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Encyclopedia > List of German monarchs

This article lists the monarchs of Germany, a state created out of the eastern half of the Carolingian Empire by the Treaty of Verdun of 843 and which continued uninterrupted until 1806. Thereafter, the individual German states formed several confederations and were united in the German Empire of 1871. The monarchy finally ended with the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918. Over its long history, its geographic extent varied considerably, including not only most of the modern Germany, but much also of Austria, Slovenia, the Low Countries, the Czech Republic, Switzerland, eastern France, northern Italy and western Poland. Eastern Francia were the lands of Louis the German after the Treaty of Verdun of 843. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... Geopolitical divisions according to the Treaty of Verdun. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ...

Contents

Eastern Frankish Kingdom, later called the Kingdom of Germany

This section covers the Eastern Frankish Kingdom, the eastern portion of the Frankish Empire after its partition at Verdun in 843. Mostly inhabited by German people, it became known as the Kingdom of Germany. It was the chief (and then sole) component of the Holy Roman Empire. The kingdom comprised the territory of modern Germany, but also Austria, Switzerland, parts of the Low Countries, parts of Eastern France, northern Italy and western Poland. The Franks were originally lead by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings). ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... East Francia was the land of Louis the German after the Treaty of Verdun of 843, which divided the Carolingian Empire of the Franks into an East, West, and Middle. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ...


Kings

Name House King Emperor Ended Notes
Louis the German Carolingian 11 August 843 23 August 876 Son of Emperor Louis the Pious
Louis the Younger Carolingian 28 August 876 20 January 882 Son of Louis the German; ruled in East Francia, Saxony, from 880 also Bavaria
Carloman Carolingian 28 August 876 22 March 880 Son of Louis the German; ruled in Bavaria; from 877 also King of Italy
Charles the Fat Carolingian 28 August 876 12 February 881 11 November 887 Son of Louis the German; ruled in Alemannia, Raetia, from 882 in the entire Eastern Kingdom
Arnulf of Carinthia Carolingian 30 November 887 25 April 896 8 December 899 Son of Carloman
Louis the Child Carolingian 21 January 900 20 August 911 Son of Arnulf of Carinthia
Conrad I Conradine (Franconian) 10 November 911 23 December 918  
Henry I the Fowler Liudolfing (Saxon) 23 April 919 2 July 936  
Arnulf the Bad Luitpolding (Bavarian) 919 921 Rival king to Henry I
Otto I the Great Liudolfing 7 August 936 2 February 962 7 May 973 Son of Henry I; first king crowned in Aachen Cathedral since Lothair I; crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 961.
Otto II the Red Liudolfing 26 May 961 25 December 967 7 December 983 Son of Otto I; King of Germany under his father 961–973, also crowned Emperor in his father's lifetime
Otto III Liudolfing 25 December 983 21 May 996 21 January 1002 Son of Otto II
Henry II Liudolfing 7 June 1002 26 April 1014 13 July 1024 Great-grandson of Henry I
Conrad II Salian (Frankish) 8 September 1024 26 March 1027 4 June 1039 Great-great-grandson of Otto I
Henry III Salian 14 April 1028 25 December 1046 5 October 1056 Son of Conrad II; King of Germany under his father 1028–1039
Henry IV Salian 17 July 1054 21 March 1084 31 December 1105 Son of Henry III; King of Germany under his father 1054–1056
Rudolf von Rheinfeld Rheinfeld 15 March 1077 15 October 1080 Rival King to Henry IV
Hermann von Salm Salm 6 August 1081 28 September 1088 Rival King to Henry IV
Conrad Salian 30 May 1087 27 July 1101 Son of Henry IV; King of Germany under his father 1087–1098, King of Italy 1093–1098, 1095–1101 in rebellion.
Henry V Salian 6 January 1099 13 April 1111 23 May 1125 Son of Henry IV; King of Germany under his father 1099–1105, forced his father to abdicate.
