught at a business school. ... Arts administration is a college or university discipline which prepares people for careers as arts administrators and managers of arts and cultural organizations such as orchestras, theater companies, or museums. ... Master of Business Administration (MBA) is a tertiary degree in business management. ... Business ethics is a form of the art of applied ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment. ... An entrepreneur (a loanword from French introduced and first defined by the Irish economist Richard Cantillon) is a person who operates a new enterprise or venture and assumes some accountability for the inherent risks. ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... Hospitality management is the academic study of the running of hotels, restaurants, and travel and tourism-related business. ... A Boeing employee speaks at a trade union rally The field of industrial relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a union. ... A Collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. ... This article is about human resources as it applies to business, labor, and economies. ... Organizational studies, organizational behaviour, and organizational theory are related terms for the academic study of organizations, examining them using the methods of economics, sociology, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning of the market for labour. ... til the development of wage labour. ... Information System (example) An Information System (IS) is the system of persons, data records and activities that process the data and information in a given organization, including manual processes or automated processes. ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... For the magazine, see Marketing (magazine). ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... For non-business risks, see risk or the disambiguation page risk analysis. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ...

Education

Primary or elementary education consist of the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... Agricultural Education is instruction about crop production, livestock management, soil and water conservation, and various other aspects of agriculture. ... Art education is the area of learning that is based upon the visual, tangible arts—drawing, painting, sculpture, and design in jewelry, pottery, weaving, fabrics, etc and design applied to more practical fields such as commercial graphics and home furnishings. ... Bilingual education involves teaching all subjects in school through two different languages - in the United States, instruction occurs in English and a minority language, such as Spanish or Chinese, with varying amounts of each language used in accordance with the program model. ... Chemistry education is an active area of research within both the disciplines of chemistry and education, focusing on learning and teaching of chemistry in schools, colleges and universities, with the goals of understanding how students learn chemistry, how best to teach chemistry, and how to improve learning outcomes by changing... Counselor Education is an academic discipline that has its roots in education, [counseling], and other human services occupations. ... Language education refers to the teaching and learning of a language. ... Legal education is the education of individuals who intend to become legal professionals (attorneys and judges) or those who simply intend to use their law degree to some end, either related to law (such as politics or academic) or unrelated (such as business entrepreneurship). ... Mathematics education is a term that refers both to the practice of teaching and learning mathematics, as well as to a field of scholarly research on this practice. ... Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner, either the initial training to become a doctor or further training thereafter. ... Military education and training is a process which intends to establish and improve the capabilities of military personnel in their respective roles. ... Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music. ... Nurse education is how nurses are prepared to engage in the delivery of nursing care. ... Peace education is the process of acquiring the values, the knowledge and developing the attitudes, skills, and behaviours to live in harmony with oneself and with others. ... Physical education (PE) is the interdisciplinary study of all area of science relating to the transmission of physical knowledge and skills to an individual or a group, the application of these skills, and their results. ... Physics education refers both to the methods currently used to teach physics and to an area of pedagogical research that seeks to improve those methods. ... Reading education is the process by which an individual learns to read, that is, to construct meaning from printed language. ... Religious education teaches the doctrines of a religion. ... Science education is the field concerned with sharing science content and process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific community. ... An early 20th century post card documents the problem of unwanted pregnancy. ... The sociology of education is the study of how social institutions and individual experiences affect educational processes and outcomes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... Educational technology is the use of technology in education to improve learning and teaching. ... Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach which attempts to help students question and challenge domination, and the beliefs and practices that dominate. ...

