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Encyclopedia > List of Latin words with English derivatives

This is a list of Latin words with derivatives in English (and other modern languages).


Note that ancient orthography did not distinguish between i and j or between u and v. Many modern works distinguish u from v but not i from j. In this article both distinctions are shown as they are helpful when tracing the origin of English words. See also Latin spelling and pronunciation. The Roman alphabet or Latin alphabet was adapted from an Etruscan alphabet, to represent the phonemes of the Latin language. ...

Contents

Nouns and adjectives

The citation form for nouns (the one normally shown in Latin dictionaries) is the nominative singular, but this typically does not exhibit the root form from which English derivatives from Latin nouns are generally derived.

Latin Nouns and Adjectives
Citation Form Declining Stem Meaning English Derivative
acerbus acerb- sweet acerbic
aedificium aedifici- building edifice
alacer alacr- quick alacrity
album alb- white album
alius ali- other alien
anima anim- soul,life animate
annus ann- year annual
aqua aqu- water aquamarine
aquatic
audax audac- brave, bold audacious
auris aur- ear aural
avis av- bird avian
aviary
bellum bell- war bellicose
belligerence
bonus
– melior
– optimus
bon-
– melior-
– optim-
good
– better
– best
bonus
ameliorate
optimum
bōs bov- cow bovine
canis can- dog canine
cīvis civit- citizen civil
civilian
coniunx coniug- spouse conjugal
cornu corn- horn cornucopia
deus de- god deity
diēs diē- day diet
discipulus discipul- student disciple
dominus domin- lord dominion
dominate
domus dom- house domain
domestic
domicile
fēmina fēmin- woman feminine
filius fili- son filial
forma form- form, shape, beauty form
fors fort- luck fortuitous
fortitudō fortitudin- strength fortitude
frater fratr- brother fraternity
genus gener- birth
offspring
generation
homō homin- man (human being) hominid
insula insul- island insulate
peninsula
jūdex jūdic- judge judge
judicial
abjudicate
jūs jūr- right
law
justice
lachryma lachrym- tear lachrymose
lex lēg- law legal
lūna lūn- moon lunar
lupus lup- wolf lupine
magister magistr- teacher magistrate
magnus
– mājor
– maximus
magn-
– mājor-
– maxim-
big
– bigger
– biggest
magnitude
major
maximum
manus manu- hand
band of men
manual
mare mar- sea marine
maritime
māter mātr- mother matron
maternal
mora mor- delay moratorium
nihil nihil- nothing nil
nihilism
annihilate
nox noct- night nocturnal
oculus ocul- eye inoculate
onus oner- load exonerate
onus
pater patr- father patron
paternal
patriarch
pavimentum paviment- ground pavement
pes ped- foot pedestrian
pulcher pulchr- beautiful pulchritude
rex rēg- king regal
rūs rūr- farm rural
rustic
sinister sinistr- left sinister
terra terr- land terrestrial
terrain
unda und- wave undulate
urbs urb- city urban
vehiculum vehicul- wagon vehicle
veritas veritat- truth veracity
verify
villa vill- country house village
villa
vir vir- man (male person) virile
evirate

In some Latin verbs, a preposition caused a vowel change in the root of the verb. For example, "capiō" becomes "incipio".

