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Encyclopedia > List of Islamic studies scholars

Islamic studies scholars or simply Islamic scholars are both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars who work in one or more fields of Islamic studies. "Islamic studies" an umbrella term for all Islam-related studies, related to both Islamization of knowledge and an extrinsic study of Islam, and Islamic culture. This is a list of eminent muslim scholars of present and past. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... An umbrella term is a word that provides a superset or grouping of related concepts, also called a hypernym. ... Islamization of knowledge is a term which describes a variety of attempts and approaches to synthesize the ethics of Islam with various fields of modern thought. ...


The entries in the list are accompanied by their date of birth, branch of Islam, country of birth, field of study, famous works and short description.

Contents

Lists

For a list of scholars specialized in:

Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... This is a list of famous Sufis Abdas-Samad (1200s) Abolfazl Angha (1849 - 1914) Abdul Qadir Jilani (1166 -1078) Abdul Qadir Saani* [1] Abou Ben Adhem ( ? - 777) Abul Hassan Kharaqani (963 -1033) Abu Mansur Daqiqi (935/942 - 976/980) Abusaeid Abolkheir (967 - 1049) Abu Yazid Bistami aka Bayazid of... The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557 The History of Islam is the history of the Islamic faith and the world it shaped as a social, cultural, and political phenomenon. ... A list of Islamic Historians include: Muslims Ali ibn al-Athir Ibn Ishaq Ibn Khaldun Tabari Al-Waqidi Non-Muslim Wilferd Madelung Category: ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... List of important Islamic philosophers: Muslims Al-Kindi كندي Al-Farabi فارابي Al-Razi or Mohammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi محمد زكرياي رازي Al Amiri عامري Ikhwan al Safa (The Bretheren of Purity) اخوان الصفا Ibn Sina ابن سينا Ibn Miskawayh ابن مسكوويه Al Ghazali غزالي Ibn Masarrah ابن مسره Ibn Bajjah Ibn Tufail ابن طفيل Ibn Rushd ابن رشد Ibn Sab‘in ابن سبعين Ibn Khaldun ابن خلدون Ayn-al-Qudat Hamadani... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... List of important Islamic Jurists: Muslims Abu Hanifa Malik ibn Anas Jafar al-Sadiq Khomeini Al-Sistani Non-Muslims Durka Durka ... Islamic mathematics is the profession of Muslim Mathematicians. ... A Muslim mathematicians is a person that professes Islam and engaged in the mathematicians aspect of Islamic science. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Islamic science has been an important part of the history of science and the present day. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... A Muslim astronomer is a person that professes Islam and engaged in the astronomical aspect of Islamic science. ...

Muslim scholars

Muslim scholars are either born in a Muslim families, or converted to Islam. This is a list of eminent muslim scholars of present and past. ...

Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Abdullah ibn Abbas was a cousin of the prophet Muhammad. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... Abd-Allah ibn Masud (Arabic: ‎) (d. ... Zayd ibn Thabit was the personal scribe of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Hasan Ul-Basri [Abu Saud ul-Hasan ibn Abi-l-Hasan Vassar ul-Basri], (642 - 728 or 737), Arabian theologian, was born at Medina. ... Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. ... An-Númān ibn Thābit (Arabic: ) also know as Imam Abu Hanifa (Arabic: ) (699 - 765) was an important Islamic scholar and jurist and is considered the founder of the Hanafi school of fiqh. ... Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Amr al-Asbahi (Arabic مالك بن أنس) (c. ... The Muwatta is a collection of hadith of the Muhammad that form the basis for the jurisprudence of the Maliki school. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Soviet postage stamp commemorating the 1200th anniversary of Muhammad al‑Khwarizmi in 1983. ... Khiva (alternative names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chiwa and Chorezm) is a city in present day Uzbekistan, in the Province of Khorezm. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... This article is about the branch of mathematics. ... This article may not be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Ahmed ibn Hanbal (Arabic: ‏‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎أحمد بن حنبل‏‎‎‎‏‎‎‎ ‎‎‎‎‎‎‎ Ahmad bin Hanbal ) (780 - 855 CE, 164 - 241 AH) was an important Muslim scholar and theologian of arabic background [9] and descendant from the Banu Shayban Arabian tribe and native of Merw [10]. He is considered the founder of the Hanbali school of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Portrait of Al-Kindi For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi AbÅ«-YÅ«suf Ya’qÅ«b ibn Ishāq al-KindÄ« (c. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardizbah al-Bukhari محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردز&#1576... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Ibn Hisham, Abu Muhammad Abd al-Malik (d. ... Abu Daud or Abu Dawod, full name Abu Daud Sulayman ibn Ash`ath al-Azadi al-Sijistani, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote the third of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, Sunan Abi Daud. ... Abu Daud, full name Abu Daud Sulayman ibn Ash`ath al-Azadi al-Sijistani, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote the third of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, Sunan Abi Daud. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Qushayri al-Nisaburi (Arabic: أبو الحسين مسلم بن الحجاج القشيري النيسابوري) (born 204... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, á¹£aḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Al-Tirmidhi, full name Abu Isa Muhammad ibn Isa ibn Musa ibn al-Dahhak al-Sulami al-Tirmidhi (824-892, ie 209 AH - 13 Rajab 279 AH) was a medieval collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), who wrote the Sunan al-Tirmidhi, one of the six canonical hadith compilations used... Jami at-Tirmidhi is the one of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Al-Tirmidhi. ... Ibn Maja, full name Abu `Abdallah Muhammad ibn Yazid Ibn Maja al-Rab`i al-Qazwini, was a medieval scholar of hadith (the sayings of Muhammad). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Sunan Ibn Maja is the last compiled of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Ibn Maja. ... Abd-Allāh ibn Muslim ibn Qutayba, AbÅ« Muhammad al-DÄ«nawarÄ« al-MarwazÄ« (213-276) was viewd by sunnis as a hadÄ«th Master, foremost philologist, linguist, and man of letters. ... Al-Nasāī, full name Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb ibn Alī ibn Sīnān Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Nasāī, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote one of the six canonical... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... The History of the Prophets and Kings (Arabic: تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly Tarikh al-Tabari) is a history by Tabari from the Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Arab and Muslim history. ... The commentary on the Quran (Arabic:Al-musammá Jami‘ al-bayan fi ta’wil al-Qur’an), popularly Tafsir al-Tabari is a classic Sunni tafsir by Tabari. ... Abu al-Hasan bin Ismael al-Ashari (Arabic ابو الحسن بن إسماعيل اﻷشعري) (c. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... Al-Tahawi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ... Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Mahmud Abu Mansur al-Samarqandi al-Maturidi al-Hanafi (d. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Al-Barbaharee was a Sunni Islamic theologian from Iraq. ... Sulaiman bin Ahmad bin Ayub bin Mutair Al-Lakhmi At-Tabarani was born sometime in 260 AH. He narrated numerous ahadeeth. ... Al-Mujam al-Kabeer is a known exegesis on the Quran (Arabic: tafsir), writen by Sunni Islamic scholar al-Tabarani External links http://fadakbooks. ... Abu Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn Abd-Allah al-Hakim al-Nishaburi (d. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain or Mustadrak al-Hakim is a ten volum hadith collection writen by Hakim al-Nishaburi, the leading hadith scholar of his time. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... Umar Naeem SUCKS. In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... This article is about the profession. ... Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi (d. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... Geodetic pillar (1855); Ostend, Belgium Archive with lithography plates for maps of Bavaria in the Landesamt für Vermessung und Geoinformation in Munich Geodesy (IPA North American English ; British, Australian English etc. ... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... (ابن سينا) (c. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... In classical mechanics, momentum (pl. ... Abu Muhammad Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa`id ibn Hazm (أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم) (November 7, 994 – August 15, 1069) was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and theologian of Persian descent [1] born in Córdoba, present day Spain. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn `Ali ibn Thabit ibn Ahmad ibn Mahdi al-Shafi`i (392-463), A.K.A al-Khatib al-Baghdadi or the writer from Baghdad was a Shafii Sunni Muslim Islamic scholar. ... Abu Ali al-Hasan al-Tusi Nizam al-Mulk (نظام الملك، ابو علي الحسن الطوسي in Arabic; 1018 - 14 October 1092) was a celebrated Persian vizier of the Seljuk... Siyāsatnāma (Book of Kingship or Book of Politics), also known as Siyar al-muluk, is the most famous work by Nizam al-Mulk, the founder of Nizamiyyah schools in medieval Persia. ... Al-Juwayni was a Sunni Shafii hadith and Kalam scholar. ... Faraid al-Simtayn is a hadith collection by Al-Juwayni. ... Ali ibn Tahir al-Sulami (died 1106) was a Damascene jurist and philologist who was the first to preach jihad against the crusaders in the aftermath of the First Crusade. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... مغربي، السموءل بن يحي، also known as Samaual al-Maghribi [1] (c. ... Ibn Qudamah (Arabic أبن قدامة ) was a noted Islamic scholar of the Hanbali madhhab, author of al-Mughni (a well-known Hanbali book of fiqh) as well as Tahrim an-Nazar (Censure of Speculative Theology, criticism of Ibn Aqils rationalist views. ... Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) was a well-known Persian theologian and philosopher from Ray. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Abu al-Hasan Ali izz al-Din ibn al-Athir (May 12 1160–1233) was an Iranian/Persian historian born in Cizre in Northern Kurdistan province. ... The Complete History - (Arabic: Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh) is a classic Islamic History book written by Ali ibn al-Athir, Composed in ca. ... Mahmud al-Alusi (1217 AH- 1270 AH [2][1]) (Arabic: ) was an Islamic scholar. ... Ruh al-Maani fi Tafseer al-Quran al-Azim wa al-Sab al-Mathan is a thirty-volume tafsir of the Quran, authored by Mahmud al-Alusi [1]. // [edit] Controversy The book is said to contain tamperings and suppressions by his Salafi son, [2]. [edit] Editions 1-30... Sibt ibn al-Jawzi (d. ... Imam Abu Abdullah Al-Qurtubi (Arabic: ) was a famous classical Sunni Maliki scholar. ... Tafsir al-Qurtubi is a famous Quran exegesis (Arabic: tafsir) by the famous classical Sunni scholar Al-Qurtubi. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... al-Nawawi (Abu Zakariyya Yahiya Ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi) أبو زكريا يحيى بن شرف النووي (born 1233 - 1278), Muslim author on Fiqh and Hadith, was born at Nawa near Damascus. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, á¹£aḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... Riyadh as-Saaliheen (The Gardens of the Righteous) is a collection of hadith (sayings of the Prophet Muhammad), is the most famous book by Imam an-Nawawi. ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: )(January 22, 1263 - 1328), was a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A Great Compilation of Fatwa (Arabic: Majmu al-Fatwa al-Kubra) is a book about Islamic written by 13th century Sunni Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyyah. ... Abul Fida Ismail Ibn Hamwi belongs to the Ayyub family. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Shafi`i madhab (Arabic: شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... The Concise History of Humanity or Chronicles (Arabic: Tarikhu l-mukhtasar fi Akhbari l-basha) - Tarikh Abul Fida, is a history book Authored by Abul Fida Ismail Ibn Hamwi in 1315 and continued by the author to 1329, It extends from the creation of the world and is a universal... Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Uthman ibn Qaymaz, Abu Abdullah Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi, ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺰ ﺍﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺷﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻲ the great Shafii hadith master (hafiz) and historian of Islam, born in Damascus in 673/1274. ... Talkhis al-Mustadrak is abridged version of Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, writen by Al-Dhahabi Hakim al-Nishaburi, the author of Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, wrote it in the year 393H, i. ... Ibn al-Qayyim is the salafi Imam of Ahl Al-Sunna Wal-Jamaa, the haafidh (preserver of hadith), the scholar of tafseer (Quranic exegesis), usool (fundamentals of jurisprudence and law) and Fiqh (jurisprudence), Aboo ’Abdullaah Shamsud-Deen Muhammad Ibn Abee Bakr - better known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (or... Ibn Kathir (Arabic : بن كثير ) was an Islamic scholar born in Busra, Syria in 1301 CE. He was taught by the Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyya in Damascus, Syria. ... Tafsir ibn Kathir is a classic Sunni Islam tafsir (commentary of the Quran) by Ibn Kathir. ... Nur al-Din `Ali b. ... Majma al-Zawaid wa Manba al-Fawaid is a 10-volume secondary hadith collection written by Nur al-Din Ali ibn Abi Bakr al-Haythami (735-807 AH/1335-1404 CE). ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... A historian is an individual who studies history and who writes on history. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of human populations. ... Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ... Philosophy of History is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... Zain ad-Din Abu al-Faraj Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ahmad ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Abi al-Barakaat Masud as-Salami al-Baghdadi al-Hanbali, also known as Imam ibn Rajab, was a Hanbali theologian. ... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ... Ibn Hajar Asqalani is a Sunni Scholar. ... Fath al-Bari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, the most valued Sunni commentary of Sahih Bukhari, writen by Ibn Hajr Asqalani. ... Bulugh al-Maram is the shortened name of the collection of hadith by al-Hafidh ibn Hajar al-Asqalani entitled, Bulugh al-Maram min Adillat al-Ahkam (translation: Attainment of the Objective According to Evidences and the Ordinances). ... Imam Al-Suyuti (c. ... History of the Caliphs (Arabic: Tarikh al-khulafa) is a famous book writen by the classic Sunni scholar Suyuti External links http://www. ... Ibn Hajar Al-Haythami Al-Makki was a Muslim Shafii scholar, born in 909 hijri He died in 974 hijri Works al-Sawaiq al-Muhriqah External links http://members. ... Editing Al-Sawaiq al-Muhriqah is a islamic book writen by the muslim scholar Ibn Hajar Al-Haythami Categories: Book stubs | Islam-related stubs ... It has been suggested that Wali Allah Dahlawi be merged into this article or section. ... Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab al-Tamimi (1703 C.E. – 1792 C.E.) (Arabic:محمد بن عبد الوهاب التميمى) was an Arab theologian born in the Najd, in present-day Saudi Arabia and the most famous scholar of the movement within Islam known as the Wahhabi movement. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Najd or Nejd (Arabic: Naǧd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... Muhammad ash-Shawkani (1760-1834 CE [1]) was a Yemeni scholar of Islam, jurisprudent, and reformer. ... Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (1244 AH – 1323 AH) (1826 AD – 1905 AD) // Maulana Gangohi (Rahmatullahi Alayhi) acquired education at a very young. ... Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotwi was the founder of Darul Uloom Deoband. ... Imam Shams-ul-haq Azeemabadi Name and Genealogy Abu-al-Tayyab Muhammad Shams-al-Haq bin Shaikh Ameer Ali bin Shaikh Maqsood Ali bin Shaikh Ghulam Haidar bin Shaikh Hedayetullah bin Shaikh Muhammad Zahid bin Shaikh Noor Muhammad bin Shaikh Alauddin. ... Abu Daud, full name Abu Daud Sulayman ibn Ash`ath al-Azadi al-Sijistani, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote the third of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, Sunan Abi Daud. ... Mawlana Shibli Numani (in Arabic: شبلي نعماني) was an Indian Muslim scholar (1857 - 1914). ... Rashid Rida (1865-1935) was a Syrian intellectual of the Islamic modernist tradition pioneered by Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh. ... Abdulhakim Arvasi (Born 1865, Died 1943) was a Sunni, Islamic scholar who lived in the times of the late Ottoman Empire and the early Republic of Turkey. ... Image:Hadrat Abdullah Shah Naqshbandi. ... Muhaddith is an Islamic title, referring to one who profoundly knows and narrates hadiths, the chains of their narration (saneed), and the original and famous narrators. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Said Nursi, born 1876? in the village of Nurs, province Bitlis, died March 23, 1960 in Urfa was a Islamic thinker of Kurdish origin. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Ulema (Arabic: علماء) is the community of legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... Abd ar-Rahman ibn Nasir as-Sadi at-Tamimi (1889-1956 C.E.) was a prominent Islamic scholar, jurist, exegete, and Arabic grammarian with a great interest in poetry who contributed many works on a variety of subjects. ... It has been suggested that Introduction of Islam (book) be merged into this article or section. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... Amin Ahsan Islahi (1904–1997) was an Indian/Pakistani exegete of the Quran , who became famous for his Urdu exegeses of Quran, Tadabbur-i-Qur’an—an exegesis that he based on Hamiduddin Farahis (1863-1930) idea of thematic and structural coherence in the Quran. ... Tadabbur-i-Qur’an is a tafsir (exegeses) of the Quran by Amin Ahsan Islahi based on the concept of thematic and structural coherence, which was originally inspired by Allama Hamiduddin Farahi. ... Sheikh Muhammad Metwally Al Shaarawy (Arabic : الشيخ محمد متولى الشعراوى ) was an Egyptian Muslim jurist. ... Huseyin Hilmi Isik (Born 8th March 1911, Died 26 October 2001) was a Turkish, Sunni Islamic Scholar. ... Maulana Syed Abul Hasan Ali Hasani Nadwi (Ali Miyan) was born in Raebareli in 1914 in family of Islamic scholars. ... See Albani for other uses of that name. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sheikh Ahmed Hussein Deedat (July 1, 1918 - August 8, 2005) was a Muslim scholar of Comparative religion, an author, lecturer, and an orator. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fazlur Rahman Malik (Urdu: فضل الرحمان ملک) (September 21, 1919 – July 26, 1988) was a well-known scholar of Islam; M. Yahya Birt of the Association of Islam Researchers described him as probably the most learned of the major Muslim thinkers in the second-half of the twentieth century, in terms of both... Ulema (Arabic: علماء) is the community of legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia. ... Ismail al-Faruqi Ismail Raji al-Faruqi (January 1, 1921 – May 27, 1986), is a renowned Palestinian-American philosopher who is widely recognized by his peers as an authority on Islam and comparative religion. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... Muhammad ibn Saalih al-Uthaymeen (1925-2001 CE) was one of the most prominent Salafi Islamic scholars of the latter half of the twentieth century. ... Allama Shah Ahmad Noorani Siddiqi also known as Noorani Mian (died December 11, 2003 Thursday Shawwal 16, 1424 ). He was an Islamic scholar of Barelvi school of thought, son of the legendary Sufi Saint Maulana Abdul Aleem Siddiqi, founder of Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan and leading co-founder of Muttahida... This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... KhurshÄ«d Ahmad (Urdu: خورشید احمد, also known as Professor Khurshid) (March 23, 1932 in Delhi - ) is a scholar, economist, writer, and Islamic activist. ... Israr Ahmed (Urdu: اسرار احمد) is a well-known Muslim religious figure in Pakistan, India, the Middle East, and North America. ... Ahmad Syafii Maarif (born in Sumpur Kudus, West Sumatra on May 31, 1935) is a prominent Indonesian intelectual. ... Nurcholish Madjid Dr. Nurcholish Madjid (March 17, 1939 - August 29, 2005), in his homeland affectionately known as Cak Nur, was a prominent Indonesian Muslim intellectual. ... ... Ulema (Arabic: علماء) is the community of legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia. ... Sheikh Abdul Hadi Palazzi (Arabic: ) is the leader of Italian Muslim Assembly and a co-founder and a co-chairman of the Islam-Israel Fellowship, based on what Sheikh Palazzi believes are the authentic teachings of Muhammad as expressed in the Quran and the Hadith. ... Ulema (Arabic: علماء) is the community of legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia. ... Abdullah Yusuf Azzam (1941–1989) (Arabic عبدالله عزام) also known as Shaikh Azzam was a central figure in the global development of the militant Islamist movement. ... Professor Nasr (Hamid) Abu Zayd (in Arabic: نصر حامد ابو زيد) was born in Tanta, Egypt on October 7, 1943 and currently works and resides in The Netherlands. ... Amien Rais (born 1944) is a prominent Indonesian politician, who led and inspired the reform movement that forced the resignation of the authoritarian ruler, President Soeharto, in 1998. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hizb ut-Tahrir (Arabic: حزب التحرير; English: Party of Liberation) is an international, Sunni, pan-Islamist vanguard[2] political party whose goal is to unite all Muslim countries in a unitary Islamic state or caliphate, ruled by Islamic law and headed by an elected head of state (caliph). ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Muhammad Rafi Usmani is the Grand Mufti of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. ... Justice (Retired) Allama Mufti Muhammad Taqi Uthmani (Usmani) (Urdu: محمد تقی عثمانی) is a renowned literalist Islamic scholar from Pakistan who has served as a judge on the Shariah Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan from 1982 to 2002 and as a judge of the Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan from... Imam Anwar al-Awlaki is a Muslim scholar who was born in New Mexico. ... Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ... Not to be confused with Tafsir al-Mizan (a quranic tafsir). ...

