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Encyclopedia > List of Microsoft Windows components

The following is a list of Microsoft Windows components.

Contents

Configuration and maintenance

Component Description Introduced
Control Panel
Control Panel Allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls, such as adding hardware, adding and removing software, controlling user accounts, changing accessibility options, and so on. Windows 1.0
Device Manager Allows the user to display and control the hardware attached to the computer, and control what device drivers are used. Windows 95
Windows Mobility Center Centralizes the most relevant information related to mobile computing. Windows Vista
Windows Security Center Centralizes and reports on the status of anti-virus, Automatic Updates, Windows Firewall, and other security-related components of the operating system. Windows XP SP2
Administrative Tools
Microsoft Management Console Provides system administrators and advanced users with a flexible interface through which they may configure and monitor the system. Windows NT 4.0 Option Pack
Windows System Assessment Tool A built-in benchmarking tool that analyzes the different subsystems (graphics, memory, etc), and uses the results to allow for comparison to other Windows Vista systems, and for software optimizations. It rates the computer's performance using the Windows Experience Index. Windows Vista
System Restore Allows for the rolling back of system files, registry keys, installed programs, etc., to a previous state in the event of a system failure. Windows Me
Windows Recovery Environment Helps diagnose and recover from serious errors which may be preventing Windows from booting successfully, or restore the computer to a previous state using System Restore or a backup image. Windows Vista
Windows Disk Defragmenter Rearranges files stored on a hard disk to occupy contiguous storage locations in order to optimize computer performance. Windows 95, Windows 2000
Event Viewer Lets administrators and users view the event logs on a local or remote machine. Windows NT 3.1
Reliability and Performance Monitor Lets administrators view current system reliability and performance trends over time. Windows Vista
Logical Disk Manager A logical volume manager developed by Microsoft in conjunction with Veritas Software. Windows NT 4.0 (as a separate Tool) 2000 (integrated in the Management Console)
Registry Editor Edits the Windows registry. Windows 3.1
Task Scheduler Allows users to script tasks for running during scheduled intervals Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95
Software installation and deployment
Windows Update An online service which provides critical updates, service packs, device drivers, and other updates. A variation called Microsoft Update also provides software updates for several Microsoft products. Windows 98
Windows Installer A packaging format and engine for the installation, maintenance, and removal of software. Includes a GUI framework, automatic generation of the uninstallation sequence and deployment capabilities for corporate networks. Windows 2000
ClickOnce Technology for deploying .NET Framework-based software via web pages, with automatic update capabilities. Intended for per-user only applications. .NET Framework 2.0

Control Panel in Windows Vista Control Panel in Windows XP Classic View of the Control Panel in Windows XP Default View of the Control Panel in Windows Me Control Panel is a part of the Microsoft Windows graphical user interface which allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... Note: to create a user account for Wikipedia, go to the login page. ... It has been suggested that Easy Access be merged into this article or section. ... The Device Manager is a tool included with Microsoft Windows operating systems that allows the user to display and control the hardware attached to the computer. ... Windows XP loading drivers during a Safe Mode bootup A device driver, or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a computer hardware device. ... The Windows Mobility Center is a component of Microsoft Windows,first introduced with Vista, that centralizes the most relevant information related to mobile computing. ... Screenshot of Windows Security Center in Windows Vista. ... Anti-virus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify, thwart and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software (malware). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Microsoft Update. ... MMC on Windows Server 2003, running Computer Management snap-in The Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is a component of modern Microsoft Windows operating systems that provides system administrators and advanced users with a flexible interface through which they may configure and monitor the system. ... Windows Experience Index in Windows Vista Windows System Assessment Tool (WinSAT) is the codename for the automatic system optimizer/tweaker built into Microsofts most recent operating system, Windows Vista, as well as the upcoming Windows Server 2008. ... System Restore is a component of Microsofts Windows Me and Windows XP operating systems that allows for the rolling back of system files, registry keys, installed programs, etc. ... Windows Vistas System Recovery menu Windows Recovery Environment (WinRE) is a set of tools included in the Windows Vista operating system to help diagnose and recover from serious errors which may be preventing Windows from booting successfully. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Event Viewer in Windows XP. Event Viewer in Windows Vista. ... Data logging is the practice of recording sequential data, often chronologically. ... The Logical Disk Manager (LDM) is an implementation of a logical volume manager for Windows, developed by Microsoft and Veritas Software. ... In computer storage, logical volume management or LVM is a method of allocating space on mass storage devices that is more flexible than conventional partitioning schemes. ... VERITAS Software Corp. ... Registry has several meanings, all of which relate to its general meaning. ... The Windows registry is a database which stores settings and options for the operating system for Microsoft Windows 32-bit versions, 64-bit versions and Windows Mobile. ... Scheduling is the process of assigning tasks to a set of resources. ... Microsoft Plus! was an operating system enhancement package provided by Microsoft. ... Windows Update version 5 through Netscape Browser 8. ... The current Microsoft Update icon The previous Windows Update icon Microsoft Update is a website where users can download updates for various Microsoft Windows-related products. ... Nero software setup is using Windows Installer program The Windows Installer (previously known as Microsoft Installer, codename Darwin) is an engine for the installation, maintenance, and removal of software on modern Microsoft Windows systems. ... GUI can refer to the following: GUI is short for graphical user interface, a term used to describe a type of interface in computing. ... Look up Framework in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ClickOnce is a Microsoft technology for deploying Windows Forms or Windows Presentation Foundation -based software, also called Smart clients. ... It has been suggested that Com interop be merged into this article or section. ...

User interface

Component Description Introduced
Windows Shell The most visible and recognizable aspect of Microsoft Windows. The shell is the container inside of which the entire graphical user interface is presented, including the taskbar, the desktop, Windows Explorer, as well as many of the dialog boxes and interface controls. In Windows Vista, a new compositing glass-like user interface called Windows Aero has been introduced. Windows 1.0
Windows Explorer Provides an interface for accessing the file systems, launching applications, and performing common tasks such as viewing and printing pictures. Windows 95
Windows Search Starting with Windows Vista, search is a tightly shell-integrated component of Windows. A downloadable Windows Desktop Search software is available for Windows XP and older versions. Windows Vista, downloadable for older versions
Special Folders Folders which are presented to the user through an interface as an abstract concept, instead of an absolute path. This makes it possible for an application to locate where certain kinds of files can be found, regardless of what version or language of operating system is being used. See also, Windows Shell namespace. Windows 95
Start menu Serves as the central launching point for applications. It provides a customizable, nested list of programs for the user to launch, as well as a list of most recently opened documents, a way to find files and get help, and access to the system settings.