Engineering

See also Branches of engineering

Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Acoustical engineering is the branch of engineering dealing with sound and vibration. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering concerning aircraft, spacecraft and related topics. ... Agricultural engineers develop engineering science and technology in the context of agricultural production and processing and for the management of natural resources. ... An architectural engineer applies the skills of many engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings while paying attention to their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... Biological engineering (also biosystems engineering and bioengineering) deals with engineering biological processes in general. ... Biomechanical engineering is a subdiscipline in engineering that applies principles of mechanics to biological systems. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Transport engineering aims to ensure the safe and efficient movement of people and goods. ... Bostons Big Dig presented geotechnical challenges in an urban environment. ... Combat engineers place satchel charges and detonating cord, preparatory to blowing up a railway bridge during the Korean War, 30 July 1950 Combat engineering is the practice of using the knowledge, tools and techniques of engineering in combat. ... Computer engineering (also called electronic and computer engineering) is a discipline that combines elements of both electrical engineering and computer science. ... AI redirects here. ... Robotics is the science and technology of robots, their design, manufacture, and application. ... Control engineering is the engineering discipline that focuses on the mathematical modelling systems of a diverse nature, analysing their dynamic behaviour, and using control theory to make a controller that will cause the systems to behave in a desired manner. ... Ecological Engineering is the emerging field of the use of ecological processes within natural or constructed imitation of natural systems to achieve engineering goals. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ... Electronic engineering is a professional discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. ... k ... Engineering physics (EP) is an academic degree, usually at the level of Bachelor of Science. ... Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Ergonomics (or human factors) is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects, systems and environment for human use (definition adopted by the International Ergonomics Association in 2007). ... Industrial engineering is the engineering discipline that concerns the design, development, improvement, implementation and evaluation of integrated systems of people, knowledge, equipment, energy, and material. ... Materials engineering is a discipline related to materials science which focusses on materials design, processing techniques (casting, rolling, welding, ion implantation, crystal growth, thin film deposition, sintering, glassblowing, etc. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... Metallurgical engineering- Designing, creating, or producing metals by various methods, for various applications, from metallic elements described on the Chemical Periodic Table of the Elements. ... Polymer science or macromolecular science is the subfield of materials science concerned with polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Industrial engineering is the engineering discipline that concerns the design, development, improvement, implementation and evaluation of integrated systems of people, knowledge, equipment, energy, and material. ... Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. ... Ocean engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the design, analysis and operation of systems that operate in an oceanic environment. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... In engineering and manufacturing, quality control or quality engineering is a set of measures taken to ensure that defective products or services are not produced, and that the design meets performance requirements. ... Petroleum engineering is involved in the exploration and production activities of petroleum as an upstream end of the energy sector. ... Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering. ... Software engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest building as of 2004. ... Telecommunications engineering focuses on the transmission of information across a channel such as a coax cable, optical fibre or free space. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns aircraft, spacecraft, and related topics. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... Marine Engineers are the officers of a ship which operate and maintain the propulsion and electrical generation systems onboard a ship. ... The Engine room of Argonaute, a French supply vessel. ... Steamer New York in c. ... For a more comprehensive list, see the List of engineering topics. ...

Family and consumer science

Family and consumer sciences, human sciences, human ecology or home economics, is an academic discipline which combines aspects of consumer science, nutrition, cooking, parenting and human development, interior decoration, textiles, family economics, housing, apparel design and resource management as well as other related subjects. ... Consumer education is education people pursue for the sake of entering the consumer goods market with a more sophisticated understanding of that market, and the products, suppliers and tactics to be found there. ... Houses in Fishpool Street, St Albans, England For other meanings of the word house, see House (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Interior decoration be merged into this article or section. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ...