Shi'a Muslim

See also: List of Ayatollahs
See also: List of Grand Ayatollahs
See also: List of Shia scholars

This is a partial list of Ayatollahs, a title given to high ranked Shia Muslims clerics. ... This page is a partial list of the Marja Taqleeds (Grand Ayatollahs), which are followed by Usulli Shia Muslims around the world. ...

Shi'a classic scholars

Abi Mekhnaf (Yahya ibn Said ibn Mikhnaf Al-Kufi) () was a Muslim historian from the 8th century. ... Abu Jafar Muhammad bin Yaqoub bin Ishaaq al-Kulainy Ar-Razi (d. ... Usul al-Kafi is one of the most authoritarian Shia hadith collections, collected by Muhammad Yaqub Kulainy. ... Mohammad ibn-Ali ibn-e Babuyeh , ( who is known as Sheikh Saduq and ibn-e Babuyeh) (306- 381 A.H) in Qom. ... Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ebn Noman known as Sheikh al-Mufid (~932-1006 CE) was an eminent shiite scholar. ... Al-Sharif al-Radi, known in Persian as Seyyed Razi, the son of Abu Ahmad al-Naqib, a decent of Prophet Muhammad was born in 970 AD in Baghdad. ... The Nahj al Balagha (Peak of Eloquence) is the most famous collection of speeches and letters by Ali ibn Abi Talib, accepted as the fourth of the Caliphs by Sunni Muslims and the first of the Imams by Shia Muslims. ... Shaykh Tusi(Persian: –) Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Hassan Tusi(Persian: –), known as Shaykh al-Tayefah(Arabic: –) is a Persian of the Shia Twelver Islamic belief, born in Tus, Khorasan, Iranin the year 385 AH. At the age of 23, He moved to Baghdad to join the great center of... Abu Muhammad Ahmad ibn Atham al-Kufi (d. ... Tusi couple from Vat. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Zij-i Ilkhani or Ilkhanic Tables (literal translation: The Ilkhan Stars, after ilkhan Hulagu, who was the patron of the author at that time) is a book with astronomical tables of planetary movements by a Persian astronomer Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. ... ملاصدرا or Mulla Sadra (aka Molla Sadra or Mollasadra) also called Sadr Ad-Din Ash- Shirazi (c. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... حكمت متعاليه Transcendent theosophy or al-hikmat al-muta’liyah, the doctrine and philosophy that has been developed and perfected by Persian Philosopher Mulla Sadra, is one of tow main disciplines of Islamic Philosophy which is very live & active even today. ... Mir Damad (Persian: ميرداماد) was a philosopher, teacher, & leader in the cultural renaissance of Iran during Safavid dynasty and the main founder of the Isfahan School. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Mohammad Baqer Majlesi, (1616 - 1689) (In Persian علامه مجلسی; variations: Majlessi, Majlisi, Madjlessi) known as Allameh Majlesi or Allamah al-Majlisi, was a famous Iranian Shia cleric of the Safavid era. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... Oceans of Light (Arabic: Bihar ul Anwar) is a holy scripture of Shia Islam. ...

Shi'a contemporary scholars

Ayatollah al-Udhma Shirazi Ayatollah Al-udhma Haj Sayyed Abdullah al-Shirazi (Feb 25, 1892 – September 29, 1984) was a Grand Ayatollah of Shia Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Allamah Rasheed Turabi, a prominent and distinguished scholar, was born on 9th Jamadiul II, 1326 / July 09, 1908 in Hyderabad, India. ... Allama Talib Jauhari ( Talib Johri or Talib Jauhry) is a prominent and distinguished Pakistani scholar, religious leader, public speaker, poet and philosopher from the Shiite sect of Islam who holds the prestigious position of Zakir-e-Sham-e-Ghariban (speaker of the evening of sorrow & ruined) on Pakistan Television... Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( ) (Persian: روح الله موسوی خمینی RÅ«ollāh MÅ«savÄ« KhomeynÄ« (September 21, 1900 [1]– June 4, 1989) was a senior Shi`i Muslim cleric, Islamic philosopher and marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Sayyid Musa al-Sadr MÅ«sā al-Sadr (1928-1978?) (Persian: ‎ ) also transliterated MÅ«sā-e Sader, and many other variants, was an Iranian philosopher and a prominent Shiite religious leader who spent many years of his life in Lebanon as a religious and political leader. ... Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری; February 3, 1920 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian scholar, cleric, professor, and politician. ... Syed Husain Mohammad Jafri, Chairman of Islamic Pakistan Study Centre, Aga Khan University of Karachi, Pakistan. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The Origins and Early Development of Shia Islam is a book that reconstructs the development of an Islamic ideal in the form of Shiism. ... His Honourarable Eminence Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani (Arabic: السيد علي الحسيني السيستاني Persian: سید علی حسینی سیستانی), born approximately August 4, 1930, is a Grand Ayatollah, a Shia marja and currently an important person in relation to the occupation of Iraq. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai (1753 - 1826), better known as Shaykh Ahmad, was the founder of a 19th century Shia religious movement in the Persian and Ottoman empires, whose followers were known as Shaykhis. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Ayatollah Sayed Muhsin al-Hakim Tabatabai was born in late 19th century in a family renowned for its scholarship. ... Ayatollah Sayed Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim (Arabic: سيد محمد باقر الحكيم) (b. ... Ayatollah Sayyid Husayn Borujerdi (آیت‌الله سیدحسين بورجردی in Persian, 1914 -2003) was a Grand Shiite ayatollah. ... Mohammad Salih al-Mazandarani (Died 1081 AH.) is a Shia islamic scholar and author of Shahr Usul al-Kafi. ... Shahr Usul al-Kafi is a commentary on Usul al-Kafi by Mohammad Salih al-Mazandarani. ... Dr. Muhammad al-Tijani al-Samawi was a Tunisian student who was raised in a family that followed the rites of the Sufi Tijaniyyah order, based on the teachings of Sidi Ahmed al-Tidjani. ... Ali Shariati (Persian: علی شريعتی‎) (1933–1977) was an Iranian sociologist, well known and respected for his works in the field of sociology of religion. ... Sayyid KāzÌ£im b. ... Dr. Abdul Hakeem Buturabi, commonly known as Professor Abdul Hakeem, is an influential Shia Scholar from Karachi, Pakistan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

Sufi

Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari (1318 - 1389) was the founder of what would become one of the largest and most influential Sufi Muslim orders, the Naqshbandi. ... Image:Ysavi Mausoleum. ... Farid al-Din Attar (b. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Abusaeid Abolkheyr(966-1046) (In Persian ابوسعید ابوالخیر هجری قمری 440-357) also known as Sheikh Abusaeid , was a famous Persian Sufi who contributed extensively to the evolution of Sufi thought. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... For the Maliki scholar, see Ibn al-Arabi. ... Events November 23 - Pope Alexander III enters Rome. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... Sheikh MahmÅ«d Shabestari (687AH.- 720AH.) (Persian: ) was a Sufi Muslim. ... Junayd ibn Muhammad Abu al-Qasim al-Khazzaz al-Baghdadi[The water walker,(830-910) (d. ... Image:Bastam ghabr. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Mansur Al-Hallaj (Arabic: منصور الحلاج; Persian: منصور حلاج; MansÅ«r-e Hallāj) (c. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Sheikh Muhyiddeen Abdul Qadir Gilani , Abdul Qadir al-Gilani , Abdul Qadir el-Gilani or Moulay Abdelkader Jilali (in Maghreb countries (Arabic: عبد القادر الجيلانى ); (1077 – 1166 CE) was a mystic scholar and saint of Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Sheikh Najmeddin Kubra was a 13th century famous Persian Sufi from Khwarezmia and was the founder of the Kubrawiya Sufi order. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Dhul-Nun al-Misri (Arabic:ذو النون المصري) (d. ... Mawlana Rumi Mawlānā Jalāl ad-DÄ«n Muhammad RÅ«mÄ«[1] (Arabic:مولانا جلال الدين محمد رومي) ‎ (1207 – 1273 CE), also known as Muhammad BalkhÄ« (Persian: محمد بلخى) or Celâladin Mehmet Rumi (Turkish), was a Persian poet, jurist, theologian and teacher of Sufism. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Shams al-Din Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Sakhawi (831— 902) was a reputable Islamic scholar, a hafiz, excelling in knowledge of hadith, tafsir, literature and history. ... For other uses, see Nasreddin (disambiguation). ... Saadi may refer to one of the following: Saadi (poet), the medieval Persian Sufi poet Saadi Dynasty, the Moroccan dynasty Vicente Saadi, the Argentine politician Saïd Sadi, the Algerian political activist Abd ar-Rahman as-Saadi, Islamic scholar of fiqh and tafsir Category: ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Sayyidunna Mawlana Sanaadi Ala Hadrat Alshaykh Allamah Muhammad Mukhtar Ziauddin AÄ¥med Riđā Abdul Mustapha Khān al-BarelwÄ« al-Barkati al-Nuri al-Razwi al-Qadiri (1856–1921, sometimes transcribed as Ahmad Raza Khan) , was a prominent Muslim Alim from Bareilly, a city in Northern India during the late... Shaykh ul Islam Dr. Muhammad Tahir ul Qadri (Urdu: محمد طاہر القادری) (born February 19, 1951) is a Muslim writer, poet, professor, religious scholar, and a politician from Pakistan. ... Illustration from Jamis Rose Garden of the Pious, dated 1553. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas Syed Muhammad al Naquib bin Ali bin Abdullah bin Muhsin al Attas (born September 5, 1931) is a prominent contemporary Muslim philosopher and thinker from Malaysia. ... Mawlana Muhammad Ilyas is the founder of the Tablighi Jamaat of South Asian subcontinent. ... Abdal-e-Haq, Husn-e-Ukhra Syed Muhammad Azeem Barkhiya commonly renowned as Qalander Ba Ba Auliya (1898, Uttar Pradesh, India to January 27, 1979, Karachi), was a sufi, spiritual and religious leader and scholar in the field of Islam and Spiritualism from Pakistan. ... Khwaja Shamsuddin Azeemi is the current spiritual leader of the Azeemia Sufi order. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shaykh Muhammad Imdad Hussain Pirzada delivering a talk at the opening ceremony of Al-Karam Town, Azad Kashmir (February 2006) Shaykh Muhammad Imdad Hussain Pirzada, born in 1946 in Jhang, Pakistan, is a graduate of DMG Bhera and the University of the Punjab (Pakistan). ... Hazrat Allama Pir Faiz-ul-Aqtab Siddiqi is a British Muslim scholar, principal of the Hijaz College, National Convenor of the Muslim Action Committee (MAC), Secretary General of the International Muslims Organisation, Blessed Supreme Guide of the Naqshbandi Hijazi Sufi Order and a barrister at law. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi (ریاض احمدگوھرشاہی) (25 November 1941 – 25 November 2001) was a Pakistani author, spiritual leader and founder of the spiritual movement Anjuman Serfaroshan-e-Islam. ...