By default, the Start Button is visible at all times in the lower left-hand corner of the screen. In computing, Windows Shell is the most visible aspect of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems. ... “GUI” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Desktop_environment. ... Example of dialog box from Microsoft Windows Dialog boxes are special windows which are used by computer programs or by the operating system to display information to the user, or to get a response if needed. ... Windows Aero is the graphical user interface for Windows Vista, an operating system released by Microsoft in November 2006. ... Windows Explorer running on Windows Vista Windows Explorer running on Windows XP Windows Explorer is an application that is part of modern versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system that provides a graphical user interface for accessing the file systems. ... It has been suggested that Crash counting be merged into this article or section. ... Windows Desktop Search (or WDS) is an indexed search platform released by Microsoft for the Windows operating system. ... Windows Desktop Search (or WDS) is an indexed search platform released by Microsoft for the Windows operating system. ... On Microsoft Windows operating systems, Special Folders are folders which are presented to the user through an interface as an abstract concept, instead of an absolute folder path. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Special Folders. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Windows 95
Taskbar The application desktop bar which is used to launch and monitor applications. Windows 95
Windows Sidebar A new panel on the side of the screen to place gadgets. Windows Vista
File associations Used to open a file with the correct program. File associations can be uniquely assigned to specific actions, known as verbs. Windows 3.0

In computing, the taskbar is a term for the application desktop bar which is used to launch and monitor applications in Microsoft Windows 95 and later operating systems. ... An example group of Gadgets, each attached to the sidebar Add Gadgets window The Windows Sidebar is a panel for Desktop Gadgets that is anchored to the side of the Windows Vista desktop. ... Microsoft Gadgets are light-weight single-purpose applications that can sit on the users computer desktop, or are hosted on a web page. ... File associations are what the Microsoft Windows operating system uses to open a file with the correct program. ...

Applications and utilities

Component Description Introduced
Accessories
Windows Calendar Calendaring and task tracking application. Windows Vista
Windows Contacts Keeps a single list of contacts that can be shared by multiple programs. Windows Vista
Calculator A calculation application. Windows 1.0
Character Map Utility to view and search characters in a font, copy them to the clipboard and view their Windows Alt keycodes and Unicode names Windows 3.1
Paint A simple graphics painting program. Windows 1.0
Notepad A simple text editor. Windows 1.0
Narrator A screen reader utility that reads dialog boxes and window controls in a number of the more basic applications for Windows. Windows 2000
Sound Recorder A simple audio recording program that can record from a microphone or headset, and save the results in WAVE format. Windows 3.1
COMMAND.COM and Cmd.exe A text-based shell (command line interpreter) that provides a command line interface to the operating system. MS-DOS 1.0
WordPad A simple word processor that is more advanced than Notepad. It has facilities to format and print text, but lacks intermediate features such as a spell checker and thesaurus. Windows 95
Private Character Editor Utility to create private use characters as defined under Unicode and various East Asian encoding schemes.
Remote Desktop Connection A client implementation of the Remote Desktop Protocol; allows a user to securely connect to a computer running Terminal Services (Remote Desktop on Windows XP and Server 2003) and interact with a full desktop environment on that machine, including support for remoting of printers, audio, and drives. Windows XP, downloadable for previous Windows versions
Remote Assistance Allows a user to temporarily take over a remote computer over a network or the internet to offer help with and resolve issues. Windows XP
Internet Explorer A graphical web browser and FTP client.

See also: Features, History, Criticism, Removal, Browser Helper Objects Windows Calendar is a calendar application that is included in Microsoft Windows Vista. ... Windows Contacts is a address book management system, which replaces Windows Address Book. ... Microsoft Calculator is a calculation application for Microsoft Windows. ... For other uses, see Calculator (disambiguation). ... Character Map (charmap. ... In PCs running the Microsoft Windows operating system, additional characters to those available by the current keyboard layout may be typed using the Alt key in conjunction with the keyboards numeric pad. ... Paint (formerly Paintbrush for Windows) is a simple graphics painting program that has been included with almost all versions of Microsoft Windows since its first release. ... This article is about the scientific discipline of computer graphics. ... “Painter” redirects here. ... For the item of stationery, see notebook. ... Notepad is the standard text editor for Microsoft Windows A text editor is a piece of computer software for editing plain text. ... Narrator in Windows XP Narrator is a light-duty screen reader utility packaged with Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Vista. ... A screen reader is a software application that attempts to identify and interpret what is being displayed on the screen. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sound Recorder on Windows XP Sound Recorder is a simple audio recording program that ships with most versions of Microsoft Windows. ... “Microphones” redirects here. ... Headset may refer to: headset (earphone, headphone) headset (bicycle part) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... WAV (or WAVE), short for Waveform audio format, is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing audio on PCs. ... COMMAND.COM is the name for the default operating system shell (or command line interpreter) for DOS and 16/32bits versions of Windows (95/98/98 SE/Me). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In computing, a shell is a piece of software that provides an interface for users (command line interpreter). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Command line interface. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... WordPad is a simple word processor that is included with almost all versions of Microsoft Windows from Windows 95 upwards. ... A word processor (also more formally known as a document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of viewable or printed material. ... For the item of stationery, see notebook. ... In computing terms, a spelling checker (also spell checker) is a software program designed to verify the spelling of words in a file, helping a user ensure his/her spelling is correct. ... For the American rapper, see TheSaurus (rapper). ... Microsoft Private Character Editor (Eudcedit. ... Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is a multi-channel protocol that allows a user to connect to a computer running Microsoft Terminal Services. ... Terminal Services is a component of Microsoft Windows operating systems (both client and server versions) that allows a user to access applications or data stored on a remote computer over a network connection. ... Remote Assistance is a feature of Windows XP that allows a user to temporarily take over a remote Windows XP computer over a network or the internet to resolve issues. ... Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer abbreviated MSIE), commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of proprietary graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. ... “GUI” redirects here. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... A FTP client uses the FTP protocol to connect to an FTP server to transfer files. ... Internet Explorer has been designed to view the broadest range of web pages without major problems. ... Internet Explorers original logo This article is about Internet Explorer for Microsoft Windows. ... Internet Explorer is a web browser that is subjected to many criticisms. ... The idea of removing Internet Explorer from a Microsoft Windows operating system was first proposed during the United States v. ... Add-on Manager from Windows XP SP2 Internet Explorer A Browser Helper Object (BHO) is a DLL module designed as a plugin for Microsofts Internet Explorer web browser to provide added functionality. ...

Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95
Windows Mail An e-mail and news client. Windows Vista, Outlook Express was introduced in Windows 98
Windows Fax and Scan An integrated faxing and image scanning application. Windows Vista, older faxing and scanning applications were present in previous Windows versions
Windows Media Player A digital media player and media library application that is used for playing audio, playing video and viewing images. In addition to being a media player, Windows Media Player includes the ability to rip music from, and copy music to compact discs, synchronize content with a digital audio player (MP3 player) or other mobile devices, and let users purchase or rent music from a number of online music stores. Windows Me, downloadable for previous Windows versions
Windows Photo Gallery A photo management application. Lets users organize their digital photo collection in its Gallery view, by adding titles, rating, captions, and custom metadata tags to photos. Photos can be edited for exposure, color correction, resizing, cropping, red-eye reduction, etc. and also allows printing photos via the Photo Printing Wizard. Windows Vista
Windows Movie Maker A video editing software that is intended for use in editing home movies. Source footage can be split into clips, and the final movie created by combining multiple clips along with effects such as transitions, titles/credits, separate audio track, timeline narration etc. Windows Me
Windows DVD Maker A DVD movie encoding and authoring software. Windows Vista
Windows Media Center Designed to serve as a home-entertainment hub, to be viewed from a distance up to 3 meters (~10 feet) and controlled by specially designed remote controls. Lets users browse and view pictures, videos, and music from local hard drives, optical drives, and network locations, along with viewing, recording and deferred-playing live TV. Features an interactive TV guide with scheduled recording capabilites. Can also be used for visualization of other information (like sports scores) within the interface. Windows XP Media Center Edition
Windows Meeting Space A peer-to-peer collaboration program which lets multiple users start collaboration sessions. Supports desktop sharing , distribution and collaborative editing of documents, and passing notes to other participants. Windows Vista
Windows Task Manager Provides information about computer performance and displays details about running applications, processes, network activity, logged-in users, and system services. Windows 3.1
Disk Cleanup A utility for compacting rarely used files and removing files that are no longer required. Windows 98
Shadow Copy A graphical front end for the Shadow Copy service that lets users choose from multiple versions of a file. The shadow copy service creates multiple copies of a file as they are changed over time, so that users can revert to previous versions. Windows Vista. Windows Server 2003 included Previous Versions support only for client computers.
Snipping Tool A screen-capture tool that allows for taking screen shots (called snips). Experience Pack for Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2005

Microsoft Plus! was an operating system enhancement package provided by Microsoft. ... Windows Mail is an e-mail and newsgroup client included exclusively in Windows Vista. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A news client, or news reader, is an application program that reads articles on Usenet (generally known as newsgroup), either directly from a news servers disks or via the Network News Transfer Protocol. ... Windows Fax and Scan (WFS) is an integrated faxing and scanning application scheduled to be included with the Windows Vista operating system. ... A Samsung fax machine Fax (short for facsimile, from Latin fac simile, make similar, i. ... Image scanning is the action or process of producing images from text documents, photographic film, photographic paper or other physical objects. ... Windows Media Player (WMP) is a digital media player and media library application developed by Microsoft that is used for playing audio, video and viewing images on personal computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system, as well as on Pocket PC and Windows Mobile-based devices. ... Audio & Visual Medias Digital media (as opposed to analog media) usually refers to electronic media that work on digital codes. ... This article is about media players in general. ... Sound reproduction is the electrical or mechanical re-creation and/or amplification of sound, often as music. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into image (disambiguation). ... For the process of sawing wood along the grain, see Rip saw. ... A compact disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... Synchronization is coordination with respect to time. ... Apple iPod, the best-selling hard drive-based player An embedded hard drive-based player (Creative ZEN Vision:M) An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) More commonly referred to as an MP3 player, a digital audio player or DAP is a portable, handheld digital music player that stores, organizes and... For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Windows Photo Gallery (WPG) is an application included with Microsofts Windows Vista operating system that provides photo management and basic editing facilities. ... “Movie maker” redirects here. ... Video editing software is application software which handles the editing of video sequences on a computer. ... Windows DVD Maker is an application included in premium editions (Home Premium and Ultimate) of Windows Vista that is designed to enable the creation of DVD movies in Windows. ... Size comparison: A 12 cm Sony DVD+RW and a 19 cm Dixon Ticonderoga pencil. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... DVD authoring describes the process of creating a DVD video that can be played on a DVD player. ... Windows Media Center is an application designed to serve as a home-entertainment hub. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with HTPC (Home Theater PC). ... A typical Windows XP MCE 2005 Menu Windows XP Media Center Edition (MCE) was a version of Windows XP designed to serve as a home-entertainment hub. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ... A screenshot of Windows Task Manager in Windows Vista. ... Disk Cleanup application running on Windows XP Disk Cleanup application running on Windows Vista The Disk Cleanup is a computer program tool included in Microsoft Windows designed to help free up space on the computer users hard drive. ... The Volume Shadow Copy Service in modern versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system provides periodic snapshots of a systems volumes. ... Snipping Tool is an application included in premium editions of Windows Vista and Experience Pack for Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2005. ...