Health sciences

See also Branches of medicine

Health science is the discipline of applied science which deals with human and animal health. ... Medical technology refers to the diagnostic or therapeutic application of science and technology to improve the management of health conditions. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... Clinical chemistry (also known as clinical biochemistry, chemical pathology or pure blood chemistry) is the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids. ... Transfusion medicine (or transfusiology) is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood components. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... Hematology (American English) or haematology (British English) is the branch of biology (physiology), pathology, clinical laboratory, internal medicine, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. ... Serology is the scientific study of blood serum. ... A urinalysis (or UA) is an array of tests performed on urine and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis. ... Nursing is a profession focused on assisting individuals, families, and communities in attaining, re-attaining, and maintaining optimal health and functioning. ... Nursing models are conceptual models, constructed of theories and concepts. ... // Midwifery is the term traditionally used to describe the art of assisting a woman through childbirth. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Dietitians are experts in food and nutrition. ... Optometry (Greek: optos meaning seen or visible and metria meaning measurement) is a health care profession concerned with eyes and related structures, vision, visual system and vision information processing in humans. ... Physical therapy can help restore lost functionality in many people. ... // The practice of speech-language pathology includes prevention, diagnosis, habilitation, and rehabilitation of communication, swallowing, or other upper aerodigestive disorders; elective modification of communication behaviors; and enhancement of communication. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... Cardiology is the branch of medicine pertaining to the heart. ... This article is about the dental profession. ... Dental Hygiene (Persian: Behdasht-e Dandan) is a 1980 Iranian short film directed by Abbas Kiarostami. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... A dental officer and his assistant remove the wisdom tooth of a crew member of the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS (CVN-69) Dental surgery is any of a number of medical procedures which involve artificially modifying the dentition. ... If decay progresses to the first stage, a small filling will be required. ... Orthodontics is a specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions (improper bites), which may be a result of tooth irregularity, disproportionate jaw relationships, or both. ... Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery is surgery to correct a wide spectrum of diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region. ... Pedodontics is a specialist branch of dentistry for the treatment of children. ... Periodontics is the study of clinical aspects of the supporting structures of the teeth (i. ... Prosthodontics is one of the nine dental specialties recognized by the American Dental Association (ADA) and requires 3-4 years of additional formal training in an ADA approved program. ... X-Ray picture of two rectangular dental implants inserted into the jaw. ... Emergency Medical Care is an elite discipline, often combining Emergency Medicine with Medical Rescue. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ... Diabetology is the clinical science of diabetes mellitus, its diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Agents of the United States Army Criminal Investigation Division investigate a crime scene Forensic science (often shortened to forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. ... Geriatrics is the branch of medicine that focuses on health promotion and the prevention and treatment of disease and disability in later life. ... The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. ... Hematology (American English) or haematology (British English) is the branch of biology (physiology), pathology, clinical laboratory, internal medicine, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. ... Doctors of internal medicine (internists) are medical specialists who focus on adult medicine and have had special study and training focusing on the prevention and treatment of adult diseases. ... See the article on the kidney for the anatomy and function of healthy kidneys and a list of diseases involving the kidney. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Insertion of an electrode during neurosurgery for Parkinsons disease. ... Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, to stand by) is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of a woman and her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (the period shortly after birth). ... See cancer for the biology of the disease, as well as a list of malignant diseases. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... This fracture of the lower cervical vertebrae, known as a teardrop fracture is one of the conditions treated by orthopaedic surgeons. ... Otolaryngology is the branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head & neck disorders. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... Podiatry, more appropriately podiatric medicine is a field of healthcare devoted to the study and treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle, and sometimes knee, leg and hip (collectively known as the lower extremity). ... Primary care may be provided in community health centres. ... A general practitioner (GP) or family physician (FP) is a physician who provides primary care. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Counseling psychology is an application of the basic professional skills in psychology to a population that has been more located in schools rather than hospitals and clinics. ... Image A: A normal chest X-ray. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In medicine, pulmonology is the specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. ... In medicine, pulmonology (aka pneumology) is the specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. ... Rheumatology, a subspecialty of internal medicine, is devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... // Two studies report decrease in mortality from bariatric surgery. ... In medicine, the field of (cardio)thoracic surgery or cardiovascular surgery is involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax, i. ... Insertion of an electrode during neurosurgery for Parkinsons disease. ... For the album by The Huntingtons, see Plastic Surgery (album). ... Traumatology (from Greek Trauma meaning injury or wound) is the study of wounds and injuries caused by accidents or violence to a person, and the surgical treatment and repair of the damage. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Andrology (from the Greek andros, man) is the medical specialty that deals with male health, particularly relating to the problems of the male reproductive system and urological problems that are unique to men. ... Pharmaconomy (Danish: farmakonomi) is the name of the main pharmaceutical discipline in the tertiary education programme of pharmaconomists offered by The Danish College of Pharmacy Practice. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... Veterinary medicine is the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ...