Unorthodox scholars

Allama Mashriqi (Urdu: علامہ مشرقی) (Inayatullah Khan) (Urdu: عنایت اللہ خان) was born into an eminent Muslim Rajput family in Amritsar on 25 August 1888 and died in Lahore on 27 August 1963. ... Muhammad Shaikh, a Quranic scholar, is the chairman of International Islamic Propagation Center. ... Ghulam Ahmad Pervez (1903 - 1986) Allama Ghulam Ahmad Pervez (1903-1986) was a Islamic scholar, one of the leading personalities and activist in the Pakistan movement and is today most known for denying the authority (but not necessarily the authenticity) of the Hadiths and initiating the Tolu-e-Islam movement. ...

Converts to Islam

Roger Garaudy or Ragaa (born July 17, 1913, in Marseille) is a French author who was accused to be a Holocaust denier. ... Dr. Jeffrey Lang is currently an associate professor in the Department of Mathematics at the University of Kansas. ... // Shaykh Hamza Yusuf Hanson is a traditionalist Islamic scholar and teaches at the Zaytuna Institute in California. ... Dr. Sherman Jackson aka Abdul Hakim Jackson is a specialist in Islamic law and theology. ... (Mohammed) Marmaduke William Pickthall, (1875–May 19, 1936), a Western Islamic scholar, noted as a poetic and accurate translator of the Quran into English. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The meaning of the Holy Quran is one of the books writen by Marmaduke Pickthall. ... Michael Wolfe is the author of books of poetry, fiction, travel, and history. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Frithjof Schuon (June 18, 1907 – May 5, 1998) is a metaphysician, poet, painter, and a leading figure of traditional metaphysics. ... Abdal-Hakim Murad at Cambridge Timothy J. Winter (also known as Shaykh Abdal-Hakim Murad) is a prominent British Islamic thinker and scholar, and a lecturer in Islamic studies in the Faculty of Divinity at the University of Cambridge. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... Yusuf Estes (born 1944), is a American convert to Islam. ... // Shaykh Hamza Yusuf Hanson is a traditionalist Islamic scholar and teaches at the Zaytuna Institute in California. ... Imam Zaid Shakir giving a lecture Imam Zaid Shakir is amongst the most respected and influential Muslim scholars in the West, and an emerging public intellectual in America. ... Thomas McElwain is a Shia Twelver Muslim Islamic scholar, former Christian, that specializes in Islamic Christianity studies. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Martin Lings Martin Lings (Abu Bakr Siraj Ad-Din) (January 24, 1909 – May 12, 2005) was a lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon and a British scholar of Sufism. ... مغربي، السموءل بن يحي، also known as Samaual al-Maghribi [1] (c. ...

Controversial

This is a list of scholars of present and past that are not recognized as Muslims by the mainstream but profess to be Muslims as part of groups and small sects that deviate from the mainstream. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...

  • Rashad Khalifa - proclaimed himself to be the Messenger of the Covenant of 3:81.
  • Mirza Ghulam Ahmad 1835-1908 - proclaimed to be the Promised Reformer (Mahdi) and the Messiah.

Rashad Khalifa, 1989 Rashad Khalifa (November 19, 1935 – January 31, 1990) was an Egyptian biochemist who became a US citizen and took residence in Tucson, Arizona. ... Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian (مرزا غلام احمد) (February 13, 1835; May 26, 1908), a religious Islamic figure from Qadian, India, and the founder of the Ahmadiyya religious movement. ...

Orientalists/Non-Muslims

  • => The [t] following a title indicates books translated into English.

Chronological by date of birth

622 to 1800

  • Joannis Damasceni (c. 676-749), official of the Caliph at Damascus, later a Syrian monk, Doctor of the Church, his Peri Aireseon [Concerning Heresies] [t], its chapter 100 being "Heresy of the Ishmailites" (attribution questioned).
  • Du Huan, captured at 751 Battle of Talas, traveled in Muslim lands for ten years, his Jingxingji [Record of Travels] (c. 770) contains descriptions of Muslim life; book lost, but quoted by his uncle Du You in his Tongdian (766-801), an encyclopedia of China.
  • Sankara (c. 788-820) a pivotal Hindu reformer and theologian of Advaita Vedanta; the Mohamudgara attributed to him.
  • Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi, probably 8th/9th century Abbasid, pseudonym [Servant of the Messiah...] of an Arab Christian, author of the Risalah, a dialogue with a Muslim; later translated into Latin by Pedro de Toledo and very influential.
  • Nicetas of Byzantium his 9th century polemic Anatrope tes para tou Arabos... (P.G., v.105) picks at the Qur'an chapter by chapter.
  • Mardan-farukh of Iran, his late 9th century Sikand-Gumanik Vigar [Doubt-Dispelling Treatise] [t] favorably compares his Zoroastrianism, especially its theodicy, with Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
  • Petrus Venerabilis (c. 1092-1156), Abbot of Cluny (France), while in Hispania about the year 1240, inspired Robert of Ketton (England), Herman von Carinthia (Slovenia), Pierre de Poitiers (France) and the mozarab Pedro de Toledo to translate the Qur'an into Latin, hence the Lex Mahumet pseudoprophete (1143); it circulated only in manuscript copies until 1543. Often only a tinted paraphrase, George Sales said it "deserves not the name of translation" because of its inaccuracy.
  • Raimundo, Arzobispo de Toledo (r. 1125-1152) sponsored Latin translations (e.g., by Gerard de Cremona, and the converso Avendaut) from books in Arabic, e.g., Aristotle (earlier translated from Greek into Arabic by Syrian Christians), Ibn Sina (Avicenna), al-Ghazali.
  • Mose ben Maimon (1135-1204) major Jewish theologian who fled Al-Andalus for Morocco, then Cairo, his Dalalat al-Ha'rin [Guide of the Perplexed] (Fostat 1190) [in Arabic] [t], reconciles the Bible and the Talmud to Aristotle, and so discusses Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, and the Arabic Kalam, especially the Mutakallimun as well as the Mutazili; influenced by Ibn Rushd.
  • Marco de Toledo (fl. 1193-1216) Castilla, an improved Latin translation of the Qur'an.
  • Francesco d'Assisi (1182-1226), Italian saint, as peaceful missionary to Muslims, preached before Al-Kamil, Kurdish Sultan of Egypt, in 1219 during the fifth crusade; his Regula non bullata (1221) [t], chapter XVI "Those who are going among the Saracens and other unbelievers" counsels not to enter disputes, but rather humility, proclaiming what will please God.
  • Ibn Kammuna (c. 1215-c. 1285) Jewish scholar of Bagdad, his fair-minded though controversial Tanqih al-abhat li-l-milal al-talat [Examination of the Inquiries into the Three Faiths] (1280) [in Arabic] [t].
  • Alfonso X el Sabio (1221-1284), Castilla, his royal Scriptorium or Escuela de Traductores continued translation of Arabic works (especially scientific) into Latin, thereafter becoming known throughout Europe.; many of the translators were Jewish.
  • Ramon Marti (d. c. 1286) Castilla, Dominican friar, Summa contra errores Alcoranorum (1260); Pugio fidei adversus mauros et judaeos (c. 1280); he refers to the Qur'an, Hadith, as well as al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, al-Ghazali, Ibn Rushd.
  • Tomas d'Aquino (c. 1225-1274) Italian Dominican, Doctor of the Church ("Angelicus"), his Summa contra Gentiles (c. 1261-64) [t], includes criticism of the Aristotelianism of Ibn Rushd (Averroes); also De Unitate Intellectus Contra Averroistas (Paris 1270) [t].
  • Bar 'Ebraya [Abu-l-Farag] ((1226-1286), Catholicos of the Syriac Orthodox Church, learned theologian, prolific author, his spiritual treatise in Syriac Kethabha dhe yauna [Book of the Dove], as well as his Ethikon said by Wensinck to show influence by al-Ghazali.
  • Ramon Llull [Raimundo Lulio] (1232-1316) Catalan (Majorca) author and theologian, "Doctor Illuminatus", proponent of the "Ars Magna", fluent in Arabic, three times missionary to Tunis; his Llibre del Gentile e dels tres Savis (1274-76) [t], in which one learned in Hellenic philosophy hears three scholars, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim, whose views are shared with exquisite courtesy by reasoning over their mutual virtues, rather than by attack and defense. Lull infers a heterodox continuum between the natural & the revealed supernatural.
  • Riccoldo di Monte Croce (1243-1320) Italian (Firenze) Dominican, a missionary during the 1290s, lived in Bagdad, his Propugnaculum Fidei soon translated into Greek, later into German by Martin Luther; also polemic Contra Legum Serracenorum (Baghdad, c. 1290).
  • Ramananda (d. 1410) Hindu egalitarian reformer of bhakti movement, origin as Brahmin in sect of Ramanuja; his popular synthesis of both Islamic and Hindu elements led also to inter-religious understanding; the Sant Mat poet Kabir was a disciple.
  • Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo (d. 1412), ambassador of Enrique III of Castilla to Timur at Samarkand, Embajada a Tamor Lán (1582) [t].
  • Nicolaus Cusanus (1401-1464) German Cardinal, at cusp of renaissance, his De pace fidei (1455) [t] sought common ground among the various religions, presenting fictitious short dialogues involving an Arab, an Indian, a Chaldean, a Jew, a Scythian, a Persian, a Syrian, a Turk, a Tartar, and various Christians; also his Cribratio Alcorani (1460).
  • Nanak (1469-1539) India, influenced by Muslim sufis and Hindu bhakti, became a teacher who traveled far to preach the unity of God; Sikhs revere him as their first Guru; opposed to caste divisions and to Hindu-Muslim rivalry/conflict.
  • Enbaqom (fl. 1523-1563) Ethiopia, echage or Abbot of Dabra Libanos, originally a trader from Yemen; Anqasa Amin [Gateway of Faith] (c. 1540), written in Ge'ez, defense of Christianity contra Islam with references to the Qur'an, addressed to the Muslim invader Ahmad Gran.
  • Theodor Bibliander [Buchmann] (1506-1564), Swiss (Zurich) theologian, in 1543 published in Basle various documents (with a preface by Martin Luther) including the Lex Mahumet pseudoprophete of 1143.
  • Luis de Marmol Carvajal (c. 1520-c. 1600), Spanish soldier in Africa twenty years, captured and enslaved seven years, travels in Guinea, North Africa, Egypt, and perhaps Ethiopia: Descripcion general de Africa (1573, 1599).
  • Alonso del Castillo (1520s-c. 1607), Spain, formative work in Arabic archives and inscriptions (his father once a Morisco of Granada).
  • Andre du Ryer (c. 1580-c. 1660) France, translation of the Qur'an: L'Alcoran de Mahomet translaté d'arabe en françois (Paris 1647) [t].
  • Ludovico Marracci (1612-1700) Italian priest, Latin translation of the Qur'an, Alcorani textus universus... (Padova 1698), publication delayed by Church censors, in two volumes: Prodromus contains a biography of Mohammad and summary of Islamic doctrine; Refutatio Alcorani contains the Qur'an in Arabic text, with Latin translation, annotated re partisan purposes (cf., Ottoman military proximity).
  • Dara Shikuh (1615-1659), Mughal, elder brother of Aurangzeb; Muslim but included here because of his syncretism in the tradition of his great-grandfather Akbar; his Majma-ul-Bahrain [Mingling of Two Oceans] (1655) [t] finds parallels between Sufism and the monotheistic Vedanta of Hinduism, it was later translated into Sanskrit; also his own translation into Persian of the Upanishads.
  • Johann Heinrich Hottinger (1620-1667) Swiss philologist, theologian, Historia Orientalis (Tiguri 1651) in Latin.
  • Barthelemy d'Herbelot de Molainville (1625-1695) French philologist, Bibliotheque orientale (1697), based initially on the Turkish scholar Katip Celebi's Kashf al-Zunum which contains over 14,000 alphabetical entries.
  • Henry Stubbe (1632-1676) English author, his An Account of the rise and progress of Mahometanism: with the life of Mahomet and a vindication of him and his religion from the calumnies of the Christians, which evidently lay in manuscript several hundred years until edited by Mahmud Khan Shairani and published (London: Luzac 1911).
  • Jean Chardin (1643-1713) French merchant, Journal du Voyage.. de Chardin en Perse et aux Indes Orientales (1686, 1711) [t].
  • Antoine Galland (1646-1715) France, first in the West to translate the Arabian Nights, Les Mille et Une Nuits (b. 1704).
  • Humphrey Prideaux (1648-1724) Anglican Dean, traditional partisan, The True Nature of Imposture fully display'd in the Life of Mahomet (London 1697), reprint 1798, Fairhaven, Vermont; this work follows earlier polemics, & also refutes European deists.
  • Abraham Hinckelmann (1652-1692), edited an Arabic text of the Qur'an, later published in Hamburg, Germany, in 1694.
  • Henri Comte de Boulainviller (1658-1722) French historian, his Vie de Mahomet (2nd ed., Amsterdam 1731) [t], praises what he saw as the instrumental rationalism of the prophet, portraying Islam in terms of a natural religion.
  • Simon Ochley England, Cambridge Univ., his History of the Saracens (1708, 1718) praises Islam at arms length.
  • Jean Gagnier (c. 1670-1740) Oxford Univ., De vita et rebus Mohammedis (1723), an annotated Latin translation of chapters on Muhammad in Mukhtasar Ta'rikh a-Bashar by Abu 'l-Fida (1273-1331); also La Vie de Mahomet (Amsterdam 1748), a biography in French.
  • Voltaire [Francois-Marie Arouet] (1694-1778) French author, critic, anti-cleric, deist, wealthy speculator; his play Mahomet le prophete ou le fanatisme (1741) [t], invents scurrilous legends & attacks hypocrisy (also hidden attack on the French ancien régime).
  • George Sale (1697-1736), English lawyer, using Hinckelmann and Marracci, annotated and translated into English a well regarded The Koran (1734); member of the "Society for Promotion of Christian Knowledge", proofread its Arabic New Testament (S.P.C.K. 1726).
  • Miguel Casiri (1710-1780s), Syrian Maronite, Bibliotheca Arabico-Hispana Escurialensis (2 volumes, Madrid 1760-1770).
  • Carsten Niebuhr (1733-1815) Germany, member of royal Danish expedition to Yemen, Beschreibung von Arabien (Kobenhavn 1772); Reisebeschreibung nach Arabien und andern umliegenden Landern (3 volumes, Kobenhavn 1774, 1778, Hamburg 1837).
  • Silvestre de Sacy (1758-1838) Jewish French, his Grammaire arabe (2v., 1810); teacher of Champollion who read the Rosetta Stone.
  • Jose Antionio Conde (1765-1820) Historia de la dominacion de los arabes en Espana (Madrid 1820-1821), pioneer work now depreciated.
  • Washington Irving (1783-1859) U.S.A., author, Minister to Spain 1842-1846, Chronical of the Conquest of Granada (1829); The Alhambra (1832, 1851) where he lived several years; Mahomet and His Successors (New York: Putnam 1849) a popular, fair-minded biography based on translations from Arabic and on western books.
  • Charles Mills (1788-1826) England, History of Mohammedanism (1818).
  • Garcin de Tassy (1794-1878) France, L'Islamisme d'apre le Coran (Paris 1874).
  • A. P. Caussin de Perceval (1795-1871) Essai sur l'histoire des Arabes avant l'Islamisme (Paris 1847-1849).