Windows Server components

Component Acronym Description Supported by
Windows Server domain A logical group of computers that share a central directory and user database. All Windows NT-based versions
Active Directory AD A set of technologies introduced with Windows 2000 that allows administrators to assign enterprise-wide policies, deploy programs to many computers, and apply critical updates to an entire organization. Active Directory stores information and settings relating to an organization in a central, organized, accessible database. Networks can vary from a small installation with a few objects, to global-scale directories with millions of objects.
   Related topics: Active Directory Service Interfaces, Flexible single master operation, IntelliMirror
Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003
Domain controller DC, PDC, BDC A server that responds to security authentication requests (logging in, checking permissions, etc.) within a Windows Server domain. Prior to Windows 2000, a domain controller was either a Primary Domain Controller (PDC), of which there could only be one with this role; or a Backup Domain Controller (BDC). In Windows 2000 and later the concept of primary and secondary domain controllers were eliminated, partially to emphasize the multi-master replication technology available in Windows. All Windows NT-based versions
Group Policy GP, GPO Provides centralized management of user and computer settings in an Active Directory environment. Group policy can control a target object's registry, NTFS security, audit and security policy, software installation, logon/logoff scripts, folder redirection, and Internet Explorer settings. Policy settings are stored in Group Policy Objects (GPOs), and may be linked to one or more sites, domains or organizational units.
   Related topics: Administrative Templates
Windows 2000 and later
Internet Information Services IIS Web server Windows NT family

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Active Directory. ... Typically Active Directory is managed using the graphical Microsoft Management Console. ... Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI), from Microsoft, abstract the capabilities of different directory services from different network vendors to present a single set of directory service interfaces for managing network resources. ... Flexible single master operation (FSMO, F is sometimes floating ; pronounced Fiz-mo), or just single master operation or operations master, is a feature of Microsofts Active Directory (AD). ... On Windows Server Systems, the domain controller (DC) is the server that responds to security authentication requests (logging in, checking permissions, etc. ... On Windows Server Systems, the domain controller (DC) is the server that responds to security authentication requests (logging in, checking permissions, etc. ... A Primary Domain Controller (PDC) is a server computer in a pre-Windows 2000 NT server Domain. ... In Windows NT 4 server domains, the Backup Domain Controller (BDC) is a computer that has a copy of the user accounts database. ... In information technology, a server is an application or device that performs services for connected clients as part of a client-server architecture. ... A Primary Domain Controller (PDC) is a server computer in a pre-Windows 2000 NT server Domain. ... In Windows NT 4 server domains, the Backup Domain Controller (BDC) is a computer that has a copy of the user accounts database. ... Local Group Policy Editor in Windows XP Media Center Edition Group policy is a feature of Microsoft Windows NT family of operating systems that provides centralized management and configuration of computers and remote users in an Active Directory environment. ... The Windows registry is a database which stores settings and options for the operating system for Microsoft Windows 32-bit versions, 64-bit versions and Windows Mobile. ... NTFS is the standard file system of Windows NT, including its later versions Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Vista. ... A computer security audit is a manual or systematic measurable technical assessment of a system or application. ... // Installation (or setup) of a program (including drivers) is the act and the effect of putting the program in a computer system so that it can be executed. ... A login (also log in, log on, signon, sign on) is the process of accessing a computer system by identification of the user in order to obtain credentials to permit access. ... To logout (also: log out, log-out, logoff, sign-off, sign off) refers to the process of ceasing use of a computer system by removing the user credentials. ... In computing, and specifically in the context of Microsoft Windows operating systems, Microsoft refers to folder redirection when automatically re-routing I/O to/from standard folders (directories) to use storage elsewhere on a network. ... Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer abbreviated MSIE), commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of proprietary graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. ... Administrative Templates are a feature of Group Policy, a Microsoft technology for centralised management of machines and users in an Active Directory environment. ... Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS, formerly called Internet Information Server) is a set of Internet-based services for servers using Microsoft Windows. ... The inside/front of a Dell PowerEdge web server The term Web server can mean one of two things: A computer program that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients, which are known as Web browsers, and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents, which usually are...

File systems

Component Acronym Description Supported by
File Allocation Table FAT, FAT12, FAT16 The original file systems used with MS-DOS. The standard file systems used with Windows 1.0 through Windows 95. All versions
FAT32 FAT32 Extensions to FAT supporting larger disk sizes. The standard file system for Windows 98 and Me. Windows 95 OSR2, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista
NTFS NTFS Standard file system of Windows NT; supports security via access control lists, as well as file system journaling and file-system metadata. Windows 2000 added support for reparse points (making NTFS junction points and Single instance storage possible), Hard links, file compression, and Sparse files. Encryption of data is provided by Encrypting File System. Symbolic links and transactioning of file operations via Transactional NTFS are features new to Windows Vista. Windows 95 also supports reading NTFS partitions, over a network. Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista
ISO 9660 ISO 9660 ("CDFS") The predominant file system for CD-ROM and DVD-ROM media. Windows includes support for Joliet extensions and the ISO 9660:1999 standard. ISO 9660:1999 is supported since Windows XP. MS-DOS and Windows 9x via extensions, such as MSCDEX.EXE (Microsoft CDROM Extension), natively in Windows NT
Universal Disk Format UDF A file system for storing files on optical media. It is an implementation of the ISO/IEC 13346 standard (also known as ECMA-167). It is considered to be a replacement of ISO 9660. Successive versions of Windows have supported newer versions of UDF. Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista
HPFS HPFS High-Performance File system, used on OS/2 computers. Read and write capability in Windows 95 (where it also listed network computer NTFS-formatted drives as "HPFS", even though it had no direct NTFS capabilities). HPFS write support was dropped in Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 98, and dropped altogether shortly before the release of Windows 2000. Windows 95 (Read/write), Windows 98, Windows NT (read), 3.1/3.51 (read/write/boot)

File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... NTFS is the standard file system of Windows NT, including its later versions Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Vista. ... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... A journaling (or journalling) file system is a file system that logs changes to a journal (usually a circular log in a specially-allocated area) before actually writing them to the main file system. ... Metadata is data about data. ... An NTFS junction point (JP) is a feature of the NTFS file system version 3. ... When several files in a computer filesystem contain exactly the same data, single instance storage can replace the references to these identical files by references to a single stored copy of the file. ... In computing, a hard link is a reference, or pointer, to physical data on a storage volume. ... In computer science, a sparse file is a type of computer file that attempts to use file system space more efficiently. ... The Encrypting File System (EFS) is a file system with filesystem-level encryption available in Microsofts Windows 2000 and later operating systems. ... In computing, a symbolic link (often shortened to symlink and also known as a soft link) consists of a special type of file that serves as a reference to another file. ... Microsofts latest Windows operating system, Windows Vista, includes a number of new I/O technologies and enhancements that are intended to shorten the time taken to boot the system, improve the responsiveness of the system, and improve the reliability of data storage. ... Windows Vista (formerly codenamed Windows Longhorn) has many significant new features compared with previous Microsoft Windows versions, covering most aspects of the operating system. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... CDfs is a virtual Linux file system that provides access to individual data and audio tracks on compact discs. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... DVD is an optical disc storage media format that is used for playback of movies with high video and sound quality and for storing data. ... Joliet is the name of an extension to the ISO 9660 file system. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... Windows 9x is a term used to describe the DOS-based operating systems Windows 95 and Windows 98, similar versions of Microsoft Windows which were produced in the 1990s. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... It has been suggested that Crash counting be merged into this article or section. ... Ecma International is an international, private (membership-based) standards organization for information and communication systems. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... HPFS or High Performance File System is a file system created specifically for the OS/2 operating system to improve upon the limitations of the FAT file system. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. ... Windows NT 4. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system that was designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor 32-bit Intel x86 computers. ... Windows NT 3. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with . ...