Journalism, media and communication

Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... Broadcast journalism refers to television news and radio news, as well as the online news outlets of broadcast affiliates. ... Creative nonfiction is a genre of literature, also known as literary journalism, which uses literary skills in the writing of nonfiction. ... New Media is the marriage of mediated communications technologies with digital computers. ... Journalism is a discipline of collecting, verifying, reporting and analyzing information gathered regarding current events, including trends, issues and people. ... Media Studies is the study of the constitution and effects of media. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Television studies is an academic discipline that deals with critical approaches to television. ... For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. ... Not to be confused with information technology, information science, or informatics. ... Advert redirects here. ... Communication design is a sub-discipline of design (sometimes referred to as Graphic Design) which is concerned with how media intermission such as, print and digital pieces of work communicate with people in a visual way. ... For the magazine, see Marketing (magazine). ... Mass communication is the term used to describe the academic study of various means by which individuals and entities relay information to large segments of the population all at once through mass media. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... // The term Public Relations was first used by the US President Thomas Jefferson during his address to Congress in 1807. ... Technical writing, a subset of technical communication, is used in fields as diverse as computer hardware and software, chemistry, the aerospace industry, robotics, finance, consumer electronics, and biotechnology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Law

For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ... In the common law, civil law refers to the area of law governing relations between private individuals. ... Admiralty law (also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ... A corporation (usually known in the United Kingdom and Ireland as a company) is a legal entity (distinct from a natural person) that often has similar rights in law to those of a Civil law systems may refer to corporations as moral persons; they may also go by the name... Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the process that courts will follow when hearing cases of a civil nature (a civil action, as opposed to a criminal action). ... A contract is any promise or set of promises made by one party to another for the breach of which the law provides a remedy. ... Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seeks to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Tax law is the codified system of laws that describes government levies on economic transactions, commonly called taxes. ... In the common law, a tort is a civil wrong for which the law provides a remedy. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated the criminal law. ... United States criminal justice system flowchart. ... Police science is often an ambiguous term that denotes the studies and research which directly or indirectly deal with police work. ... Agents of the United States Army Criminal Investigation Division investigate a crime scene Forensic science (often shortened to forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... Halakha (הלכה in Hebrew or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish law, custom and tradition regulating all aspects of behavior. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... Manx Law is ostensibly based on the law of England and Wales, but when one looks at significant modern trends and developments, such as the abolition of the death penalty, votes for women and protectionism in employment, the relationship appears to be more complex and less one-sided. ... Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ...

Library and museum studies

Library and information science (LIS) is the study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. ... Museology (also called museum studies) is the study of how to organize and manage museums and museum collections. ... Archival science is the study of the safe storage, cataloguing and retrieval of documents and items. ... Bibliometrics is a set of methods used to study or measure texts and information. ... Citation Analysis is the most common method of bibliometrics. ... Informatics includes the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. ... Information architecture (IA) is the science of expressing a model or concept for information. ... Museology (also called museum studies) is the study of how to organize and manage museums and museum collections. ... Arts administration is a college or university discipline which prepares people for careers as arts administrators and managers of arts and cultural organizations such as orchestras, theater companies, or museums. ...

Military sciences

Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... In the military sciences, a military campaign encompasses related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... Combat engineers place satchel charges and detonating cord, preparatory to blowing up a railway bridge during the Korean War, 30 July 1950 Combat engineering is the practice of using the knowledge, tools and techniques of engineering in combat. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics that is often used in the context of economics. ... Leader redirects here. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Marine Engineers are the officers of a ship which operate and maintain the propulsion and electrical generation systems onboard a ship. ... Naval tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemyship or fleet in battle at sea, the naval equivalent of military tactics on land. ... Steamer New York in c. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand by its nature of being extensively premeditated, and often practically rehearsed. ... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Naval tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemyship or fleet in battle at sea, the naval equivalent of military tactics on land. ...