John of Damascus (Latin: Iohannes Damascenus or Johannes Damascenus) (c. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ... St. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Du Huan (Chinese: ), born in Changan, was one of a few Chinese captured in the Battle of Talas along with artisans Fan Shu and Liu Ci and fabric weavers Le Wei and Lu Li, as mentioned in his writings. ... Combatants Abbasid Caliphate Tang Dynasty Commanders Ziyad ibn Salih (Persian)[3][4] Gao Xianzhi (Goguryeo)[3] Li Siye (Chinese)[3] Duan Xiushi (Chinese)[3] Strength The number of troops from Arab protectorates was not recorded by either side. ... The Jingxingji (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Chinghsingchi; literally Record of Travels) was a now lost journey book written by Du Huan shortly after he returned to China in 762 from the Abbasid Caliphate. ... Du You (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tu Yu, 735-812) was a scholar, historian and prime minister of the Tang Dynasty, who had devoted 36 years to the compilation of the Tongdian, a historical encyclopedia with 200 sections, on collection of laws, regulations and general events from ancient times till his... The Tongdian (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tungtien) is an important Chinese institutional history and encyclopedia text. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, DevanāgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For the Muslim theologian, see AbÅ«-YÅ«suf Ya’qÅ«b ibn Ishāq al-KindÄ« Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi (English: servant of Messiah, son of Isaac, from the clan of Kinda) is the alias of a character in the Apology of al-Kindy, edited and prefaced... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oi on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Apology of al-Kindy is the title of William Muirs nineteenth-century translation of a medieval theological polemic attributed to an Arab Christian known as Al Kindi. ... Peter of Toledo was a significant translator into Latin of the twelfth century. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Peter the Venerable (about 1092 - December 25, 1156 in Cluny), also known as Peter of Montboissier, was born to Raingarde in Auvergne. ... The abbey today The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny) was founded on 2 September 909 by William I, Count of Auvergne, who installed Abbot Berno and placed the abbey under the immediate authority of Pope Sergius III. The Abbey and its constellation of dependencies soon came to exemplify... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Robert of Ketton (c. ... Herman of Carinthia, Herman Dalmatin, Sclavus Dalmata, Secundus Herman of Carinthia or Herman Dalmatin (also known in Latin as Sclavus Dalmata, Secundus) was a philosopher, astronomer, astrologer, mathematician, translator and author. ... Look up Peter, peter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Mozarabs (in Spanish, mozárabes; in Portuguese, moçárabes) were Iberian Christians living under Muslim dominion, and their descendants. ... Peter of Toledo was a significant translator into Latin of the twelfth century. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Lex Mahumet pseudoprophete (English: Law of Muhammad the pseudo-prophet) was the translation of the Quran into Latin by Robert of Ketton. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... Look up Paraphrase in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Francis Raymond de Sauvetât, or Raymond of Toledo, was the French Archbishop of Toledo from 1125 to 1152. ... Gerard of Cremona (Italian: Gerardo da Cremona; Latin: Gerardus Cremonensis; c. ... Converso (Spanish and Portuguese for a convert, from Latin conversus, converted, turned around) and its feminine form conversa referred to Jews or Muslims or the descendants of Jews or Muslims who had converted to Catholicism in Spain and Portugal, particularly during the 1300s and 1400s. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Fostat (also spelled Fustat; Arabic: ) was the first capital city of Egypt under Arab rule. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Kalam (علم الكلم) in Arabic means speech or discourse, and refers to the Islamic tradition of seeking theological principles through dialectic. ... Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ... Averroes (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusi philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ... Mark of Toledo (fl. ... A former kingdom in modern-day Spain, Castile (Spanish: Castilla; usually pronounced Cast-EEL in English) now compromises the regions of Old Castile in the north-west, and New Castile in the center of the country. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Saint Francis of Assisi (September 26, 1181 – October 3, 1226) was a Roman Catholic friar and the founder of the Order of Friars Minor, more commonly known as the Franciscans. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... Two Mormon missionaries A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right) al-Kamil Muhammad al-Malik (الكامل محمّد الملك ) (died 1238) was an Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, praised for defeating two crusades but also vilified for returning Jerusalem to the Christians. ... Look up Kurdish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For the rugby club Saracens see Saracens (rugby club) The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ... Bagdad can refer to several places. ... Alfonso X and his court. ... A former kingdom in modern-day Spain, Castile (Spanish: Castilla; usually pronounced Cast-EEL in English) now compromises the regions of Old Castile in the north-west, and New Castile in the center of the country. ... Ramón Martí was a 13th century Catalan Dominican monk and theologian. ... Laudare, Benedicere, Praedicare (Praise, Bless, Preach) Saint Dominic saw the need for a new type of organization to address the needs of his time, one that would bring the dedication and systematic education of the older monastic orders to bear on the religious problems of the burgeoning population of cities... The term summa is the Latin word for sum. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For other uses, see moor. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Averroes (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusi philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Averroes (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusi philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Illustration of Bar-Hebraeus Gregory Bar-Hebraeus or Abulfaragus, (1226 - 1286) was a maphrian or catholicos of the Syriac Orthodox Church in the 13th century, and (in Dr. W. Wrights words) one of the most learned and versatile men that Syria ever produced. ... Catholicos (plural Catholicoi) is a title used by the head/regional head bishop of any of certain Eastern churches. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Ramon Llull. ... The Catalans are an ethnic group or nationality whose homeland is Catalonia, or the Principality of Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya, or Principat de Catalunya), which is a historical region in southern Europe, embracing a territory situated in the north-east of Spain and an adjoining portion of southern France. ... Location Location of Majorca in Balearic Islands Coordinates : 39° 30’N , 3°0E Time Zone : CET (UTC+1) - summer: CEST (UTC+2) General information Native name Mallorca (Catalan) Spanish name Mallorca Postal code 07001-07691 Area code 34 (Spain) + 971 (Illes Balears) Website http://www. ... Ramon Llull. ... Riccoldo (non Ricold) of Monte di Croce near Florence, (born 1242 in Florenze,Italy; died 1320) was an Italian Dominican missionary. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Bagdad can refer to several places. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For the rugby club Saracens see Saracens (rugby club) The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ... Ramananda was a vaishnava saint, a Ramayat - devotee of Lord Rama. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Bhakti (DevanāgarÄ«: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ... This page deals with the Hindu varnas. ... Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... Sant Mat translates from Hindi into English as The Religion of the Saints. ... KabÄ«r (also KabÄ«ra) (Hindi: कबीर, GurmukhÄ«: ਕਬੀਰ, Urdu: ) (1440—1518[1]) (born in 1398 according to some accounts[1][2]) was one of the personalities in the history of Indian mysticism. ... Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo (? - April 2, 1412), Spanish traveler and writer. ... A former kingdom of Spain, Castile comprises the two regions of Old Castile in north-western Spain, and New Castile in the centre of the country. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan TÄ«mÅ«r bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - TÄ“mōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405), known in the West as Tamerlane, was a 14th century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent,[1][2][3][4] conqueror of much of western and central Asia, and founder... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Nicholas of Cusa Nicholas of Cusa (ca. ... A cardinal is an official of the second-highest rank of the Roman Catholic Church, inferior in rank only to the Pope. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... Look up Chaldean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Tatars or Tartars is a collective name applied to the Turkic-speaking people of Europe and Asia. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Guru Nanak (गुरु नानक) (20 October 1469 - 7 May 1539), the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore in present-day Pakistan. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Bhakti (DevanāgarÄ«: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... Important offices of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church were: Patriarch we Reese Liqane Papasat -Patriarch and First of the Archbishop, meaning Catholicos. ... Debre Libanos is a monastery in Ethiopia, lying northwest of Addis Ababa in the Oromia Region. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi (c. ... Theodore Bibliander (1506-1564), Swiss Orientalist, publisher, and linguist. ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Basel (English traditionally: Basle [ba:l], German: Basel [ba:[email protected]], French Bâle [ba:l], Italian Basilea [bazilE:a]) is Switzerlands third most populous city (188,000 inhabitants in the canton of Basel-City as of 2004; the 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Andre du Ryer was a French Orientalist who wrote the second western translation of the Quran. ... Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... Dara Shikoh (1615–1659) was the eldest son of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ), also known as Alamgir I (Persian: ), (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until his death. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Johann Heinrich Hottinger (March 12, 1620 - 1667) was a Swiss philologist and theologian. ... Barthélemy dHerbelot de Molainville (December 14, 1625 – December 8, 1695), French Orientalist, was born at Paris. ... Katip Çelebi, Mustafa bin Abdallah, Haji Khalifa or Kalfa, (1609, Istanbul - 1657 Istanbul) was a Turkish scholar. ... Henry Stubbe or Stubbes (born 1632, Lincolnshire, died 1676, Bath), writer and scholar. ... Sir John Chardin Jean Chardin, born Jean-Baptiste Chardin, also known as Sir John Chardin, (November 16, 1643 – January 5, 1713) was a French jeweller and traveller whose ten-volume book The Travels of Sir John Chardin is regarded as one of the finest works of early Western scholarship on... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Antoine Galland (April 4, 1646 — February 17, 1715) was a French orientalist and archaeologist, and the first European translator of the Arabian Nights. ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... Humphrey Prideaux (1648 - 1724), divine and scholar, belonged to an ancient Cornish family, was born at Padstow, and educated at Westminster School and at Oxford. ... A dean, in a church context, is a cleric holding certain positions of authority within a religious hierarchy. ... Deism is belief in a God or first cause based on reason, rather than on faith or revelation, and thus a form of theism in opposition to fideism. ... Abraham Hinckelmann (1652-1692) was a non-Muslim Islamic scholar who was the first one to print a complete Quran in Hamburg. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Henri de Boulainvilliers (October 21, 1658, St. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... For the rugby club Saracens see Saracens (rugby club) The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ... Deism is belief in a God or first cause based on reason, rather than on faith or revelation, and thus a form of theism in opposition to fideism. ... George Sale (1697? - 1736), orientalist, a Kentish man, and practising solicitor. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Miguel Casiri (1710–1791) was a learned Maronite and Orientalist. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The facade of the chapel, in the baroque style of Jesuit churches, is integrated with the palatial facade El Escorial is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres northwest of Madrid in the... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Carsten Niebuhr Carsten Niebuhr (March 17, 1733 - April 26, 1815) was a German traveller. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Antoine Isaac, baron Silvestre de Sacy (September 21, 1758 - February 21, 1838), was a French orientalist. ... Jean_François Champollion For the comet rendezvous spacecraft, see Champollion (spacecraft). ... This article is about the ancient Rosetta Stone found in Egypt. ... Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American author of the early 19th century. ... The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the south-eastern border of the city of Granada. ... This article is about the state. ... See also: Charles Mills (1788-1826), Charles Mills Gayley (1858-1932) and Charles Mills Drury (1912–1991). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