Core components

Component Acronym Description
Windows kernel (Windows NT)
Ntoskrnl.exe The Windows kernel image. Provides the kernel and executive layers of the kernel architecture, and is responsible for services such as hardware virtualization, process and memory management, etc.
hal.dll HAL Provides and handles the interaction between software and hardware via the Hardware Abstraction Layer.
Core processes (Windows NT)
System idle process SIP A counter which measures how much idle capacity the CPU has at any given time. The process runs in the background and monitors processing bandwidth, occupied memory and the Windows virtual paging file.
Session Manager Subsystem SMSS Performs several critical boot-time operations, such as the creation of environment variables, starting CSRSS, and performs file-copy operations that were queued up from before the system was booted (pending file rename operations). During system operation, it handles the creation of logon sessions via Winlogon and handles Windows File Protection.
Client/Server Runtime Subsystem CSRSS User-mode side of the Win32 subsystem. Provides the capability for applications to use the Windows API.
Local Security Authority Subsystem Service LSASS Responsible for enforcing the security policy on the system. Verifies users logging on to the computer and creates security tokens.
Winlogon Responsible for handling the secure attention key, loading the user profile on logon, and optionally locking the computer when a screensaver is running. On Windows NT systems prior to Windows Vista, Winlogon is also responsible for loading GINA libraries which are responsible collecting logon credentials from the user.
Svchost.exe A generic host process name for services that run from dynamic-link libraries (DLLs). Several Svchost processes are typically present on a Windows machine, each running in a different security context, depending on what privileges the contained services require.
Windows on Windows and WOW64 WoW An abstraction layer that allows legacy code to operate on more modern versions of Windows; typically this means running 16-bit Windows applications on 32-bit Windows, and 32-bit applications on 64-bit Windows.
Virtual DOS machine NTVDM Allows MS-DOS programs to run on Intel 80386 or higher computers when there is already another operating system running and controlling the hardware. Introduced in Windows 2.1; not available in any 64-bit edition of Windows.
System startup (Windows NT)
NTLDR, IA64ldr, Winload The boot loader; performs basic system initialization options such as loading the hardware abstraction layer and boot-time device drivers, prior to passing control to the Windows kernel. In versions prior to Vista, NTLDR and IA64ldr also display menus to the user if multiple operating systems are defined in boot.ini, or if F8 is pressed.
Recovery Console Provides the means for administrators to perform a limited range of tasks using a command line interface, primarily to aid in recovering from situations where Windows does not boot successfully.
ntdetect.com Used during the boot process to detect basic hardware components that may be required during the boot process.
Windows Boot Manager In Windows Vista and later operating systems, displays boot menus to the user if multiple operating systems are configured in the system's Boot Configuration Data.
Graphical subsystem
Graphics Device Interface GDI/GDI+ The kernel graphics component for representing graphical objects and transmitting them to output devices such as monitors and printers.
Desktop Window Manager DWM The compositing manager introduced in Windows Vista that handles compositing and manages special effects on screen objects in a graphical user interface.

The Windows NT operating system familys architecture consists of two layers (user mode and kernel mode), with many different modules within both of these layers. ... ntoskrnl. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... The Windows NT operating system familys architecture consists of two layers (user mode and kernel mode), with many different modules within both of these layers. ... Hal. ... A hardware abstraction layer (HAL) is an abstraction layer, implemented in software, between the physical hardware of a computer and the software that runs on that computer. ... Windows Task Manager with System idle process selected In Windows NT-based operating systems, the System Idle Process is the system idle task: it tracks how much of the CPUs time is being utilized and issues the HLT instruction to cut the processors power usage. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... In computer operating systems, paging memory allocation algorithms divide computer memory into small partitions, and allocates memory using a page as the smallest building block. ... Session Manager Subsystem, or smss. ... Environment variables are a set of dynamic values that can affect the way running processes will behave on a computer. ... Client/Server Runtime Subsystem, or csrss. ... Winlogon is the Windows NT component responsible for handling the default secure attention key, loading the user profile on logon, and optionally locking the computer when a screensaver is running (requiring another authentication step). ... Windows File Protection (WFP) is a technology included in all Microsoft Windows operating systems beginning with Windows 2000 to prevent programs from replacing critical Windows system files. ... Client/Server Runtime Subsystem, or csrss. ... The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is the name given by Microsoft to the core set of application programming interfaces (APIs) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems. ... Local Security Authority Subsystem Service (LSASS), is a process in Microsoft Windows operating systems that is responsible for enforcing the security policy on the system. ... In the Windows NT architecture, a token is a system object (type name Token) representing the subject in access control operations, i. ... Winlogon is the Windows NT component responsible for handling the default secure attention key, loading the user profile on logon, and optionally locking the computer when a screensaver is running (requiring another authentication step). ... The secure attention key is a special key combination to be entered before a login screen is presented, for example Control-Alt-Delete for Windows, Control-Alt-Pause or the SysRq K sequence for Linux, or Control-X Control-R for AIX. Users should be instructed to report login prompts... A screensaver is a computer program originally designed to conserve the image quality of computer displays by blanking the screen or filling them with moving images or patterns when the computers are not in use. ... Gina may refer to: Gina (Canaan), a town in ancient Canaan GINA may refer to: Global Initiative For Asthma Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act Graphical identification and authentication, a Microsoft Windows software library Gina is also an Italian first name. ... In software Svchost. ... In computer science, a library is a collection of subprograms used to develop software. ... Windows on Windows, commonly referred to as Wow, is an abstraction component of Microsoft Windows operating system. ... WoW64 (Windows-on-Windows 64-bit) is a subsystem of the Windows operating system that is capable of running 32-bit applications and is included on all 64-bit versions of Windows â€” including Windows XP 64-bit Editions, Windows Server 2003 x64 Edition and Windows Vista 64-bit Editions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... The Intel386[1] is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 2007. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... The Windows NT Startup Process is the process by which Microsofts Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 operating systems initialize. ... This refers to the boot components for Windows Vista and Windows Server Longhorn. The Windows Vista Startup Process is the process by which Microsofts Windows Vista operating system initializes. ... An NTLDR boot menu. ... winload. ... In computing, booting is a bootstrapping process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. ... A hardware abstraction layer (HAL) is an abstraction layer, implemented in software, between the physical hardware of a computer and the software that runs on that computer. ... NTLDR (NT Loader) is the boot loader for Windows NT, including its later versions (2000/XP/Longhorn). ... The Windows 2000 Recovery Console selection, login, and command prompts. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In computing, booting (booting up) is a bootstrapping process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. ... ntdetect. ... The Windows Boot Manager is Microsofts new boot manager for Windows Vista and Windows Server Longhorn. It reads the Boot Configuration Data, and displays an operating system selection menu[1], and is thus functionally equivalent to the boot selection menu functionality of NTLDR in prior versions of Windows NT... Boot Configuration Data (BCD) is the boot-time loader for Windows Vista and Windows Longhorn Server. ... GDI is short for Graphics Device Interface or Graphical Device Interface, and is one of the three core components or subsystems of Microsoft Windows. ... Desktop Window Manager (DWM) is currently the name for the new windowing system that will be available in all versions of Windows Vista, except Starter Edition, to enable the new Aero user interface. ... In the X Window System, a compositing window manager is a unified X window manager and compositing manager program. ...