Lothair III Supplinburger 30 August 1125 4 June 1133 4 December 1137  
Conrad III Hohenstaufen 7 March 1138 15 February 1152 Grandson of Henry IV; Previously Rival King to Lothair III 1127–1135
Henry Berengar Hohenstaufen 30 March 1147 August? 1150 Son of Conrad III; King of Germany under his father 1147–1150
Frederick I Barbarossa Hohenstaufen 4 March 1152 18 June 1155 10 June 1190 Nephew of Conrad III
Henry VI Hohenstaufen 15 August 1169 14 April 1191 28 September 1197 Son of Frederick I; King of Germany under his father 1169–1190
Frederick II Hohenstaufen 1197 1197 Son of Henry VI; King of Germany under his father 1196
Philip of Swabia Hohenstaufen 6 March 1198 21 August 1208 Son of Frederick I; Rival king to Otto IV
Otto IV Welf 29 March 1198 4 October 1209 5 July 1215 Grandson of Lothair II; Rival king to Philip of Swabia; later opposed by Frederick II; deposed 1215; died 19 May 1218
Frederick II Hohenstaufen 5 December 1212 22 November 1220 26 December 1250 Son of Henry VI; Rival king to Otto IV until 5 July 1215
Henry Hohenstaufen 23 April 1220 15 August 1235 Son of Frederick II; King of Germany under his father 1220–1235
Conrad IV Hohenstaufen May 1237 1 May 1254 Son of Frederick II; King of Germany under his father, 1237–1250
Henry Raspe Thuringia 22 May 1246 16 February 1247 Rival King to Frederick II
William of Holland Holland 3 October 1247 28 January 1256 Rival King to Frederick II and Conrad IV, 1247–1254
Richard of Cornwall Plantagenet 13 January 1257 2 April 1272 Brother-in-law of Frederick II; Rival king to Alfonso of Castile; visited Germany only twice and held no real authority.
Alfonso of Castile House of Burgundy 1 April 1257 1275 Grandson of Philip; Rival king to Richard of Cornwall; never visited Germany and held no authority; later opposed by Rudolf I; relinquished claims 1275, died 1284
Rudolf I Habsburg 29 September 1273 15 July 1291  
Adolf of Nassau Nassau 5 May 1292 23 June 1298 According to some historians, Adolf's election was preceded by the short-lived kingship of Conrad, Duke of Teck. See his article for details.
Albert I Habsburg 24 June 1298 1 May 1308 Son of Rudolf I; Rival King to Adolf of Nassau, 1298
Henry VII Luxemburg 27 November 1308 13 June 1311 24 August 1313  
Louis IV Wittelsbach 20 October 1314 17 January 1328 11 October 1347 Grandson of Rudolf I; Rival king to Frederick the Fair 1314–1322
Frederick the Fair Habsburg 19 October 1314/
5 September 1325
28 September 1322/
13 January 1330
Son of Albert I; Rival king to Louis IV 1314–1322; associate king with Louis IV 1325–1330
Charles IV Luxemburg 11 July 1346 5 April 1355 29 November 1378 Grandson of Henry VII; Rival king to Louis IV, 1346–1347
Günther von Schwarzburg Schwarzburg 30 January 1349 24 May 1349 Rival King to Charles IV
Wenceslaus Luxemburg 10 June 1376 20 August 1400 Son of Charles IV; King of Germany under his father 1376–1378; deposed 1400; died 1419
Frederick of Brunswick-Lüneburg Brunswick-Lüneburg 1400 1400 Rival King to Wenceslaus[citation needed]
Rupert of Palatinate Wittelsbach 21 August 1400 18 May 1410 Great-grandnephew of Louis IV
Sigismund Luxemburg 20 September 1410/
21 July 1411
3 May 1433 9 December 1437 Son of Charles IV
Jobst of Moravia Luxemburg 1 October 1410 8 January 1411 Nephew of Charles IV; Rival King to Sigismund
Albert II Habsburg 18 March 1438 27 October 1439 4th in descent from Albert I; Husband of Elizabeth, the daughter of Sigismund
Frederick III Habsburg 2 February 1440 16 March 1452 19 August 1493 4th in descent from Albert I; 2nd cousin of Albert II
Maximilian I Habsburg 16 February 1486 4 February 1508 12 January 1519 Son of Frederick III; King of Germany under his father 1486–1493; adopted the title Emperor-elect in 1508 with the Pope's approval
Charles V Habsburg 28 June 1519 24 February 1530 21 September 1556 Grandson of Maximilian I; Crowned as Emperor by the Pope (the last to be crowned by the Pope - all futures Emperors were merely Emperors-elect); abdicated 1556; died 21 September 1558;
Ferdinand I Habsburg 5 January 1531 21 September 1556
Emperor-elect
25 July 1564 Grand-son of Maximilian I; brother of Charles V; King of Germany under his brother Charles V 1531–1556; last king to be crowned in Aachen Cathedral.