1800 to 1900

  • Gustav Flugel (1802-1870), Germany, Al-Qoran: Corani textus Arabicus (Leipzig 1834), Arabic text for academics.
  • Gustav Weil (1808-1889) Jewish German, Mohammed der Prophet (Stuttgart 1843); Biblische Legenden der Musel-manner (Frankfort 1845) [t]; Das Leben Mohammeds nach Mohammed ibn Ishak, bearbeitet von Abdel Malik ibn Hischam (Stuttgard 1864).
  • Pascual de Gayangos y Arce (1809-1897), Spanish Arabist, studied under de Sacy in Paris, translated al-Maqqari (d.1632) into English as History of the Mohammedan Dynasties of Spain (1840, 1843).
  • Abraham Geiger (1810-1874) German rabbi and scholar, major founder of Reform Judaism, his Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume aufgenommen? (Bonn 1833) [t] restates and updates a perennial thesis (e.g., cf. L. Marracci).
  • Aloys Sprenger (1813-1893) Austria, Das Leben und die Lehre des Mohammad (2nd edition, 3 volumes, Berlin 1869).
  • Carl Paul Caspari (1814-1892) German, Christian convert from Judaism, Norwegian academic, Grammatica Arabica (1844-1848), in Latin.
  • William Muir (1819-1905), Scotland, government official in India, The Life of Mohamet (London, 1861).
  • Edward Rehatsek (1819-1891) Hungary, later India, first translation of Sirah Rasul Allah into English (deposited, 1898).
  • Reinhart Dozy (1820-1883) Netherlands, Histoire des Musulmans d'Espagne jusqu'a la Conquete de l'Andalousie par les Almoravides (Leiden, 1861), 4 volumes.
  • Ernest Renan (1823-1892) French, Catholic apostate, Histoire generale et system compare des langues semitiques (Paris 1863).
  • Friedrich Max Muller (1823-1900) German philologist, comparative religion pioneer, Oxford Univ. professor, editor of 50 volume Sacred Books of the East, volumes 6 and 9 being the Qur'an translated by E. H. Palmer.
  • Francisco Javier Simonet (1825-c.1897) Spanish Arabist, traditional partisan, Historia de los mozarabes de Espana (Madrid 1897-1903) controversial, e.g., suggests that one-sided Muslim marriage law caused an insulation in the subject people that over generations fused their religious and lineage identities.
  • Ludolf Krehl (1825-1901) Beitrage zur Muhammedanischen Dogmatik (Leipzig 1885).
  • Alfred von Kremer (1828-1889) Geschichte de herrschenden Ideen des Islams (Leipzig 1868).
  • Girish Chandra Sen (1836-1910) India, translated Muslim works into Bengali, including the Qur'an (1886); professor of Islam for the Brahmo Samaj, universalist Hindu reform society founded in 1828 by Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833).
  • Francisco Codera y Zaidin (1836-1917) Spanish (Aragon) Arabist, probative as a scholar, founded Bibliotheca Arabico-Hispana.
  • Michael Jan de Geoje (1836-1909) Dutch academic, led the editing of the Arabic text of Ta'rikh al-rasul wa'l muluk [History of Prophets and Kings] of al-Tabari in 14 volumes (Leiden: Brill 1879-1901).
  • Theodor Noldeke (1836-1930) Germany, well regarded philologist and academic, Das Leben Mohammeds (1863); Zur Grammatik de klassische Arabisch (1896); with F. Schwally Geschichte des Qorans (Leipzig, 1909-1919, 2 volumes).
  • Ignazio Guidi (1844-1935) Italy, L'Arabe anteislamique (Paris 1921).
  • Julius Wellhausen (1844-1918) Germany, Muhammed in Medina (Berlin 1882); Das Arabische Reich und sein Sturz (Berlin 1902); his Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels (Berlin 1878, 1882) [t] presents studies using the "higher criticism" of the Bible.
  • William Robertson Smith (1846-1894) Scotland, Lectures on the Religion of the Semites (London 1884); Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia (Cambridge 1885); in his Old Testament studies influenced by Wellhausen.
  • Italo Pizzi (1849-1920) L'Islamismo (Milan 1905).
  • Ignaz Goldziher (1850-1921), Hungary, Muhammedanische Studien (2 volumes, Halle 1889-1890) [t]; Vorlesungen uber den Islam (Heidelberg 1910, 1925) [t]; Die Richtungen der islamischen Koranauslegung (Leiden 1920); well-regarded Jewish scholar, an admirer of Islam, e.g., writing that he felt fulfillment when praying with Muslims in a mosque in Cairo.
  • Martijn Theodoor Houtsma (1851-1943) Dutch, lead editor of Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden: E.J.Brill 1913-1938), 9 volumes; eclipsed by a new edition (1954-2002) of 11 volumes with index and supplements.
  • Julian Ribera y Tarrago (1858-1934) Spanish (Valencia) Arabist, studies in the culture of al-Andalus (e.g., interrelation with the troubadours), whose Muslims he viewed as Spanish; La musica de las Cantigas (Madrid 1922).
  • David Samuel Margoliouth (1858-1940), Anglican, his father a Jewish convert, Mohammed and the Rise of Islam (London 1905, 1923); Relations between Arabs and Israelites prior to the Rise of Islam (1924); Table-talk of a Mesopotamian judge (1921, 1922, 2 volumes).
  • William St. Clair Tisdall (1859-1928) Anglican priest, linguist, traditional partisan, The Original Sources of the Quran (S.P.C.K. 1905).
  • Edward G. Browne (1862-1926) English, A Literary History of Persia (4 volumes, 1902-1924).
  • Henri Lammens (1862-1937) Belgian (Flemish) Jesuit, a modern partisan, Fatima et ls filles de Mahomet (Roma 1912); L'Islam, croyances et institutions (Beyrouth 1926) [t]; L'Arabe Occidental avant l'Hegire (Beyrouth 1928).
  • Henri Pirenne (1862-1935) Belgian historian, Mahomet et Charlemagne (Paris 1937) [t], how the Arab conquests disrupted Mediterranean trade, isolating the European economies which declined.
  • Maurice Gaudefroy-Desmombynes (1862-1957) France, Le pelerinage a la Mekke (Paris 1923); Le monde musulman et byzantin jusqu'aux croisades (Paris 1931) with S.F.Platonov; Les institutions musulmanes (Paris 1946) [t].
  • Duncan Black MacDonald (1863-1943) Scotland, Hartford Seminary, Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory (New York 1903).
  • Thomas Walker Arnold (1864-1930) England, professor in India associating with Shibli Nomani & Muhammad Iqbal, later at London S.O.A.S.; The Caliphate (Oxford 1924); Painting in Islam. A study of the place of pictorial art in Muslim culture (1928); The Preaching of Islam (1929); Legacy of Islam (Oxford 1931) editor with A. Guillaume.
  • François Nau (1864-1913) Les chrétiens arabes en Mesopotamia et en Syrie au VIIe et VIIIe siècles (Paris 1933).
  • William Ambrose Shedd (1865-1918) U.S.A., Prebyterian, Islam and the Oriental Churches: Their historical relations (1904).
  • Theodor Juynboll (1866-1948) Handbuch des islamischen Gesetzes (Leipzig: Brill Harrassowitz 1910) on Islamic law.
  • Samuel Marinus Zwemer (1867-1952) U.S.A., Protestant missionary to Islam, later at Princeton Univ., Islam. A Challenge to Faith (New York 1907); Law of Apostasy in Islam (1924).
  • Leon Ostrorog, Comte (1867-1932) Poland, The Angora Reform (London 1927), on the "Law of Fundamental Organization" (1921) of republican Turkey transferring power from the Sultan to the Assembly; Pour la reforme de la justice ottomane (Paris 1912).
  • Reynold Nicholson (1868-1945) English, The Mystics of Islam (1914); A Literary History of the Arabs (Cambridge Univ. 1930).
  • Carl Brockelmann (1868-1956) Geschichte der arabischen Literatur (5 volumes, Weimar and Leiden, 1898-1942), Geschichte der islamischen Volker und Staaten (Munchen 1939) [t].
  • Leone Caetani (1869-1935) Italian nobleman, Annali dell'Islam (10 volumes, 1904-1926) reprint 1972, contains early Arabic sources.
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948) spiritual and independence leader in India, opposed caste divisions; prolific writer, teacher of satyagraha worldwide, which influenced Martin Luther King; his letter to Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Sept. 11, 1944, stated "My life mission has been Hindu-Muslim unity... not to be achieved without the foreign ruling power being ousted." Because of policies favorable to Islam, the mahatma was assassinated by a Hindu ultra-nationalist.
  • Miguel Asín Palacios (1871-1944) priest and professor, studied the mutuality of influence between Christian and Islamic spirituality (prompting vigorous response), Algazel (Zaragoza 1901); La escatologia musulmana en la Divina Comedia (Madrid 1923) ["t"] per influence on Dante of mi'raj literature; El Islam cristianizado. Estudio del sufismo a traves de las obras de Abenarabi de Murcia (Madrid 1931); Huellas del Islam (Madrid 1941) includes comparative articles on Tomas d'Aquino and Juan de las Cruz.
  • De Lacy O'Leary (1872-1957) Bristol Univ. Arabic Thought and Its Place in History (1922, 1939); Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages (1923); Arabia before Muhammad (1927); How Greek Science passed to the Arabs (1949).
  • Georg Graf (1875-1955) Germany, Geschichte der Christlichen Arabischen Literatur (Vatican 1944).
  • Richard Bell (1876-19xy) English, Origin of Islam in its Christian Environment (Edinburgh Univ. 1925).
  • Arthur S. Tritton (1881-1973) The Caliphs and their Non-Muslim Subjects. A critical study of the Covenant of 'Umar (Oxford 1930).
  • Alphonse Mingana (1881-1937) Assyrian Christian (Iraq), former priest, religious historian, collected early Syriac and Arabic documents and books into the "Mingana Collection".
  • Arent Jan Wensinck (1882-1939) Dutch, Mohammed en de Joden te Medina (Amsterdam 1908) [t]; La pensee de Ghazzali (Paris 1940); Handworterbuch des Islam (1941) [t] with J. H. Kramers; from Syriac, Bar Hebraeus's Book of the Dove (Leyden 1919).
  • Louis Massignon (1883-1962) France, influenced Catholic-Islamic understanding per the Nostra Aetate of Vatican II (1962-1965); a married priest (Orthodox [Arabic rite]), Essai sur les orgines du lexique technique de la mystique musulmane (Paris 1922, 2nd ed. 1954) [t]; Passion de Husayn Ibn Mansur Hallaj (Paris 1973) [t].
  • Nicolas P. Aghnides (1883-19xx) Mohammedan Theories of Finance (Columbia Univ. 1916).
  • Margaret Smith (1884-1970) Rabi'a the mystic and her fellow saints in Islam (Cambridge Univ. 1928); Studies in Early Mysticism in the Near and Middle East (1931) development of early Christian mysticism, of Islamic re sufism, and a comparison.
  • Seymour Gonne Vesey-Fitzgerald (1884-19xx), Muhammadan Law, an abridgement, according to its various schools (Oxford 1931); The Iraq Treaty, 1930 (London 1932).
  • Tor Andrae (1885-1947) Sweden, comparative religion, Univ.of Uppsala; Mohammed Sein Leben und Sein Glaube (Goettingen 1932) [t]; I myrtentradgarden: Studier i tidig islamisk mystik (1947) [t].
  • Philip Khuri Hitti (1886-1978) Lebanon, formative re Arabic studies in the U.S.A., Origins of the Islamic State (Columbia Univ. 1916) annotated translation of Kitab Futuh Al-Buldan of al-Baladhuri; History of Syria, including Lebanon and Palestine (1957).
  • Okawa Shumei (1886-1957) Japanese author, tried for war crimes after World War II, translated the Qur'an into Japanese (1950).
  • Giorgio Levi della Vida (1886-1967) Jewish Italian, professor of semitic languages, Storia e religione nell'Oriente semitico (Roma 1924); anti-Fascist politician in 1920s.
  • Gonzangue Ryckmans (1887-1969) Belgian priest, Louvain professor, epigraphy of pre-islamic South Arabia; Les Religions Arabes preislamiques (Louvain 1951).
  • Harry Austryn Wolfson (1887-1974) U.S.A., The Philosophy of the Kalam (Harvard Univ. 1976); Repercussions of the Kalam in Jewish Philosophy (Harvard Univ. 1979).
  • Angel Gonzalez Palencia (1889-1949) Spanish Arabist, Historia de la Espana musulmana (Barcelona 1925, 3rd ed 1932); Historia de la literatura arabigo-espanola (Barcelona 1928, 1945).
  • Arthur Jeffery (1892-1959) American University at Cairo 1921-1938, Materials for the history of the text of the Quran (Leiden 1937-1951); Foreign Vocabulary in the Quran (Baroda 1938).
  • Barend ter Haar (1892-1941) Dutch, Beginselen en Stelsel van het Adatrecht (Groningen Batavia 1939) [t], on Adat law in Indonesia.
  • Willi Heffening (1894-19xx) Germany, Das islamische fremdenrecht zu den islamisch-fränkischen staatsverträgen. Eine rechtshistorischen studie zum fiqh (Hanover 1925).
  • E. A. Belyaev (1895-1964) Russia (USSR), Araby, islam i arabskii Khalifat (Moskva, 2nd ed 1966) [t].
  • Henri Terrasse (1895-1971) French Arabist, Histoire du Maroc (2 volumes, Casablanca 1949-1950) [t]; Islam d'Espagne (Paris 1958).
  • Jose Lopez Ortiz (1898-1992) Spain, Arabist with interest in law, Los Jurisconsultos Musulmanes (El Escorial, 1930); Derecho musulman (Barcelona, 1932); a Catholic priest, later made a Bishop.
  • Enrico Cerulli (1898-1988) Italy, Documenti arabi per la storia nell' Etiopia (Roma 1931); two works re Dante and Islam per Asin: Il "Libro della scala" e la question delle fonti arabo-spagnole della Divina commedia (Vatican 1949), Nuove ricerche sul "Libro della Scala" e la conoscenza dell'Islam in Occidente (Vatican 1972).

Gustav Leberecht Flügel (February 18, 1802 - July 5, 1870) was a German orientalist. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... Gustav Weil (April 25, 1808, Sulzburg, Baden - August 29, 1889, Freiburg-im-Breisgau) was a German orientalist. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ... Sirah Rasul Allah (Life of the Apostle of God) or Sirat Nabawiyya (Life of the Prophet) (from Arabic سيرة) is the Arabic term used for the various traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, from which most historical information about his life and the early period of Islam is derived. ... Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar, or simply Ibn Ishaq (Arabic: , meaning the son of Isaac) (died 767, or 761 (Robinson 2003, p. ... Ibn Hisham, Abu Muhammad Abd al-Malik (d. ... Pascual de Gayangos y Arce (June 21, 1809 - October 4, 1897), was a Spanish scholar and Orientalist. ... Abu l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Mahommed al-Maqqari (or Makkari) (c. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Historic Town Hall of Bonn (view from the market square). ... Author: Sprenger, Aloys, 1813-1983 Bibliography: Title: A catalogue of the Arabic, Persian and Hindustany manuscripts, of the libraries of the King of Oudh, compiled under the orders of the Govt. ... Carl Paul Caspari (b. ... Sir William Muir (April 27, 1819–1905), was a Scottish Orientalist. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Sirah Rasul Allah (Life of the Apostle of God) or Sirat Nabawiyya (Life of the Prophet) (from Arabic سيرة) is the Arabic term used for the various traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, from which most historical information about his life and the early period of Islam is derived. ... Reinhart Pieter Anne Dozy (February, 1820 - May, 1883), Dutch Arabic scholar of French (Huguenot) origin, was born at Leiden. ... Leyden redirects here. ... Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Apostasy (Greek απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is the formal renunciation of ones religion. ... Max Müller Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... The Major religious groups of the world. ... Edward Henry Palmer (August 7, 1840 - August 1882) was an English orientalist, He was born in Cambridge as the son of a private schoolmaster. ... The Mozarabs (in Spanish, mozárabes; in Portuguese, moçárabes) were Iberian Christians living under Muslim dominion, and their descendants. ... History studies time in human terms. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Girish Chandra Sen (Bengali: ) (1836-1910), a Brahmo missionary, was the first person to translate the holy Qur’an into Bengali language in 1886. ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... Brahmo Samaj is a social and religious movement founded in Kolkata, India in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. ... Raja Ram Mohan Roy is regarded as the Father of the Bengal Renaissance Ram Mohan Roy, also written as Rammohun Roy, or Raja Ram Mohun Roy (Bangla: রাজা রামমোহন রায়, Raja Rammohon Rae), (May 22, 1772 – September 27, 1833) was the founder of the Brahmo Samaj, one of the first Indian socio-religious... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... For other uses, see Library (disambiguation). ... The name al-Tabari means simply from Tabaristan, thus more than one Muslim scholar is known by this designation: Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, Ali the scholar from Tabiristan (838-870 A.D.) was the writer of a medical encyclopedia and the teacher of the scholar physician Zakariya al... Theodor Nöldeke (March 2, 1836 - 1930), German Semitic scholar, was born at Harburg, and studied at Göttingen, Vienna, Leiden and Berlin. ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... Pre-Islamic Arabia, the history of Arabia before the rise of Islam in the 630s, is not known in great detail. ... Julius Wellhausen (May 17, 1844 - January 17, 1918), was a German biblical scholar and Orientalist. ... William Robertson Smith (8 November 1846–31 March 1894) was a Scottish philologist, physicist, archaeologist, and Biblical critic best known for his work on the Encyclopædia Britannica and his book Religion of the Semites, which is considered a foundational text in the comparative study of religion. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Ignaz Goldziher (June 22, 1850 - 1921), was a Jewish Hungarian orientalist and is widely considered among the founders of modern Islamic studies in Europe. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Look up Valencia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For the article about the night club in West Hollywood, California, see: Troubadour (nightclub). ... A cantiga (cantica, cantar) is a medieval monophonic song from Spain or Portugal. ... David Samuel Margoliouth (October 17, 1858 - March 22, 1940) was the UK orientalist. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Mohammed and the Rise of Islam is a book about Islam written by David Samuel Margoliouth in 1905. ... For other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation). ... William St. ... Edward Granville Browne Edward Granville Browne (1862–1926) born in Stouts Hill, Uley, Gloucestershire, England, was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value, mainly in the areas of history and literature. ... Henri Lammens (1862-1937) was a prominent Belgian-born Jesuit and Orientalist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other persons of the same name, see Fatima (name). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... Henri Pirenne (December 23, 1862, Verviers - October 25, 1935, Uccle) was a leading Belgian historian. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... 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Richard Bell (1859, Merthyr Tydfil—1 May 1930) was one of the first two British Labour Members of Parliament elected after the formation of the Labour Representation Committee in 1900. ... The University of Edinburgh was founded in 1583 as a renowned centre for teaching in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Alphonse Mingana circa 1930 Alphonse Mingana (1878 Sharansh, village near Zakho, Ottoman Empire (present day Iraq) - 3 December 1937 Birmingham, England) was a Assyrian theologian, historian, orientalist, and a former priest. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Illustration of Bar-Hebraeus Gregory Bar-Hebraeus or Abulfaragus, (1226 - 1286) was a maphrian or catholicos of the Syriac Orthodox Church in the 13th century, and (in Dr. W. 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The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... ÅŒkawa ShÅ«mei was a Japanese ultra nationalist and Pan-Asian writer born December 6, 1886, Yamagata Prefecture, Japan and died December 24, 1957, Tokyo. ... Giorgio Levi Della Vida (August 22, 1886, Venice - December 25, 1967, Rome) was an Italian Jewish Hebraist (Semitist), Islamist, Arabist. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... 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Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Arthur Jeffery ([[18 October 1892 in Melbourne]–2 August 1959 in South Milford, Nova Scotia Canada ) was a Protestant Australian professor of Semitic languages fist at the School of Oriental Studies in Cairo, and from 1938 until his death jointly at Columbia University and Union Theological Seminary in New York... Vadodara, also known as Baroda, is the third-most populated town in Gujarat after Ahmedabad and Surat (the three towns with a population of over 1 million in Gujarat). ... This is an article about the digital recording format. ... 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1900 to 1950