Services

(see also: Windows Services) A Windows service is an application that starts when the Microsoft Windows operating system is booted and runs in the background as long as Windows is running. ...

Display name Service name Description Introduced
Alerter service Alerter Sends administrative alerts over the network to client computers, administrators and users. Windows NT
Application Layer Gateway service ALG Provides support for plugins that allow network protocols to pass through Windows Firewall and work behind Internet Connection Sharing. Windows 2000
Application Management Processes requests to enumerate, install, and remove applications that are installed on the computer or deployed through an organization’s network. Windows 2000
Background Intelligent Transfer Service BITS Transfers files between machines using idle network bandwidth. Used by Windows Update, Windows Server Update Services, and Systems Management Server to deliver software updates to clients, as well as by Windows Messenger. Windows XP
Distributed Transaction Coordinator MSDTC Allows transactional components to be configured through COM+ by coordinating transactions that are distributed across multiple computers and/or resource managers, such as databases, message queues, file systems, and other transaction–based resource managers. Windows 2000 and later NT-based
Network Location Awareness NLA Manages network configurations and information, and notifies applications of changes. Windows XP
Print Spooler Spooler Manages printer devices and moves files into memory for printing. Windows 95, Windows NT
Security Account Manager SamSs Manages user account security information. Windows NT family
Task Scheduler Schedule Lets users setup and schedule automated tasks. Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95
Windows Image Acquisition (WIA) STISvc Handles scanner and camera inputs. Windows Me
Windows Time W32Time Synchronizes the system time with external time servers. Windows NT family
Wireless Zero Configuration WZCSvc Configures and manages 802.11 wireless adapters Windows XP, Server 2003 only
Messenger service Messenger Allows users to send pop-up messages to other computers over the network. Windows NT family
MSRPC RPCSs Provides Remote Procedure Call(RPC) technique via remotely accessible Named Pipes. Windows NT family
Volume Shadow Copy Service VSS Create multiple versions of files that change. Windows XP, ability to store persistent snapshots in Windows Server 2003
Windows Firewall/Internet Connection Sharing SharedAccess Windows XP

The Alerter service is a Microsoft Windows service which is used to send administrative alerts. ... In the context of computer networking, an application-level gateway [1] (also known as ALG or application layer gateway) consists of a security component that augments a firewall or NAT employed in a computer network. ... Windows Firewall icon in Windows Vista Windows Firewall is a personal firewall, included with Microsofts Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Vista operating systems. ... Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) is the name given by Microsoft to a feature in newer versions of its Windows operating system (as of Windows 98 Second Edition) for sharing a single Internet connection on one computer between other computers on the same local area network. ... Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS) is a component of modern Microsoft Windows operating systems that facilitates prioritized, throttled, and asynchronous transfer of files between machines using idle network bandwidth. ... Windows Update version 5 through Netscape Browser 8. ... Screenshot of a Windows Software Update Services administration console Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) provides a software update service for Microsoft Windows operating systems and other software. ... Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS) [1] is a product for managing large groups of Microsoft-based computer systems. ... Software Update is a software tool by Apple Computer that install the latest version of Apple software on computers running Mac OS X (there was also a Software update tool for classic Mac OS). ... Windows Messenger is a (now deprecated) proprietary instant messaging client included in Microsofts Windows XP operating system. ... In software application development, structuring into independent components can create the problem of managing each component. ... The Security Account Manager (SAM) is a database stored as a registry file in Windows NT and Windows 2000. ... Scheduling is the process of assigning tasks to a set of resources. ... The Microsoft Windows Image Acquisition (WIA) interface is both an application programming interface (API) and a device driver interface (DDI). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... WinPopup, shown in the background, first appeared in Windows for Workgroups, together with several other network applications. ... MSRPC (Microsoft Remote Procedure Call) is a modified version of DCE/RPC. Additions include support for Unicode strings, implicit handles, inheritance of interfaces (which are extensively used in DCOM), and complex calculations in the variable-length string and structure paradigms already present in DCE/RPC. The DCE 1. ... Remote procedure call (RPC) is a protocol that allows a computer program running on one computer to cause a subroutine on another computer to be executed without the programmer explicitly coding the details for this interaction. ... In computing, a named pipe (also FIFO for its behaviour) is an extension to the classical pipe concept on UNIX and UNIX-like systems, and is one of the methods of interprocess communication. ... The Volume Shadow Copy Service in modern versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system provides periodic snapshots of a systems volumes. ... Windows Firewall icon in Windows Vista Windows Firewall is a personal firewall, included with Microsofts Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Vista operating systems. ... Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) is the name given by Microsoft to a feature in newer versions of its Windows operating system (as of Windows 98 Second Edition) for sharing a single Internet connection on one computer between other computers on the same local area network. ...