Latin Verbs
Citation form Present stem Perfect stem Participial stem Meaning Typical derivative
agō ag- eg- āct- do agent, action
amō am- amav- amat- like
love
enamor
audiō aud- audiv- audit- hear audible
capiō
-cipiō
cap- cep-
-cip-
capt-
-cept-
take capable, captive
recipient, reception
cēdō cēd- cess- yield, depart recede, recession
cogitō cogit- cogitav- cogitat- think
ponder
cogitate
claudō
-clūdō
claud-
-clūd-
claus-
-clūs-
close conclude, conclusive
dubitō dubit- dubitav- dubitat- doubt indubitable
faciō
-ficiō
fac- fec-
-fic-
fact-
-fect-
make effective, factory
ferō fer- tul- lāt- bring reference, relation
fīgō fīg- fīx- fix crucifixion
fingō fing- fict fashion, invent fiction
gradior
-gredior
gradi-
-gredi-
gress-
-gress-
none step ingredient, progressive
gustō gust- gustav- gustat- taste gustation
jaciō
-(j)iciō
jac- jec-
(j)ic-
jact-
-ject-
throw projectile
inject
laudō laud- laudav- laudat- praise laud
laudable
locō loc- locav- locat- place
put
location
lūdō lūd- lūs- play collude, collusion
mergō merg- mers- dip emerge, immerse
mittō mitt- mīs- miss- send commit, missive
moveō mov- mov- mot- move move
motor
motive
nascor nasci natus none to be born natal
prenatal
necō nec- necav- necat- dead necrophilia, necropholis
nōscō
-gnōscō
nōsc-
-gnōsc-
nosc- nōt-
-gnōt-, -gnit-
know notable
cognitive
nuntiō nunt- nuntiav- nuntiat- bring news of, announce announce
petō pet- petiv- petit- seek
attack
petulant
pōnō pōn- posu- posit- put component, position
premō
-primō
prem- press- press- push pressure, oppress
pugnō pugn- pugnav- pugnat- fight pugnatious
putō put- putav- putat- think compute
putative
relinquō relinqu- reliqu- relict- abandon relinquish
rumpō rump- rup- rupt- break rupture
sciō sc- sciv- scit- know science
scrībō scrīb- scrips- scrīpt- write scripture
sedeō sed- sed- sess- sit sedentary
sediment
sequor seq- secut- sum follow sequence
sum es- fu- futur- be essence, future
vertō vert- vers- vers- turn reverse, revert
videō vidē- vid- vīs- see vision
vivō viv- vix- vict- live vivacity
volō vell- volu- wish volition
malevolent
benevolent
volvō volv- volūt- roll revolve, revolution

Prepositions used to form compound words

Latin Preposition
Latin word Meaning Prefix
cum with, together con-, com-, col-
down from, about de-
ē, ex out of ex, e-, ec-
in in, into in-, im-, il-
inter between inter-, intel-
juxtā near, close to juxtā
ob in front of, on account of ob-, oc-
prae before prae-(pre-)
re again, back re-, red-
away from se-
per through per-
prō for, in front of, on behalf of pro-
post after, behind post-
sub under sub-, sus-, suc-
super above, on top of super-
trāns across trans-
ultra beyond ultra-

Other parts of speech

Latin word meaning
paene almost penultimate, peninsula
primo first prime, primate
ubique from all sides ubiquitous
satis enough (of) satisfy

See also

A large portion of the technical and scientific lexicon of English and other Western European languages consists of classical compounds. ... The phrase Dog Latin refers to the creation of a phrase or jargon in imitation of Latin, often by directly translating English words (or those of other European languages) into Latin without conjugation or declension. ... The following is an alphabetical list of Greek and Latin roots commonly used in English. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... A Latinism is a word borrowed from Latin into another language, such as English. ... English has been called a Germanic language with a Romance vocabulary. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ... This list contains Germanic elements of the English language which have a close corresponding Latinate form. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of French phrases used by English speakers. ... List of Greek Phrases/Proverbs (h)a Ageōmetrētos mēdeis eisitō. Let no-one without knowledge of geometry enter. Motto over the entrance to Platos Academy (quoted in Elias commentary on Aristotles Categories). ... This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy certain standards for completeness. ... Here are some examples of French words and phrases used by English speakers. ... The expression Living Latin refers to the living use of Latin, a classical language that has often being classified as dead. There are two main proponents of Living Latin. ... New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ... Interlingua is an international auxiliary language (IAL) published in 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Wikipedia search result (2391 words)
Latin is a member of the family of Italic languages, and its alphabet, the Latin alphabet, is based on the Old Italic alphabet, which is in turn derived from the Greek alphabet.
Latin was first brought to the Italian peninsula in the 9th or 8th century BC by migrants from the north, who settled in the Latium region, specifically around the River Tiber, where the Roman civilization first developed.
Latin was influenced by the Celtic dialects and the non-Indo-European Etruscan language of northern Italy, as well as by the Greek of southern Italy.
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: Latin (1030 words)
Moreover, in the Western world, Latin was a lingua franca, the learned language for scientific and political affairs, for more than a thousand years, being eventually replaced by French in the 18th century and English in the late 19th.
Latin is a synthetic or inflectional language: affixes are attached to fixed stems to express gender, number, and case in adjectives, nouns, and pronouns, which is called declension; and person, number, tense, voice, mood, and aspect in verbs, which is called conjugation.
However, as many as half the words in English were derived from Latin, including many words of Greek origin first adopted by the Romans, not to mention the thousands of French, Spanish, and Italian words of Latin origin that have also enriched English.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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