  • Josef Schacht (1902-1969) France (Alsace), Islamic legal history, Der Islam (Tubingen 1931); Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence (Oxford 1950) influential work, a legal historical critique (following, e.g., Goldziher) re the early oral transmission of Hadith & founding jurists; Introduction to Islamic Law (Oxford 1964); Legacy of Islam (2nd ed., Oxford 1974) edited with C. E. Bosworth.
  • J. Spencer Trimingham (1904-19xy) English; Islam in Ethiopia (Oxford 1952), a history and current sociology; Sufi Orders in Islam (Oxford 1971); Christianity among the Arabs in Pre-Islamic Times (Beirut 1990).
  • Arthur John Arberry (1905-1969) English, The Koran Interpreted (1955), a translation that attempts to capture the medium of the original Arabic; various other translations; Sufism. An Account of the Mystics of Islam (1950).
  • Emilio Garcia Gomez (1905-1995) Spain, Arabist, poet; Poemas arabigoandaluces (Madrid 1940); Poesia arabigoandaluza (Madrid 1952); his theories, e.g., on origins of the muwashshahat (popular medieval strophic verse); his admired translations from Arabic.
  • Henri Laoust (1905-19xy) France, Essai sur les doctrines sociales et politiques de Taki-d-Din Ahmad Taimiya, cononiste 'anbalite (Le Caire 1939); Le traite de droit public d'Ibn Taimiya [al-Siyasah al-Shariyah] (Beirut 1948); Le politique de Gazali (Paris 1970).
  • Geo Widengren (1907-19xy) Sweden, comparative religion; Muhammad, The Apostle of God, and His Ascension (Uppsala 1955).
  • Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998) German Swiss; of Traditionalist School (sophia perennis or "western" sufi), its co-founder with Rene Guenon and Ananda Coomaraswamy, influenced Seyyed Hossein Nasr; De l'unite transcendante des religions (Paris 1948) [t]; Comprendre l'Islam (Paris 1961) [t]; Regards sur le Mondes Anciens (Paris 1967) [t].
  • Henry Corbin (1907-1978) France, former Catholic, associated with Eranos Institute (inspired by Carl Jung), an academic re history of religions, idiosyncratic, long a resident of Tehran; Les Motifs zoroastriens dans la philosophie de Suhrawardi (Tehran 1948); Avicenne et la recit vissionaire (Tehran 1954) [t]; L'imagination creatrice dans le soufisme d'Ibn 'Arabi (Zurich 1955-56, Paris 1958) [t]; Terre celeste et corps de resurrection: de l'Iran mazdeen a l'Iran shi'ite (Paris 1960) [t].
  • Titus Burckhardt (1908-1984) German Swiss, early contact with Traditionalist School and Rene Guenon; Du Soufisme (Lyon 1951) [t]; Die Maurische Kultur in Spanien (Munchen 1970) [t]; great nephew of Jacob Burckhardt.
  • Abraham Katsh (1908-1998) U.S.A., Jewish academic, Judaism in Islam. Biblical and Talmudic backgrounds of the Koran and its Commentators, Sura I & II (New York 1954), reprinted 1962 as Judaism and the Koran.
  • William Montgomery Watt (1909-2006) Scottish Episcopal priest, Arabist, Muhammad at Mecca (Oxford 1953), Muhammad at Medina (Oxford, 1956); with P. Cachia A History of Islamic Spain (Edinburgh 1965); Formative Period of Islamic Thought (1998).
  • Martin Lings (1909-2005) England, Sufi scholar, Muhammed his life based on the earliest sources (1983); Secret of Shakespeare (1984).
  • Jozef Bielawski (1910-1997) Uniwersytet Warszawski, former Polish diplomat to Turkey; Historia lieratury arabskiej: zarys (Wroclaw 1968); translation of Qur'an into Polish (Warszawa 1986), improving on that of J.M.T.Buczacki (1858).
  • Giulio Basetti-Sani (1912->) Italy, Mohammed et Saint François (Ottawa 1959); Per un dialogo cristiano-musulmano (Milano 1969).
  • George Hourani (1913-1984) Lebanese English, Averroes. On the Harmony of Religion and Philosophy (London 1961) annotated translation of Kitab fasl al maqal of Ibn Rushd; Reason and Tradition in Islamic Ethics (Cambridge Univ. 1985); Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in ancient and medieval times (Princeton Univ. 1951, 1995); brother of Albert Hourani.
  • Uriel Heyd [Heydt] (1913-1968) Jewish German, to Israel in 1934, Studies in old Ottoman criminal Law (Oxford 1973).
  • Robert Charles Zaehner (1913-1974) religious studies at Oxford, The Comparison of Religions (London 1958); Hindu and Muslim Mysticism (London 1960); Concordant Discord: The Interdependence of Faiths (Oxford 1970).
  • Franz Rosenthal (1914-wxyz) Fortleben der Antike im Islam (Zurich 1965); Muslim intellectual and social history (Variorum 1990).
  • Toshihiko Izutsu (1914-1993) Japan, Ethico-Religious Concepts in the Qur'an (1959, 1966); Sufism and Taoism (Berkeley 1984).
  • Igor Mikhailovich Diakonov (1914-1999) USSR/Russia, historian, linguistics, Semitokhamitskie iazyki [Semito-Hamitic languages] (Moskva 1965) [t]; Afraziiskie iazyki [Afrasian languages] (Moskva 1988) [t]; both on history and description of Afroasiatic languages.
  • Joseph Greenberg (1915-2001) U.S.A., Stanford Univ., linguistic anthropology; in historical linguistics use of his mass lexical comparison to establish language families; Languages of Africa (1966) coined "Afroasiatic" to replace "Hamito-Semitic" for it includes as equal branches Ancient Egyptian, Berber, Chadic, and Cushitic, as well as Semitic; also his recent book on Eurasiatic; cf. Nostratic.
  • Albert Hourani (1915-1993) Lebanese English, Minorities in the Arab World (Oxford 1947); Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798-1939 (1962) on the Arab nahda [revival]; Political Society in Lebanon (MIT 1986); A History of the Arab Peoples (1991, Harvard 2002).
  • Maxime Rodinson (1915-2004) Jewish French Marxist, Mahomet (Paris 1961) [t] as understood with empathy by an atheist; Islam et capitalisme (Paris 1966) [t]; Israel et le refus arabe (Paris 1968).
  • Bernard Lewis (1916->) Jewish English, prolific author, lately a modern partisan insider, Arabs in History (1950); Muslim Discovery of Europe (1982, 2001); What went Wrong? The Clash between Islam and Modernity in the Middle East (2002).
  • George Makdisi (1920-2002) U.S.A., Islamic studies, Rise of Colleges. Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West (Edinburgh Univ. 1981); Rise of Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West (Edinburgh Univ. 1990).
  • Marshall Hodgson (1922-1968) U.S.A., Quaker, The Venture of Islam (3 volumes, Univ.of Chicago 1961, 1974); Rethinking World History. Essays on Europe, Islam... (Cambridge Univ. 1993).
  • Annemarie Schimmel (1922-2003) Germany, studied sufi texts in Turkey, Die Bildersprache Dschelaladdin Rumi (Walldorf 1949); Mevlana Celalettin Rumi'nin sark ve garpta tesirleri (Ankara 1963); Mystical Dimensions of Islam (Univ.of N.Carolina 1975).
  • Sabatino Moscati (1922->) Italy, Semitic studies, Le antiche civilita semitiche (Milano 1958) [t]; I Fenici e Cartagine (Torino 1972).
  • Bogumil Witalis Andrzejewski (1922-1994), Poland, linguistics at S.O.A.S. in London; Islamic literature in Somalia (Indiana Univ. 1983); originator of Latin alphabet for Somali; also work in Oromo, another East Cushitic language, of the Afroasiatic language family.
  • Donald Leslie (1922-) Australia, Islamic Literature in China, late Ming and early Ch'ing (1981); Islam in Traditional China (1986).
  • Speros Vryonis (1928->) U.S.A., U.C.L.A., The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization from the Eleventh through the Fifteenth Century (Univ.California 1971); Studies on Byzantium, Seljuks and Ottomans (Malibu 1981).
  • John Wansbrough (1928-2002) U.S.A., Islamic studies at S.O.A.S., a major reinterpretation of origins, utilizing Wellhausen higher criticism applied to Islam, Quranic Studies (Oxford 1977), Sectarian Milieu (Oxford 1978), books which sparked a traditionalist reaction.
  • Noel J. Coulson (1928-1986), History of Islamic Law (Edinburg Univ. 1964); Conflict and Tensions in Islamic Jurisprudence (Univ.of Chicago 1969); Law Reform in the Muslim World (1976).
  • Oriana Fallaci (1929-2006) Italian journalist, modern partisan, her La Rabbia e l'Orgoglio (2001); La Forza della Ragione (2004).
  • J. Hoeberichts (1929->) Netherlands, Franciscus en de Islam (Assen: Van Gorcum 199x) [t].
  • Wilferd Madelung (1930->) Germany, The Succession to Muhammad (Cambridge Univ. 1997); studies on the Shia.
  • Jacob Neusner (1932->) U.S.A., Jewish theologian, Comparing Religions through Law: Judaism and Islam (1999) with T.Sonn; Judaism and Islam in Practice (1999) editor, with T.Sonn & J.E.Brockopp; Three Faiths, One God (2003) with B.Chilton & W.Graham.
  • Edward W. Said (1935-2003) Palestine, Christian, academic, Columbia Univ., modern partisan; Orientalism (New York 1978), a work often cited & easy to exaggerate; collaborations with Christopher Hitchens (1988), Noam Chomsky (1999), John K. Cooley (2002).
  • William Chittick (c.193x->) U.S.A., collaborations with Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Allameh Tabatabaei in Iran; A Shi'ite Anthology (SUNY 1981); Sufi Path of Love (SUNY 1983) text and commentary on Rumi; Sufi Path of Knowledge (SUNY 1989) on Ibn Arabi; Imaginal Worlds. Ibn al-'Arabi and the Problem of Religious Diversity (SUNY 1994); spouse of S. Murata.
  • Sachiko Murata (c.193x->), Japan, Tao of Islam. A sourcebook on gender relationships in Islamic thought (SUNY 1992); Chinese Gleams of Sufi Light (SUNY 2000) with her translations from Chinese, and those from Persian by W. Chittick, her spouse.
  • Robert Simon (1939->) Hungary, Meccan Trade and Islam. Problems of origin and structure (Budapest 1989).
  • John L. Esposito (1940->) U.S.A., Islam. The Straight Path (Oxford 1988); editor-in-chief Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World (4 volumes, 1995); Islam and Civil Society (European Univ. Inst. 2000).
  • Mark R. Cohen (1943->) Princeton Univ., Jewish Self-Government in Medieval Egypt (1980); Under Crescent & Cross (1994).
  • Gerald R. Hawting (1944->) with Wansbrough at S.O.A.S., The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661-750 (1986, 2000); The Idea of Idolatry and the Rise of Islam: From polemic to history (Cambridge Univ. 1999).
  • Karen Armstrong (1944->) English author, former nun; Muhammad, a Biography of the Prophet (San Francisco, 1993); Jerusalem: one city, three faiths (1997); A History of God (New York, 1999).
  • Patricia Crone (1945->) Denmark, professor in England & U.S.A., a modern partisan, God's Rule. Islam and Government (New York 2004); Roman, Provincial, and Islamic Law (Cambridge Univ. 1987); with M. Cook, Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World (Cambridge Univ. 1977) following Wansbrough, sets forth the thesis (previously marginal, seldom explicit) that a multivalent sect of Judaic dissenters predated Muhammad and contributed to the Qur'an; not reprinted, Hagarism is largely rejected though cited.
  • Ibn Warraq [penname "son of a paper maker"] (1946->) Muslim (Pakistan) apostate, edited/translated: Origins of the Koran (1998), Quest for the Historical Muhammad (2000), both containing articles by well known 19th century western academics.
  • Norman Calder (1950-1998) Studies in Early Muslim Jurisprudence (Oxford 1993), reasoned analysis of early islamic legal texts following Wansbrough, Schacht, Goldziher.
  • A. Holly Shissler - United States, author, professor of Ottoman & Early Turkish Republican History, Department of Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations, University of Chicago.
  • John Woods, United States, Professor of Iranian and Central Asian History, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, University of Chicago.
  • Cornell Fleischer - United States, Kanuni Suleyman Professor of Ottoman and Modern Turkish Studies, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, University of Chicago.
  • Franklin Lewis, United States, Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, University of Chicago.