Games

Component Description Introduced
3D Pinball: Space Cadet A pinball simulation. Windows NT 4.0
Chess Titans A version of Chess. Windows Vista
FreeCell A version of FreeCell. Win32s
Hearts A version of Hearts using Black Lady scoring. Windows for Workgroups 3.11
InkBall A game employing the use of a stylus or mouse to draw lines to direct balls into holes of corresponding colors. Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2005
Mahjong Titans A version of Mahjong solitaire. Windows Vista
Minesweeper A version of Minesweeper. Windows 3.1
Purble Place An educational game for children, teaching pattern recognition, shapes, and colors. Windows Vista
Solitaire A version of Klondike Solitaire. Windows 3.0
Spider Solitaire A version of Spider Solitaire. Microsoft Plus! 98

Full Tilt! Pinball (also known as Pinball 95) is a pinball computer game developed by Cinematronics and published by Maxis in 1995. ... This article is about the arcade game. ... A screenshot from The Sims: Deluxe Edition. ... Windows NT 4. ... Chess Titans is a computer game, developed by Oberon Games, included with Microsofts Windows Vista operating system. ... For other uses, see Chess (disambiguation). ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Part way through game of FreeCell on KDE. FreeCell is a solitaire card game superficially similar to Klondike. ... Part way through game of FreeCell on KDE. FreeCell is a solitaire card game superficially similar to Klondike. ... Win32s is a 32-bit application runtime environment for the Microsoft Windows 3. ... Hearts is a card game that is included in Microsoft Windows. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Black Lady is an extremely combative variant of the card game Whist, similar to the popular game Hearts. ... A typical Windows 3. ... InkBall is a computer game included in recent versions of Microsoft Windows. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft Corporation for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Mahjong Titans is a computer game, developed by Oberon Games, included with Microsofts Windows Vista operating system. ... A Shanghai solitaire in Dragon formation. The same solitaire, with free tiles highlighted. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Minesweeper is a single-player computer game. ... Minesweeper is a single-player computer game. ... A typical Windows 3. ... Purble Place is a computer game developed by Oberon Games and included in Windows Vista. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Solitaire is a card game that is included in most versions of Microsoft Windows. ... Klondike is a solitaire card game often known purely by the name of Solitaire. ... Windows 3. ... Spider Solitaire is a card game that is included in recent versions of Microsoft Windows. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Microsoft Plus! was an operating system enhancement package provided by Microsoft. ...

DirectX

Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms. ... Direct3D is part of Microsofts DirectX API. Direct3D is only available for Microsofts various Windows operating systems (Windows 95 and above) and is the base for the graphics API on the Xbox and Xbox 360 console systems. ... DirectDraw is part of Microsofts DirectX API. DirectDraw is used to render graphics in applications where top performance is important. ... DirectSound is software supplied by Microsoft that resides on a computer with the Windows operating system. ... DirectMusic is a high-level set of objects, built on top of DirectSound, that allow you to play sound and music without needing to get quite as low-level as DirectSound. ... DirectInput is a library of objects for collecting input from the user, via input devices such the mouse, keyboard, joystick or game controllers. ... DirectPlay is part of Microsofts DirectX API. DirectPlay is a network communication library intended for computer game development, although its general nature certainly allows it to be used for other purposes. ... Logo of the DirectX Media SDK - the first time DirectShow was distributed under its current name. ... DirectX Media Objects (DMOs) are COM-based multimedia and data-streaming components. ... In computer music and professional audio creation, a DirectX plugin is a software processing component that can be loaded as a plugin into host applications to allow real-time processing, audio effects, mixing audio or act as virtual synthesizers. ... Microsoft DirectX Video Acceleration is a Microsoft API specification for the use hardware acceleration of 2-D video decoding operations. ...

Networking

The Administrative Shares are the default network shares created by all Windows NT-based operating systems (NT/2000/XP/2003). ... The Microsoft Distributed File System, or DFS, is a set of client and server services that allow a large enterprise to organize many distributed SMB file shares into a distributed file system. ... A Microsoft supplied server that provides Preboot eXecution Environment (PXE) BIOS enabled computers to remotely execute boot environment variables. ... My Network Places is the built-in network browser in Microsoft Windows operating systems from Windows 2000 onwards. ... Network Access Protection (NAP) is a Microsoft technology of controlling network access, first utilized in Microsoft Windows Vista. ... Server Message Block (SMB) is an application-level network protocol mainly applied to shared access to files, printers, serial ports, and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network. ... Windows Rights Management Services (RMS) is a Microsoft Windows technology included in Windows Server 2003 and Windows Vista that is a form of digital rights management for corporate email, documents, and intranet web pages. ...

Scripting and command-line

Wikibooks has more about this subject: Guide to Windows commands In MS-DOS, OS/2 and Windows, a batch file is a text file containing a series of commands intended to be executed by the command interpreter. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... ComSpec is one of environment variables used in MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows, which by default points to cmd. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Look up NET, net, net- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In software, netsh, or network shell, is a utility provided with Microsofts Windows XP. It allows local or remote configuration of network settings. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... NET SEND refers to the command option of the MS-DOS NET command that sends messages to other users, computers by name or ip address on the network. ... QBasic is an IDE and interpreter for a variant of the BASIC programming language which is based on QuickBasic. ... regsvr32. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into cmd. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Microsoft Windows Script Host (originally called Windows Scripting Host, but renamed for the second release) is distributed and installed by default on Windows 98 and later versions of Microsoft Windows. ... Windows PowerShell, previously Microsoft Shell or MSH (codenamed Monad) is an extensible command line interface (CLI) shell and scripting language product developed by Microsoft. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Kernel

Kernel Transaction Manager (KTM) is a component of the Windows Vista kernel that enables applications to use atomic transactions on resources. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In computing, the Win32 Thread Information Block (TIB) is a data structure in Win32 on x86 that stores info about the currently running thread. ...