Personal service professions*

Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Cosmetology is the study of skin, hair and nails and includes, but is not limited to, manicures, pedicures, application of artificial nails, special occasion hairstyling, shampooing hair, cosmetic application, body hair removal, chemical hair relaxers or straighteners, permanent waves, coloring and highlighting of hair, and hair extensions or wig treatments. ... Cosmetology is the treatment of skin, hair and nails and includes, but is not limited to, manicures, pedicures, application of artificial nails, special occasion hairstyling, shampooing hair, cosmetic application, body hair removal, chemical hair relaxers or straighteners, permanent waves, coloring and highlighting of hair, and hair extensions or wig treatments. ... Life coaching is a practice of assisting clients to determine and achieve personal goals. ... A nanny is a person who looks after the child or children of one family in their -- the childs -- home. ... For other uses, see Butler (disambiguation). ...

Public affairs

The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... Corrections refers to one of the components of the criminal justice system. ... United States criminal justice system flowchart. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fire protection is the prevention and reduction of the hazards associated with fires. ... For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ...

Social work

    • Nonprofit management
  • Corrections
  • Family and children's services

Social Workers are concerned with social problems, their causes, their solutions and their human impacts. ... In the United States, the term child welfare is used to describe a set of government services designed to protect children and encourage family stability. ... Community Practice is a branch of social work in the United States that focuses on larger social systems and social change, and is tied to the historical roots of United States social work. ... Community organizing is a process by which people are brought together to act in common self-interest. ... Social policy is the study of the welfare state, and the range of responses to social need. ... Corrections refers to one of the components of the criminal justice system. ... Gerontology is the study of aging. ... Medical Social Work is a sub-discipline of social work. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of mental illness. ... // School social work has an extensive history, dating to 1906-07, when it was established in New York, Boston, Chicago and New Haven, CT. At its inception, school social workers were known, among other things, as advocates for equity and fairness as well as home visitors. ...

See also

This is a list of the fields of doctoral studies, as used by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago in its annual Survey of Earned Doctorates[1], conducted for the National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies, in the United States. ... The Joint Academic Classification of Subjects (JACS) system is used by the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) and the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) in the United Kingdom to classify academic subjects. ... This is a list of education topics. ... Fields of science are widely-recognized categories of specialized expertise within science, and typically embody their own terminology and nomenclature. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... Interdisciplinarity is the act of drawing from two or more academic disciplines and integrating their insights to work together in pursuit of a common goal. ... Informally, an ology is a field of study or academic discipline ending in the suffix -ology. ... Transdisciplinary Studies are an area of research and education that addresses contemporary issues that cannot be solved by one or even a few points-of-view. ...

External links

  • Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP 2000): Developed by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics to provide a taxonomic scheme that will support the accurate tracking, assessment, and reporting of fields of study and program completions activity.

  Results from FactBites:
 
List of academic disciplines - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (386 words)
An academic discipline, or field of study, is a branch of knowledge which is taught or researched at the college or university level.
Disciplines are defined and recognised by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned societies and academic departments or faculties to which their practitioners belong.
Today's disciplines have their roots in the mid- to late-19th century secularization of universities, when the traditional curriculum was supplemented by non-classical languages and literatures, physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering.
JISCmail - Mailing Lists (1535 words)
This list is for those who are working on or who are interested in any aspect of BBC history, to keep members in touch with each other,with current work and to publicise events.
This list is historically based on a network of music departments established with EU funding from about 1990 in most of the countries of Western and Central Europe.
This list acts as a convenient method of communication between the tutors and the technical staff, whose role it is to ensure the smooth running of the music department in terms of instruments and equipment.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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