Joseph Schacht (1902-1969), Schact was professor of Arabic and Islamics at Columbia University in New York. ... (New region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² (??? mi) km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... J. Spencer Trimingham was a noted 20th century scholar on Islam in Africa. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Pre-Islamic Arabia, the history of Arabia before the rise of Islam in the 630s, is not known in great detail. ... Arthur John Arberry (1905 - 1969) was a respected scholar of Arabic and Islamic studies. ... Emilio García Gómez (1905 – 31 May 1995) was a Spanish Arabist, whose talent as a poet his enriched his many translations of Arabic. ... A manuscript page of the Quran in the script developed in al-Andalus, 12th century Al-ʾAndalus (Arabic الأندلس) is the Arabic name given to the southern parts of theIberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Emirate (ca 750–929) and Caliphate of Cordoba (929–1031... Abu al-Abbas Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Abd al-Salaam ibn Abdullah ibn Taymiya al-Harrani, was a jurist, reformer, preacher, scholar, exegete of Islam. ... Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... The Major religious groups of the world. ... Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a city in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ... Frithjof Schuon (June 18, 1907 – May 5, 1998) is a metaphysician, poet, painter, and a leading figure of traditional metaphysics. ... The Traditionalist School of thought (not to be confused with Traditionalist Catholicism), attained its current form with the French metaphysician René Guénon, although its precepts are considered to be timeless and to be found in all authentic traditions. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... René Guénon (aka Sheikh Abd Al Wahid Yahya) (1886-1951) was a French-born author, philosopher, and social critic of the early 20th century. ... Dr. A.K. Coomaraswamy // Life of Dr. A.K. Coomaraswamy Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy (22 August 1877 Colombo - 9 September 1947 Needham, Massachusetts) was the son of the famous Sri Lankan legislator and philosopher Sir Mutu Coomaraswamy and his English wife Elizabeth Beeby. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... Henry Corbin (April , 1903 - October 7, 1978) was a philosopher, theologian and professor of Islamic Studies at the Sorbonne in Paris. ... Eranos is an intellectual discussion group dedicated to study of spirituality. ... “Jung” redirects here. ... For the academic study of religion in general, see Religious studies. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Ahura Mazda () is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator, hence God. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Titus Burckhardt, a German Swiss, was born in Florence in 1908 and died in Lausanne in 1984. ... The Traditionalist School of thought (not to be confused with Traditionalist Catholicism), attained its current form with the French metaphysician René Guénon, although its precepts are considered to be timeless and to be found in all authentic traditions. ... René Guénon (aka Sheikh Abd Al Wahid Yahya) (1886-1951) was a French-born author, philosopher, and social critic of the early 20th century. ... This article is about the French city. ... Jacob Burckhardt in 1892 Jacob Burckhardt (May 25, 1818, Basel, Switzerland – August 8, 1897, Basel) was a Swiss historian of art and culture, fields which he helped found. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Muhammad at Mecca is a book about Islam writen by the non-Muslim Islamic scholar William Montgomery Watt. ... Muhammad at medina is a book about Islam writen by the non-Muslim Islamic scholar William Montgomery Watt. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Martin Lings Martin Lings (Abu Bakr Siraj Ad-Din) (January 24, 1909 – May 12, 2005) was a lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon and a British scholar of Sufism. ... University of Warsaw (Polish: ) is the largest university in Poland. ... Wrocław, ( [:vrɔʦwaf]), German Breslau, Czech Vratislav, Latin Wratislavia; many Polish documents in English use the spelling Wroclaw) is the capital of Silesia in southwestern Poland, situated on the Oder River (Odra). ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Averroes (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusi philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Robert Charles Zaehner (1913 - 1974) was an expert in Ethics and Eastern religions [1]. According to Phoenix Press, he was educated at Tonbridge School and Christ Church, Oxford where he gained first class honours in Persian and Avestan. ... Religious studies is the designation commonly used in the English-speaking world for a multi-disciplinary, secular study of religion that dates to the late 19th century in Europe (and the influential early work of such scholars as Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Franz Rosenthal, the Sterling Professor Emeritus of Arabic, scholar of Arabic literature and Islam (1914-2003). ... Toshihiko Izutsu (井筒俊彦;1914 – 1993) was a university professor and author of many books on Islam and other religions. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... Igor Mikhailovich Diakonov (Russian: ) (born December 30, 1914 in Petrograd) is a Russian historian who should be ranked among the greatest authorities on Ancient East and its languages. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... Joseph Greenberg Joseph Harold Greenberg (May 28, 1915–May 7, 2001) was a prominent and controversial linguist, known for his work in both language classification and typology. ... “Stanford” redirects here. ... Linguistic anthropology is that branch of anthropology that brings linguistic methods to bear on anthropological problems, linking the analysis of semiotic and particularly linguistic forms and processes (on both small and large scales) to the interpretation of sociocultural processes (again on small and large scales). ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... Mass lexical comparison or mass comparison is a highly controversial method developed by the well-known linguist Joseph Greenberg to find genetic relationships among languages in the remote past, beyond the limits of the traditional comparative method, or in situations where there are too many languages to practically apply the... Most languages are known to belong to language families (families hereforth). ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The Eurasiatic languages are a hypotetical language group from which allegedly descend several language families of Europe and Asia, including Indo-European languages, Uralic and Altaic. ... Nostratic is a highly controversial language super-family that putatively links many Eurasian language families. ... Albert Habib Hourani (Arabic: ألبرت حبيب حوراني) (March 31, 1915 – January 17, 1993) was a prominent scholar of Middle Eastern history through much of the 20th century. ... al-Nahda (also an-Nahda, Arabic for awakening or renaissance) was a cultural and intellectual trend in the Arab world in the late 19th century and early 20th century, largely centered in Egypt. ... Maxime Rodinson (26 January 1915–23 May 2004) was a French Marxist historian, sociologist and orientalist. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities... Marshall G.S. Hodgson (1922 - 1968), was an Islamic scholar and a world historian at the University of Chicago. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Annemarie Schimmel (April 7, 1922 - January 26, 2003) was a well known and very influential German Iranologist and scholar who wrote extensively on Islam and Sufism. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Walldorf is a town in the Baden part of Baden-Württemberg in Germany and has a population of 14,445 inhabitants. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Torins Passage is a graphic adventure game developed and released by Sierra On-Line, designed by Al Lowe. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... The School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) is a constituent of the University of London specializing in the arts and humanities, languages and cultures, and the law and social sciences concerning Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. ... Indiana University is the principal campus of the Indiana University system. ... Oromo, also known as Afaan Oromoo, Oromiffa(a), and sometimes in other languages as variant spellings of these names (Oromigna, Afan Oromo, etc. ... The Cushitic languages are a subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic languages, named after the Biblical figure Cush by analogy with Semitic. ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... Donald James Leslie, (1911, Danville, Illinois - September 2, 2004, Altadena, California) created and manufactured the Leslie speaker that refined the sound of the Hammond organ and helped popularize electronic music. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... Location of Malibu in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles Incorporated (city) 1991-03-28 [2] Government  - Mayor Ken Kearsley [1] Area  - City  100. ... John Edward Wansbrough (19 February 1928, Peoria Illinois - 10 June 2002, Montaigu-de-Quercy France) was a historian of Islam who taught at SOAS in London. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... The School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) is a constituent of the University of London specializing in the arts and humanities, languages and cultures, and the law and social sciences concerning Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. ... Julius Wellhausen (May 17, 1844 - January 17, 1918), was a German biblical scholar and Orientalist. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Oriana Fallaci Oriana Fallaci (born July 29, 1930) is an Italian journalist , author, and political interviewer. ... Photograph of the cover of the US edition of The Rage and the Pride The Rage and the Pride (La Rabbia e l’Orgoglio in Italian) is a book written in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks by Italian journalist and author Oriana Fallaci, which condemns Islam as... The Force of Reason (La forza della ragione) is a book by renowned Italian author Oriana Fallaci. ... Wilferd Madelung is the Laudian Professor of Arabic at the University of Oxford. ... The Succession to Muhammad is a book writen by Wilferd Madelung and released by the Cambridge University Press in 1997. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Jacob Neusner (born July 28, 1932, Hartford, Connecticut) is an influential as well as controversial academic scholar of Judaism, and the most prolific. ... Edward Wadie Said (إدوارد سعيد) (November 1, 1935 – September 24, 2003) was a well-known literary theorist, critic and outspoken Palestinian activist. ... For the book by Edward Said, see Orientalism (book). ... Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew :אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... John K. Cooley John K. Cooley (b. ... William C. Chittick is a renowned Islamologist. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... The State University of New York, abbreviated SUNY (IPA pronunciation: ) is a system of public institutions of higher education in New York, United States. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... For the Maliki scholar, see Ibn al-Arabi. ... Sachiko Murata is a professor of religion and Asian studies at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. ... John Louis Esposito (born 19 May 1940, Brooklyn, New York City) is a professor of International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University. ... For the Pennsylvania politician, see Mark B. Cohen. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Gerald R. Hawting (b. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... Karen Armstrong (born November 14, 1944 in Wildmoor, Worcestershire, England) is an author who writes on Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Buddhism. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Patricia Crone, Ph. ... Michael Cook (13 February 1933 -- 1 July 1994) was a playwright. ... Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an author of several books on Islam. ... Ada Holly Shissler is an Associate Professor of Ottoman and Modern Turkish History in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at the University of Chicago. ... John Woods (1849 - 1934) was a New Zealand songwriter. ... Cornell Fleischer is the Kanuni Suleyman Professor of Ottoman and Modern Turkish Studies at the University of Chicago. ... Franklin D. Lewis is an Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at the University of Chicago. ...

Chronological by date of publication

  • Austin Kennett England, Bedouin Justice. Law and Custom among the Egyptian Bedouin (Cambridge Univ. 1925).
  • David Santillana Italy, Instituzioni di Diritto musulmano, malichita (Roma 1926, 1938), 2 volumes, on Islamic law, Maliki school.
  • Chin Chi-t'ang China, Chung-kuo hui-chiao shih yen-chiu [Chinese Islam... ] (1935).
  • Gerald de Gaury English soldier, Rulers of Mecca (New York, c.1950).
  • Evariste Levi-Provençal France, Histoire de l'Espagne musulmane, 711-1031 (3 volumes, Paris-Leiden 1950-1953).
  • Jacques Ryckmans Belgium, Louvain professor, L'institution monarchique en Arabie meridionale avant l'Islam (1951); Textes du Yemen antique (1994); nephew of Gonzangue Ryckmans.
  • Miguel Cruz Hernandez Univ.of Salamanca, Filosofia hispano-musulmana (Madrid 1957), 2 volumes.
  • Alfred Guillaume England, Life of Muhammad (Oxford 1955) annotated translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, an early "biography" of the prophet (as transmitted by Ibn Hisham); Legacy of Islam (Oxford 1931) co-editor with T. W. Arnold.
  • Kenneth Craig U.S.A., The Call of the Minaret (Oxford 1956; 2nd, Orbis 1985); The Arab Christian (Westminster/John Knox 1991).
  • Joseph Chelhod Introduction a la Sociologie de l'Islam. De l'animisme a l'universalisme (Paris 1958).
  • Olaf Caroe a former governor of the area, The Pathans. 550 B.C. - A.D. 1957 (London 1958).
  • Fredrik Barth Political Leadership among the Swat Pathans (Univ.of London 1959).
  • Norman Daniel Islam and the West. The making of an image (Edinburgh Univ. 1960).
  • Leonard Binder Univ.of Chicago, Religion and Politics in Pakistan (Univ.of California 1961).
  • Morris S. Seale Muslim Theology. A Study of Origins with Reference to the Church Fathers (London: Luzac 1964).
  • Geoffrey Parrinder comparative religion, Methodist minister, Jesus in the Qur'an (London 1965), reprint Oneworld 1995.
  • Francis E. Peters U.S.A., former Jesuit; Aristotle Arabus (Leiden: Brill 1968); Jerusalem and Mecca (NYU 1986); Muhammad and the Origins of Islam (SUNY 1994); Arabs and Arabia on the Eve of Islam (Ashgate 1999).
  • James T. Monroe U.S.A., Univ.of California at Berkeley; Islam and the Arabs in Spanish Scholarship (Leiden: E. J. Brill 1970); Hispano-Arabic Poetry (Univ.of Calif. 1974, reprint Gorgias 2004); Ten Hispano-Arabic Strophic Songs co-author with B. M. Liu (Univ.of Calif. 1989).
  • Abraham L. Udovitch U.S.A., Partnership and Profit in Medieval Islam (Princeton Univ. 1970).
  • Cristobal Cuevas El pensaminto del Islam. Contenido e Historia. Influencia en la Mistica espanola (Madrid 1972).
  • Nilo Geagea Lebanese priest, Maria nel messagio coranico (Roma 1973) [t], study of texts and of a meeting point between religions.
  • Victor Segesvary Swiss, L'Islam et la Reforme (Univ.de Genève 1973).
  • Federico Corriente Spain, Las mu'allaqat: antologia y panorama de arabia preislamica (Madrid: Instituto hispano-arabe de cultura 1974), annotated translation of well-know collection of popular poetry in Arabia prior to Muhammad.
  • Hava Lazarus-Yafeh Hebrew Univ.of Jerusalem, her Studies in Al-Ghazzali (Jerusalem 1975); Intertwined Worlds. Medieval Islam and Bible Criticism (Princeton Univ. 1992); Islam-Yahadut: Yahadut-Islam (Tel Aviv 2003).
  • Ehsan Yar-Shater, Baha'i of Iranian Jewish family, editor of encyclopedia Danishnamah-i Iran va Islam (10 volumes, Teheran 1976-1982); editor of History of al-Tabari [re the Ta'rikh al-rusul wa'l-muluk] (39 volumes, SUNY c1985-c1999); editor of Encyclopaedia Iranica (Costa Mesa: Mazda 1992->); History of Medicine in Iran (New York 2004).
  • Michael Cook English, Studies in the Origins of Early Islamic Culture and Tradition (2004); also co-author with P. Crone (1977).
  • Bat Ye'or (Gisele Orebi Littman), British author, Jewish refugee (in 1958 thousands expelled by Egypt as reprisal for Lavon Affair); her Hebrew pen name "Daughter of the Nile"; modern partisan; Le Dhimmi (Genève 1980) [t]; Les Chretientes d'Orient entre Jihad et Dhimmitude (Paris 1991) [t]; Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis (2006).
  • Joseph Cuoq France, L'Islam en Ethiopie des origines au XVIe siecle (Paris 1981); Islamisation de la Nubie Chretienne (Paris 1986).
  • G. W. Bowersock U.S.A., Princeton Univ., Roman Arabia (Harvard Univ. 1983).
  • Claude Cahen France, Introduction a l'histoire du monde musulman medieval, VIIe-XVIe siecle (Paris 1983).
  • Irfan Shahid, Georgetown Univ., Dumbarton Oaks; Byzantium and the Arabs (1984-1995) 3 volume series; pre-Islamic regional relations.
  • Luce López-Baralt Puerto Rico, her San Juan de la Cruz y el Islam (Colegio de Mexico, Univ.de Puerto Rico 1985; Madrid 1990); Huellas del Islam en la literatura espanola (Madrid 1985, 1989) [t]; influenced by Miguel Asin Palacios.
  • George E. Irani Lebanon, U.S.A., The Papacy and the Middle East. The Role of the Holy See in the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1962-1984 (Univ.of Notre Dame 1986), e.g., the effect of Vatican II on Church policy.
  • David Stephen Powers Studies in Qur'an and Hadith. The Formation of the Islamic Law of Inheritance (Univ.of California 1986).
  • David B. Burrell U.S.A., Knowing the Unknowable God: Ibn-Sina, Maimonides, Aquinas (Univ.of Notre Dame 1986).
  • Maria Rosa Menocal U.S.A., her The Arabic Role in Medieval Literary History (Univ.of Pennsylvania 1987).
  • Richard E. Rubenstein U.S.A., professor of conflict resolution, Alchemists of Revolution. Terrorists in the modern world (New York 1987); Aristotle's Children. How Christians, Muslims, & Jews rediscovered ancient wisdom & illuminated the Dark Ages (Orlando 2003).
  • Masataka Takeshita Japan, Ibn 'Arabi's Theory of the Perfect Man and its Place in the History of Islamic Thought (Tokyo 1987).
  • Heribert Busse, Kiel Univ., Theologischen Beziehungen des Islams zu Judentum und Christentum (Darmstadt 1988) [t], which discusses Muhammad, as well as the narratives found in the Qur'an about the Old Testament and the New Testament.
  • R. Stephen Humphreys U.S.A., Islamic History: a framework for inquiry (Minneapolis 1988); Tradition and innovation in the study of Islamic history. The evolution of North Armerican scholarship since 1960 (Tokyo 1998).
  • Jean-Francois Breton, L'Arabie heureuse au temps de la reine de Saba: Viii-I siecles avant J.-C. (Paris 1988) [t].
  • Claude Addas France, her Ibn 'Arabi ou La quete du Soufre Rouge (Paris: Editions Gallimard 1989) [t].
  • Julian Baldick, London Univ., Mystical Islam (1989); Black God. Afroasiatic roots of Jewish, Christian, & Muslim religions (1998).
  • Harald Motzki Germany, Die Anfange der islamischen Jurisprudenz (Stuttgart 1991) [t], by his review of early legal texts, provides a moderate challenge to Schacht's criticism of Hadith & the origins of Islamic law.
  • Neal Robinson academic, Christ in Islam and Christianity (SUNY 1991), study of Islamic commentaries and interpretations.
  • Jacob Lassner, Northwestern Univ.; Demonizing the Queen of Sheba. Boundaries of gender and culture in postbiblical Judaism and medieval Islam (Univ.of Chicago 1993).
  • Haim Gerber Hebrew Univ.of Jerusalem, State, Society and Law in Islam. Ottoman Law in Comparative Perspective (SUNY 1994).
  • Daniel Martin Varisco U.S.A., Medieval Agriculture and Islamic Science: The Almanac of a Yemeni Sultan (Univ.of Washington 1994).
  • Brannon M. Wheeler (1965->) U.S.A., Applying the Canon in Islam. The Authorization and Maintenance of Interpretive Reasoning in Hanafi Scholarship (SUNY 1996).
  • G. H. A. Juynboll Dutch, Studies on the Origin and Uses of Islamic Hadith ("Variorum" 1996).
  • Malika Zeghal western academic, Institut d'Etudes Politiques (Paris), Gardiens de l'Islam. Les oulemas d'al-Azhar dans l'Egypte contemporaine (Paris 1996); Les islamistes morocains: le defi a la monarchie (Paris 2005); currently at Univ.of Chicago.
  • Robert G. Hoyland Oxford Univ., Seeing Islam as Others Saw It. A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish, and Zoroastrian Writings on early Islam (1997).
  • Fred M. Donner U.S.A., Narratives of Islamic Origins: The Beginnings of Islamic Historical Writings (1998).
  • Christopher Melchert U.S.A., The Formation of the Sunni Schools of Law (New York: Brill 1999).
  • Christoph Luxenberg (perhaps a pseudonym), Die Syro-Aramäische Lesart des Koran: Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüssenlung de Koransprache (Berlin 2000, 2007), employs Aramaic to elucidate Arabic.
  • Kim Hodong Korea, Holy War in China. The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877 (Stanford Univ. 2004).
  • John K. Cooley U.S.A. journalist, long time coverage of Arab world, An Alliance against Babylon (Univ.of Michigan 2006); Unholy Wars. Afghanistan, America and International Terrorism (2001); Baal, Christ, and Mohammed. Religion and Revolution in North Africa (1965); collaboration with E. W. Said (2002).