.NET Framework

It has been suggested that Com interop be merged into this article or section. ... Microsoft . ... This subsystem is a part of . ... This subsystem is a part of . ... This subsystem is a part of . ... This subsystem is a part of . ... This API is a part of . ... ASP.NET logo ASP.NET is a web application framework marketed by Microsoft that programmers can use to build dynamic web sites, web applications and XML web services. ... ADO.NET is a set of computer software components that can be used by programmers to access data and data services. ... . ... Visual overview of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) is an open specification developed by Microsoft that describes the executable code and runtime environment that form the core of the Microsoft . ... The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is the virtual machine component of Microsofts . ... The Common Type System (CTS) is used by every language built on the . ... Common Intermediate Language (CIL, pronounced either sill or kill) (formerly called Microsoft Intermediate Language or MSIL) is the lowest-level human-readable programming language in the Common Language Infrastructure and in the . ... In the Microsoft . ... . ... The Base Class Library (BCL) is a library of types and functionalities available to all languages using the . ... The Virtual Execution System(VES) provides an environment for executing managed code. ...

Security

Windows Defender, previously known as Microsoft AntiSpyware, is a software product from Microsoft designed to prevent, remove and quarantine spyware on Microsofts Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Vista operating systems. ... The Encrypting File System (EFS) is a file system with filesystem-level encryption available in Microsofts Windows 2000 and later operating systems. ... SYSKEY is an utility that encrypts the hashed password information in a SAM database using a 128-bit encryption key. ... DEP controls in Windows Vista DEP causing Windows XP to end a program Data Execution Prevention (DEP) is a feature included in modern Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems that is intended to prevent an application or service from executing code from a non-executable memory region. ... UAC confirmation dialog UAC credentials dialog User Account Control (UAC) is a technology and security infrastructure introduced with Microsofts Windows Vista operating system. ... The Security Account Manager (SAM) is a database stored as a registry file in Windows NT and Windows 2000. ... BitLocker Drive Encryption is a data protection feature integrated into Microsofts Windows Vista operating system that provides encryption for the entire OS volume. ...

Deprecated components and programs

Full Tilt! Pinball is a pinball computer game developed by Cinematronics and published by Maxis in 1995. ... ActiveMovie is a streaming media technology developed by Microsoft and is now known as DirectShow. ... Screenshot of the Windows 3. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... A screenshot of File Manager displaying a folder and the contents of the C drive. ... Hover! is a video game that came bundled with Windows 95. ... Internet Mail and News Microsoft Internet Mail and News was a freeware e-mail and news client and antecessor of Outlook Express. ... This article is about media players in general. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Screenshot of the MSD utility displaying operating system information. ... Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) is a distributed object system and protocol developed by Microsoft. ... For the personal information manager included in the Microsoft Office suite, see Microsoft Outlook. ... Program Manager in Windows 3. ... Reversi and Othello are names for an abstract strategy board game which involves play by two parties on an eight-by-eight square grid with pieces that have two distinct sides. ... Video for Windows was a multimedia technology developed by Microsoft that allowed Microsoft Windows to play digital video. ... Windows Address Book (WAB) is a component of Microsoft Windows operating systems that lets users keep a single list of contacts that can be shared by multiple programs. ... Windows Messaging, initially called Microsoft Exchange, was an e-mail client included with Windows 95, 98 and Windows NT 4. ... Windows Messenger is a (now deprecated) proprietary instant messaging client included in Microsofts Windows XP operating system. ... Screenshot of NetMeeting for Windows XP Microsoft NetMeeting is a VoIP and multi-point videoconferencing client included in many versions of Microsoft Windows (from Windows 95 OSR2 to Windows XP). ... Windows Picture and Fax Viewer is an image viewer. ... Windows Write is a simple word processor that came with Microsoft Windows 1. ... NTBackup is Windows built-in backup software, introduced in Windows NT around 1997 and part of all subsequent versions up to and including Windows 2003 Server, including Windows 2000 and Windows XP. Backup Basics from Microsoft Website with general discussion and information to assist in the use of NTBackup Categories... The Media Control Interface is short and sweet, in an aging with wrinkles API for controlling multimedia images connected to a tree. ... Microsoft WinHelp is a proprietary format for online help files that can be displayed by the Microsoft Help browser winhelp. ...

APIs

Media Foundation is set of COM-based Microsoft APIs forming the next generation multimedia application framework and platform infrastructure for Microsoft Windows. ... ClearType is a registered trademark for a technology developed by Microsoft Corporation to improve the appearance of text on certain types of computer display screens, especially flat-panel displays. ... The Windows Imaging Component (WIC) is a Component Object Model based imaging codec framework introduced in Windows Vista for working with and processing digital images and image metadata. ... Windows Driver Foundation (WDF) is a Microsoft development group which is building tools to aid in the creation of high-quality device drivers for Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, and later editions of Windows. ... Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) is a set of extensions to the Windows Driver Model that provides an operating system interface through which instrumented components provide information and notification. ...

Miscellaneous (to be categorised)

Microsoft provides examples on its website for the use of Agent. ... Windows Rally is a set of technologies from Microsoft to simplify the setup and maintenance of wired and wireless network-connected devices and ensure reliable, secure and high-quality connectivity for users who connect the devices to the Internet or to computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system. ... ActiveSync is a synchronisation program developed by Microsoft Corporation. ... The Prefetcher is a component of versions of Microsoft Windows starting with Windows XP. It is a component of the Memory manager that speeds up the Windows boot process, and shortens the amount of time it takes to start up programs. ... Universal Audio Architecture (UAA) is an initiative unveiled in 2002 by Microsoft to standarize the class driver architecture for audio devices in modern Microsoft Windows operating systems. ... Microsofts latest Windows operating system, Windows Vista, includes a number of new I/O technologies and enhancements that are intended to shorten the time taken to boot the system, improve the responsiveness of the system, and improve the reliability of data storage. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Text Services Framework (TSF) , is a COM framework and API in Windows XP and later Windows operating systems that supports advanced text input and text processing. ... The XML Paper Specification (XPS), formerly codenamed Metro, is a document storage and viewing specification developed by Microsoft. ... Screenshot of the Color Management control panel which is used to configure Windows Color System settings. ... Windows Mobile Device Center 6 for Windows Vista is the successor for ActiveSync mobile synchronization software, that is only supported for Windows Vista, as ActiveSync is not compatible with this version of Windows. ... Windows Speech Recognition in Sleep mode Windows Speech Recognition is a speech recognition application included in Windows Vista. ... The Windows registry is a database which stores settings and options for the operating system for Microsoft Windows 32-bit versions, 64-bit versions and Windows Mobile. ...

See also

The following is a list of Microsoft topics. ... A blue screen of death as seen in Windows XP and Vista. ...

Notes and references


 
 

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