A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ), a name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... Gerald de Gaury was a known soldier and diplomat who wrote several books on Islam. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Leuven Coordinates , , Area 56. ... Pre-Islamic Arabia, the history of Arabia before the rise of Islam in the 630s, is not known in great detail. ... What is left of Awam Temple or the Sun temple in Marib. ... The University of Salamanca (Spanish: Universidad de Salamanca), located in the town of Salamanca, west of Madrid, is the second oldest university in Spain (the first one is the university of Palencia, now disappeared), and one of the oldest in Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar, or simply Ibn Ishaq (Arabic: , meaning the son of Isaac) (died 767, or 761 (Robinson 2003, p. ... Sirah Rasul Allah (Life of the Apostle of God) or Sirat Nabawiyya (Life of the Prophet) (from Arabic سيرة) is the Arabic term used for the various traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, from which most historical information about his life and the early period of Islam is derived. ... Ibn Hisham, Abu Muhammad Abd al-Malik (d. ... Sir Thomas Walker Arnold (1864-1930) was an eminent British orientalist who taught at MAO College, Aligarh, and Government College, Lahore. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun (Persian: پختون) (Urdu: پشتون ), or Pathan) or ethnic Afghans[4] are an ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Fredrik Barth (b. ... Leonard Binder is a professor of political science and the director of the Near East Center at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... Geoffrey Parrinder (April 10, 1910–June 16, 2005), was a professor of comparative religion at Kings College London, Methodist minister, and author of over thirty books. ... Francis Edwards Peters is Professor of Middle Eastern Studies, History, and Religion at New York University. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Pre-Islamic Arabia, the history of Arabia before the rise of Islam in the 630s, is not known in great detail. ... Emeritus Professor of Arabic and Comparative Literature at the University of California at Berkeley, focusing on Classical Arabic Literature and Hispano-Arabic Literature; his doctorate was from Harvard. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... Virgin Mary redirects here. ... “Reformation” redirects here. ... The University of Geneva (Université de Genève) is a university in Geneva, Switzerland. ... The Muallaqāt (Arabic المعلقات, [al-muÊ•allaqaːt]) is the title of a group of seven long Arabic poems or qasida (singular qaṣīda, plural qaṣāid)that have come down from the time before Islam. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (‎, Arabic: ) is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... Ehsan Yarshater, of Columbia University, is one of the worlds leading Iranologists. ... Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. ... The name al-Tabari means simply from Tabaristan, thus more than one Muslim scholar is known by this designation: Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, Ali the scholar from Tabiristan (838-870 A.D.) was the writer of a medical encyclopedia and the teacher of the scholar physician Zakariya al... Costa Mesa is a city located in Orange County, California. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Michael Cook is an American historian and scholar of Islamic history. ... Patricia Crone, Ph. ... Bat Yeor at the Hudson Institute in Washington, DC Bat Yeor (Hebrew: בת יאור) (meaning daughter of the Nile in Hebrew; a pseudonym of Gisèle Littman, née Orebi) is a British writer specializing in the history of non-Muslims in the Middle East, and in particular the history... The Lavon Affair refers to the scandal over a failed Israeli covert operation in Egypt known as Operation Suzannah, in which Egyptian, American and British-owned targets in Egypt were bombed in the summer of 1954. ... French orientalist, specialized in studies of Islamic Middle Ages, Muslim sources about Crusades, and social history of islamic society of the Middle Ages (wokes on Futuwa orders). ... Georgetown University is an elite private research university located in Georgetown, Washington, D.C., United States. ... Dumbarton Oaks is a nineteenth-century mansion located in the Georgetown section of Washington, DC. It houses the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, a leading center for scholarship in Byzantine studies, Pre-Columbian studies and the history of landscape architecture. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Pre-Islamic Arabia, the history of Arabia before the rise of Islam in the 630s, is not known in great detail. ... Luce López-Baralt is a professor of Spanish and Comparative Literature at the Universidad de Puerto Rico. ... For the personification of the average Filipino, see Juan de la Cruz, and for another Saint who lived around the same time and area, see John of Avila Saint John of the Cross (San Juan de la Cruz) (June 24, 1542 – December 14, 1591) was a major figure in the... El Colegio de México (informally: Colmex) is a prestigious Mexican institute of higher education, specialising in teaching and research in the fields of social sciences and the humanities. ... Founded in 1903, the University of Puerto Rico (Universidad de Puerto Rico in Spanish, UPR) is the oldest and largest university system in Puerto Rico. ... Miguel Asín Palacios (1871-1944) was a Spanish scholar and a Roman Catholic priest. ... The University of Notre Dame IPA: is a Catholic[4] institution located in Notre Dame, an unincorporated section of St. ... The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... (ابن سينا) (c. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 - March 7, 1274) was a Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition, who gave birth to the Thomistic school of philosophy, which was long the primary philosophical approach of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The University of Pennsylvania (also known as Penn[3][4]) is a private, coeducational research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Muhyi l-Din Muhammad b. ... The University of Kiel, in full the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (in short: CAU), is a university in the city of Kiel, Germany. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about the city in Minnesota. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... The Republic of Yemen is a country in the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, and is a part of the Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia. ... The Queen of Sheba, (Hebrew מלכת שבא , Arabic ملكة سبأ , Geez: ንግሥተ ሳባ Nigista Saba), referred to in the Hebrew scriputures (Old Testament), Bible books of 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles, the New Testament, the Quran, and Ethiopian history, was the ruler of Sheba, an ancient kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament). ... Senate House, designed by Charles Holden home to the universitys central administration offices and its library The University of London, founded in 1836, is a federation of colleges which together constitute one of the worlds largest universities. ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... Harald Motzki is a notable non-Muslim Islamic scholar who is well versed in the science of hadith. ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Northwestern. ... Look up Ottoman, ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Malika Zeghal (b. ... The Institutes of Political Studies (French: Institut détudes politiques), or IEPs, are nine publicly-owned institutions of higher learning in France. ... Robert G. Hoyland is a scholar and historian of the Middle East . ... Seeing Islam As Others Saw It by Robert G. Hoyland. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Fred M. Donner is an Islamic scholar, professor of Near East Studies at the University of Chicago. ... Christopher Melchert is a non-Muslim Islamic scholar. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... Christoph Luxenberg is the pseudonym of the author of the 2000 book Die Syro-Aramäische Lesart des Koran: Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Koransprache (in English: The Syro-Aramaic reading of the Quran: a contribution to the decipherment of the Quranic language). ... The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran: A Contribution to the Decoding of the Language of the Koran English Edition of 2007 (Die syro-aramäische Lesart des Koran: Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Koransprache (2000) is a book by German philologist and professor of ancient Semitic and Arabic... Kim Hodong (Korean: ; Hanja: 金浩東; often written in English-language literature as Hodong Kim) (born 1954) is a Korean historian, professor at Seoul National University. ... “Stanford” redirects here. ... John K. Cooley John K. Cooley (b. ... Unholy Wars by John K. Cooley Unholy Wars: Afghanistan, America and International Terrorism is a book by John K. Cooley, a news correspondent. ... Edward Wadie Said (إدوارد سعيد) (November 1, 1935 – September 24, 2003) was a well-known literary theorist, critic and outspoken Palestinian activist. ...

Other and Incomplete listings

Andrew Rippin is Professor of History and Dean of Humanities at the University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. ... Herbert Berg was trained at the University of Torontos Centre for Religious Studies in the late 1980s and early 1990s; he is an Associate Professor in the Department of Philosophy and Religion, at the University of North Carolina Wilmington and is Director of their Graduate Liberal Studies program. ... Dr Malise Ruthven (1942 - ) is a writer and journalist on religion, fundamentalism, and especially Islamic affairs. ... Richard Landes is an American historian and author. ... John Juan Ricardo I. Cole (born October 1952 in Albuquerque, New Mexico) is a professor of modern Middle Eastern and South Asian history at the University of Michigan. ... Cornell Fleischer is the Kanuni Suleyman Professor of Ottoman and Modern Turkish Studies at the University of Chicago. ... Martin Kramer (b. ... Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is a Jewish organization founded in 1985 by Martin Indyk, previously research director of the leading pro-Israel lobby, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (Aipac). ... The Shalem Center is an academic research institute in Jerusalem established in 1994 with the goal of developing the ideas needed to guide and sustain the Jewish people in the coming decades. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Ada Holly Shissler is an Associate Professor of Ottoman and Modern Turkish History in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at the University of Chicago. ... John Woods (1849 - 1934) was a New Zealand songwriter. ... Sir Wilfred Patrick Thesiger KBE, DSO (3 June 1910 – August 24, 2003) was a British explorer and travel writer born in Addis Ababa in Abyssinia (now Ethiopia). ... The Rub al Khali (الربع الخالي), or Empty Quarter, is the largest sand desert in the world, encompassing the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula, including southern Saudi Arabia, and areas of Oman, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen. ... For other persons named Richard Burton, see Richard Burton (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Saudi city of Medina. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Mircea Eliade (March 13 [O.S. February 28] 1907 – April 22, 1986) was a Romanian historian of religion, fiction writer, philosopher, and professor at the University of Chicago. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Din-i-Ilahi (دين إلهي) or Divine Faith, was a syncretic religion propounded by the Mughal emperor Akbar, intended to merge the best elements of the religions of his empire (primarily Hinduism and Islam; elements were also taken from Christianity, Jainism and Zoroastrianism), and thereby reconcile the sectarian differences that divided his... Raja Ram Mohan Roy is regarded as the Father of the Bengal Renaissance Ram Mohan Roy, also written as Rammohun Roy, or Raja Ram Mohun Roy (Bangla: রাজা রামমোহন রায়, Raja Rammohon Rae), (May 22, 1772 – September 27, 1833) was the founder of the Brahmo Samaj, one of the first Indian socio-religious... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Brahmo Samaj is a social and religious movement founded in Kolkata, India in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. ... Shrine of the Báb in Haifa, Israel. ... Elijah Muhammad Elijah Muhammad (October 7, 1897 - February 25, 1975) is notable for his leadership of the Black Muslims and the Nation of Islam from 1934 until his death in 1975. ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of the black men and women of America and the rest of the... Media:Example. ... Betty Kelen is a book author. ... Muhammad, The Messenger of God is a book about Islam writen by Betty Kelen. ... Ph. ... The Sword of the Prophet: The politically incorrect guide to Islam: History, Theology, Impact on the World (2002) is a book by Serge Trifkovic, a Serbian historian, journalist, and political analyst. ... This biographical article needs additional references for verification. ...

See also

Salah S. Ali: Scholar in Comparative Cultural and Islamic Studies, Mosul University and HIA University College in Kristiansand, Norway This page is a list of Muslims in various professions and fields. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... The Permanent Committee for Islamic Research and Fataawa (in Arabic, al-Lajnah ad-Daaimah lil-Buhooth al-Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa) is an Islamic organization in Saudi Arabia that issues rulings in Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh). ... Mullah (Persian: ملا) is a title given to some Islamic clergy, coming from the Arabic word mawla, means both `vicar` and `guardian. ... The following is a list of famous Daees ( muslim preachers ). Zakir Naik Ahmed Deedat Yusuf Estes Yusuf Islam Bilal Philips Jeffrey Lang See Also Dawah Islam Categories: Religious workers | Islam | Islam-related stubs ... Western Muslims are Muslims who reside in the West. ... This is a list of notable people who have converted to Islam sometime during their lives. ... These are articles that list people of a particular religious or political belief. ... A 9th century picture of Arab scientists working in Baghdad, Iraq. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... A Muslim warrior is a Muslim and has engaged in war, or is trained in the art of war. ... Conservative marjas[1] Naser Makarem Shirazi and Hossein Noori Hamedani This is a list of Marja Taqleeds (Grand Ayatollahs), which are followed by Usuli Shia Muslims around the world. ... This is a partial list of Ayatollahs, a title given to high ranked Shia Muslims clerics. ... Muslims writer and poets are some among the Muslim professions. ... A Muslim artists is a Muslim that is or was engaged in painting or drawing // Sean Graninger Taylor James Shakir Ali Ismail Acar Ismail Gulgee (born 1926) M F Husain Sadequain Tyeb Mehta S.H.Raza Ahmed Imamović Napolean of Outlawz Kadafi of Outlawz Imtiaz Patel (born 1982) Muhammad Ali... A Muslim comparative religionist is a Muslim scholar engaged in Islamic comparative religion studies. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Muslim soldier is a Muslim who has engaged in war, or is trained in the art of war. ... This is an incomplete list of Muslim Dynasties. ... This is a list of famous Sufis A Abdas-Samad Abdullah al-Faiz ad-Daghestani Abdul Qadir Jilani Abou Ben Adhem Abu Mansur Daqiqi Abusaeid Abolkheir Abu Yazid Bistami aka Bayazid of Bistam Ahmed ar-Rifai Ahmad al-Badawi Ahmed Yesevi Al-Ghazali Ali Hajweri Amadou Bamba Amir... A Muslim doctor is a person that professes Islam and engaged in the medical aspect of Islamic science. ... This is an alphabetical list of topics related to Islam, the history of Islam, Islamic culture, and the present-day Muslim world, intended to provide inspiration for the creation of new articles and categories. ...


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