Maximilian II Habsburg 22 November 1562 25 July 1564
Emperor-elect
12 October 1576 Son of Ferdinand I; King of Germany under his father 1562–1564
Rudolf II Habsburg 27 October 1575 2 November 1576
Emperor-elect
20 January 1612 Son of Maximilian II; King of Germany under his father, 1575–1576
Matthias Habsburg 13 June 1612 13 June 1612
Emperor-elect
20 March 1617 Son of Maximilian II
Ferdinand II Habsburg 28 August 1618 28 August 1618
Emperor-elect
15 February 1637 Grandson of Ferdinand I;
Ferdinand III Habsburg 22 December 1636 15 February 1637
Emperor-elect
2 April 1657 Son of Ferdinand II; King of Germany under his father 1636–1637
Ferdinand IV Habsburg 31 May 1653 9 July 1654 Son of Ferdinand III; King of Germany under his father
Leopold I Habsburg 18 July 1658 18 July 1658
Emperor-elect
5 May 1705 Son of Ferdinand III
Joseph I Habsburg 23 January 1690 5 May 1705
Emperor-elect
17 April 1711 Son of Leopold I; King of Germany under his father 1690–1705
Charles VI Habsburg 27 October 1711 27 October 1711
Emperor-elect
20 October 1740 Son of Leopold I
Charles VII Wittelsbach 14 January 1742 14 January 1742
Emperor-elect
20 January 1745 Husband of Maria Amalia, daughter of Joseph I
Francis I Stephan Lorraine 13 September 1745 13 September 1745
Emperor-elect
18 August 1765 Husband of Maria Theresa, daughter of Charles VI
Joseph II Habsburg-Lorraine 27 March 1764 18 August 1765
Emperor-elect
20 February 1790 Son of Francis I and Maria Theresa; King of Germany under his father 1764–1765
Leopold II Habsburg-Lorraine 30 September 1790 30 September 1790
Emperor-elect
1 March 1792 Son of Francis I and Maria Theresa
Francis II Habsburg-Lorraine 7 July 1792 7 July 1792
Emperor-elect
6 August 1806 Son of Leopold II; Dissolved the Holy Roman Empire; also Emperor of Austria 1804–1835; died 1835

Louis the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian or German Ludwig der Deutsche) (804 – August 28, 876), the third son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye, was the king of Bavaria from 817, when his father partitioned the empire... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... Events Seiwa is succeeded by Yozei as emperor of Japan. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... For the King of France known as Louis the Younger, see Louis VII of France. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Events Seiwa is succeeded by Yozei as emperor of Japan. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Carloman, King of the West Franks becomes sole king upon the death of his brother. ... Eastern Francia were the lands of Louis the German after the Treaty of Verdun of 843. ... The Duchy of Saxony was a medieval Duchy covering the greater part of Northern Germany. ... The following is a list of rulers of Bavaria: Dukes of Bavaria, 889-1623 Liutpolding Dynasty Liutpold 889-907 Arnulf the Bad 907-937 Eberhard 937 Berthold 938-947 Liudolfing ( Ottonian) Dynasty Henry I 947-955 Henry II the Quarrelsome 955-976 Otto I 976-982 Liutpolding Dynasty Henry III... Carloman (830-880) was the eldest son of Louis the German, king of East Francia (Germany), and Emma, daughter of the count Welf. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Events Seiwa is succeeded by Yozei as emperor of Japan. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (82nd in leap years). ... For other uses, see number 880. ... The following is a list of rulers of Bavaria: Dukes of Bavaria, 889-1623 Liutpolding Dynasty Liutpold 889-907 Arnulf the Bad 907-937 Eberhard 937 Berthold 938-947 Liudolfing ( Ottonian) Dynasty Henry I 947-955 Henry II the Quarrelsome 955-976 Otto I 976-982 Liutpolding Dynasty Henry III... Romantic portrait of Charles. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Events Seiwa is succeeded by Yozei as emperor of Japan. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Charles the Fat is crowned western emperor Louis III routs Norman pirates at Saucourt_en_Vimeu Births Deaths Emperor Seiwa of Japan Heads of states France - Louis III, king of France (879_882) Categories: 881 ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Events Emperor Uda ascends to the throne of Japan Births Deaths September 18 - Pietro I Candiano, Doge of Venice (killed in battle) Emperor Koko of Japan Categories: 887 ... Arnulf of Carinthia (German Arnulf von Kärnten, Slovenian Arnulf KoroÅ¡ki) (850 – December 8, 899) was one of the last ruling members of the Carolingian house in the Eastern part of the Frankish Kingdom, which had been split in the Treaty of Verdun in 843. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... Events Emperor Uda ascends to the throne of Japan Births Deaths September 18 - Pietro I Candiano, Doge of Venice (killed in battle) Emperor Koko of Japan Categories: 887 ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... Events The Bulgarians, under Simeon I, defeat the Byzantine Empire at Bulgarophygon. ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Edward the Elder becomes King of England. ... The last true Carolingian ruler of East Francia, Louis the Child (893–20 or 24 September 911) was the only legitimate son of the Emperor Arnulf and his wife, Ota, a member of the Conradine Dynasty. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Persian scientist, Rhazes, distinguished smallpox from measles in the course of his writings. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Autumn - Charles the Simple argees to the Treaty of St. ... Conrad I (German: ), duke of Franconia, was king of Germany from 911 to 918, the first and only king of the Conradine (or Franconian) dynasty. ... The Conradines were a dynasty of Franconian counts and dukes of the 8th to 11th Century, named after Konrad the Elder and his son Conrad I (or Konrad), Duke of Franconia, King of Germany. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... Events Autumn - Charles the Simple argees to the Treaty of St. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... Events Taebong has been overthrown and Goryeo established in Korean peninsula. ... Heinrich I depicted as The Bamberg Knight Henry I, the Fowler (German: Heinrich der Finkler or Heinrich der Vogler) (876 - July 2, 936), was Duke of Saxony from 912 and king of the Germans from 919 until his death in 936. ... Ottonian dynasty is a name sometimes given to a ruling dynasty of German kings, sometimes regarded as the first dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, (though Charlemagne is commonly viewed as the original founder. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (114th in leap years). ... Events King Edward I of England conquers Bedford. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... Events King Taejo of Goryeo (Wanggeon) defeats Hubaekje. ... Arnulf (died July 14, 937), called the Bad or the Evil (German: der Böse), was the duke of Bavaria from 907 until his death. ... The Luitpolding was a medieval dynasty which ruled Bavaria from some time in the late ninth century off and on until 985. ... Events King Edward I of England conquers Bedford. ... Events Embassy of Ahmad ibn Fadlan from Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtadir Henry the Fowler invades Bavaria and obtains fealty from Arnulf the Bad Births King Edmund I of England Onmyoji Abe no Seimei Deaths September 1 - Richard of... For others with the same name, see Otto I (disambiguation). ... Ottonian dynasty is a name sometimes given to a ruling dynasty of German kings, sometimes regarded as the first dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, (though Charlemagne is commonly viewed as the original founder. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... Events King Taejo of Goryeo (Wanggeon) defeats Hubaekje. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 2 - Pope John XII crowns Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... Events Edgar of England is crowned king by Saint Dunstan Births September 15 - Al_Biruni, mathematician († 1048) Abu al-Ala al-Maarri, poet Deaths May 7 - Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor Categories: 973 ... Aachen Cathedral The Aachen Cathedral, frequently referred to as the Imperial Cathedral (in German: Kaiserdom) of Aachen, is the oldest cathedral in northern Europe. ... Lothair I Lothair I (German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 2 March 855), king of Italy (818 – 855) and Holy Roman Emperor (840 – 855), was the eldest son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye, daughter of Ingerman, duke of Hesbaye. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Events Byzantine Empire recaptures Crete from Muslim control Ani made the capital of Armenia by the Bagratid dynasty Haakon I of Norway squashed the rebelling forces of Eric Bloodaxes sons but was killed in the Battle of Fitje. ... Otto II and Theophano. ... Ottonian dynasty is a name sometimes given to a ruling dynasty of German kings, sometimes regarded as the first dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, (though Charlemagne is commonly viewed as the original founder. ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... Events Byzantine Empire recaptures Crete from Muslim control Ani made the capital of Armenia by the Bagratid dynasty Haakon I of Norway squashed the rebelling forces of Eric Bloodaxes sons but was killed in the Battle of Fitje. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Events Emperor Reizei ascends to the throne of Japan The Khazar capital of Atil falls to the Kievan Rus around this year Births Deaths Emperor Murakami of Japan Abu al-Faraj Ali of Isfahan, scholar. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Hugh Capet, a distant relative of the last Carolingian king of the Franks, is crowned King of France, beginning the Capetian dynasty and, arguably, modern French history. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Otto III in a medieval manuscript Otto III (980 – January 23, 1002, Paterno, Italy) was the fourth ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Events Hugh Capet, a distant relative of the last Carolingian king of the Franks, is crowned King of France, beginning the Capetian dynasty and, arguably, modern French history. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... Events March/April - Pope John XV dies before being being able to coronate Otto III, King of Germany as Holy Roman Emperor. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events November 13 - English king Ethelred gives order to kill all Danes in England, leading to the St. ... Henry II with his wife Cunigunde of Luxemburg Saint Henry II (972 – 13 July 1024), called the Holy or the Saint, was the fifth and last Holy Roman Emperor of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ... Ottonian dynasty is a name sometimes given to a ruling dynasty of German kings, sometimes regarded as the first dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, (though Charlemagne is commonly viewed as the original founder. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Events November 13 - English king Ethelred gives order to kill all Danes in England, leading to the St. ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (117th in leap years). ... Events February 14 - Pope Benedict VIII recognizes Henry of Bavaria as King of Germany July 29 - Battle of Kleidion: Basil II inflicts not only a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent savage treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly causes Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria to die of shock... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... Conrad II (c. ... The Salian Dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire was founded by Conrad II (c. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (86th in leap years). ... Events March 26 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II Holy Roman Emperor. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... Events June 4 - Henry III becomes King of Germany. ... Henry III, from a miniature of 1040. ... The Salian Dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire was founded by Conrad II (c. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Events November 12 - Dying Emperor Constantine VIII of the Byzantine Empire marries his daughter Zoe of Byzantium to his chosen heir Romanus Argyrus. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... // Events First contact between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuks. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (279th in leap years). ... Events Creation of the Crab Nebula observed by a Chinese astronomer Anselm of Canterbury leaves Italy. ... HEINRIC·IMP[ERATOR], Emperor Henry Henry IV (November 11, 1050 – August 7, 1106) was King of Germany (Holy Roman Empire) from 1056 and Emperor from 1084, until his abdication in 1105. ... The Salian Dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire was founded by Conrad II (c. ... hellotyle=float:right; |- | |- | |} July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... Events Saint Bruno founds the Carthusian Order of monks Kyanzittha begins his reign in Myanmar. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed by his son, Henry V Tamna kingdom annexed by Korean Goryeo Dynasty. ... Rudolph of Rheinfelden (in German, Rudolf von Rheinfeld, and in Italian Rodolfo di Svevia), died October 15, 1080, was Duke of Swabia (1057–1079) and German antiking (1077–1080). ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in leap years). ... Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... Events William I of England, in a letter, reminds the Bishop of Rome that the King of England owes him no allegiance. ... Herman (German: ; died 28 September 1088), Count of Salm, was a son of Count Giselbert, who, on 6 August 1081, was elected King of Germany by the noblity of Saxony and Swabia in Ochsenfurt while the Emperor Henry IV was campaigning in Italy. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... Events Corfu taken from Byzantine Empire by Robert Guiscard, Italy Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III is overthrown by Alexius I Comnenus, ending the Middle Byzantine period and beginning the Comnenan dynasty Alexius I helps defend Albania from the Normans (the first recorded mention of Albania), but is defeated at the Battle... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Succession of Pope Urban II (1088-1099) Work begins on the third and largest church at Cluny Rebellion of 1088 against William II of England lead by Odo of Bayeux. ... Conrad (12 February 1074 – 27 July 1101 was the second son of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV. As such he was King of Germany from 1087 to 1098 and also King of Italy from 1093 to 1098. ... The Salian Dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire was founded by Conrad II (c. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... Events A second wave of crusaders arrives in the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem, after being heavily defeated by Kilij Arslan I at Heraclia. ... Henry IV (left) and son Henry V (right). ... The Salian Dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire was founded by Conrad II (c. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... Events The Synod of Rathbreasail marked the transition of the Irish church from a monastic to a diocesan one Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Paschal II Baldwin VII becomes Count of Flanders Births Henry of Blois, bishop of Winchester (died 1171) Andrei Bogolyubsky, prince of Vladimir... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... Events May 23 - Lothair of Saxony becomes Holy Roman Emperor on the death of Henry V. War ends between Toulouse and Provence. ... Lothair III of Supplinburg (1075–1137), was Duke of Saxony (1106), King of Germany (1125), and Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 to 1137. ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... Events May 23 - Lothair of Saxony becomes Holy Roman Emperor on the death of Henry V. War ends between Toulouse and Provence. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... Events Geoffrey of Monmouth produces the Historia Regum Britanniae Durham Cathedral is completed Construction of Exeter Cathedral begun June 4 - Lothair III is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Innocent II Births March 5 - King Henry II of England (died 1189) Honen Shonin, Japanese founder of Pure Land Buddhism (died 1212... December 4th redirects here. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... King Conrad III (Miniature, 13th century) Conrad III (1093 - February 15, 1152, Bamberg), the first German king of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was the son of Frederick I, Duke of Swabia and Agnes, a daughter of Emperor Henry IV. Conrad was appointed duke of Franconia by his uncle, emperor Henry V... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (67th in leap years). ... Events Robert Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... Henry Berengar (d. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (90th in leap years). ... Events King Afonso I of Portugal and the Crusaders capture Lisbon from Muslims First written mention of Moscow. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century Chronicle. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... Events Frederick I Barbarossa crowned Holy Roman Emperor. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... Events March 16 - Massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England prompted by Crusaders and Richard Malebys kill 150-500 Jews in Cliffords Tower June 10 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem. ... Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (November 1165, Nijmegen – September 28, 1197, Messina) was king of Germany 1190-1197, and Holy Roman Emperor 1191-1197. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Events Nur ad-Din invades Egypt, and his nephew Saladin becomes the sultan over the territory conquered by Nur ad-Din. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... // Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Amalric II succeeds Henry II of Champagne as king of Jerusalem. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... Events Amalric II succeeds Henry II of Champagne as king of Jerusalem. ... Events Amalric II succeeds Henry II of Champagne as king of Jerusalem. ... Philip of Swabia depicted in a medieval manuscript (about 1200) Philip of Swabia (1177-1208), German king and duke of Swabia, the rival of the emperor Otto IV, was the fifth and youngest son of the emperor Frederick I and Beatrix, daughter of Renaud III, count of Burgundy, and consequently... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (66th in leap years). ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Emperor Tsuchimikado ascends to the throne of Japan January 8 - Pope Innocent III ascends Papal Throne Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, crowned King of Sicily Births August 24 - Alexander II of Scotland (d. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 31 - Inferior Swedish forces defeats the invading danes in Battle of Lena. ... Otto IV of Brunswick (died 1218) was King of Germany (1208-1215) and Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 - 1215. ... The House of Welf (or House of Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th century until the 20th century. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (89th in leap years). ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Emperor Tsuchimikado ascends to the throne of Japan January 8 - Pope Innocent III ascends Papal Throne Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, crowned King of Sicily Births August 24 - Alexander II of Scotland (d. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Albigensian Crusade against Cathars (1209-1218) the Franciscans are founded. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... // Events A certified copy of the Magna Carta June 15 - King John of England forced to put his seal to the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning men (nobles and knights) and restricting the kings power. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (140th in leap years). ... // Events Damietta is besieged by the knights of the Fifth Crusade. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The first Great Fire of London burns most of the city to the ground Battle of Navas de Tolosa Childrens crusade Crusaders push the Muslims out of northern Spain In Japan, Kamo no Chōmei writes the Hōjōki, one of the great works of classical Japanese... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 361st in leap years. ... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... // Events A certified copy of the Magna Carta June 15 - King John of England forced to put his seal to the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning men (nobles and knights) and restricting the kings power. ... Henry (VII) (1211 – February 10, 1242), was King of the Romans, King of Sicily, and Duke of Swabia. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (114th in leap years). ... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... Conrad IV, Conrad of Hohenstaufen (April 25, 1228 Andria, Italy – May 21, 1254, Lavello), was king of Jerusalem (as Conrad II) 1228–1254, of Germany 1237–1254, and of Sicily (as Conrad I) 1250–1254. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Heinrich Raspe (1204 - February 16, 1247) became Landgraf, or count, of Thuringia (now part of modern-day Germany) in 1227; he later became king in 1246-1247 in opposition to Conrad IV. First in Thuringia, Heinrich ruled for his under-age nephew Hermann II, whom he had expelled from the... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Saga, emperor of Japan. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Shams ad-Din disappears resulting in Jalal Uddin Rumi writing 30,000 verses of poetry about his disappearance. ... Count Willem II of Holland Granting Privileges by Caesar van Everdingen (1654) William II of Holland, (February 1228-28 January 1256), was a count of Holland (1235-1256) and king of Germany (1247-1256). ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Shams ad-Din disappears resulting in Jalal Uddin Rumi writing 30,000 verses of poetry about his disappearance. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Richard (5 January 1209 - 2 April 1272) was Count of Poitou (bef. ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Alfonso X and his court. ... The Anscarids (sometimes House of Ivrea) were a medieval dynasty of Burgundian origin which rose to prominence in Italy in the tenth century, even briefly holding the Italian throne. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... // April 22 - The first of the Statutes of Westminster are passed by the English parliament, establishing a series of laws in its 51 clauses, including equal treatment of rich and poor, free and fair elections, and definition of bailable and non-bailable offenses. ... The brass of the tomb of Rudolph I in Speyer Rudolph I (Rudolph of Habsburg) (May 1, 1218 – July 15, 1291) was a German king, who played a vital role in raising the Habsburg family to a leading position among the royal dynasties of Germany. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Adolf of Nassau (ca. ... The royal House of Nassau is one of the most prominent dynasties in Europe. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... Events July 2 - The Battle of Göllheim is fought between Albert I of Habsburg and Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Albert I (July 1255 – May 1, 1308) was a German king, duke of Austria, and eldest son of King Rudolph I of Habsburg and Gertrud of Hohenberg. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... Events July 2 - The Battle of Göllheim is fought between Albert I of Habsburg and Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Henry VII, (In German: Heinrich), ca. ... The House of Luxembourg was a medieval Holy Roman Empire noble family. ... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... Events Bolingbroke Castle passes to the House of Lancaster. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... Events Siege of Rostock ends Foundation year of the Order of the Rose Cross (Rosicrucian Order), according to the Rosicrucian Fellowship. ... Emperor Louis IV Louis IV of Bavaria (also known as Ludwig the Bavarian) of the House of Wittelsbach (born 1282; died October 11, 1347) was duke of Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his brother Rudolf I, also count of the Palatinate until 1329 and, German king since 1314 and... The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... Frederick the Handsome (born 1286; died January 13, 1330), from the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria as Frederick I and King of the Romans as Frederick (III). ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... Events January 7:Alfonso IV becomes the King of Portugal. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 27/September 28 - Battle of Ampfing, often called the last battle of knights, in which Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeats Frederick I of Austria Births January 11 - Emperor Komyo of Japan (died 1380) Deaths January 3 - King Philip V of France (born 1293) March 16 - Humphrey de... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Bulgars under Michael III are beaten by the Serbs at Velbuzhd, and large parts of Bulgaria fall to Serbia. ... Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... The House of Luxembourg was a medieval Holy Roman Empire noble family. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... Events January 7 - Portuguese king Afonso IV sends three men to kill Ines de Castro, beloved of his son prince Pedro - Pedro revolts and incites a civil war. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Günther von Schwarzburg (1304-1349), German king, was a descendant of the counts of Schwarzburg and the younger son of Henry VII, count of Blankenburg. ... The House of Schwarzburg is the oldest noble family of Thuringia. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 9 - The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland is rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing bubonic plague. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... // Events January 9 - The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland is rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing bubonic plague. ... Wenceslaus (German: Wenzel, Czech: Václav IV; sometimes known as the Drunkard) (February 26, 1361 – August 16, 1419), of the house of Luxembourg, was king of Bohemia from 1378 to his death; until 1400, he also headed the Holy Roman Empire (as King of the Romans), and he continued to... The House of Luxembourg was a medieval Holy Roman Empire noble family. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... // Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Brunswick-Lüneburg was an historical state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... Rupert of the house of Wittelsbach (1352–1410) succeeded his father Rupert II as Rupert III, Count Palatine of the Rhine (see Palatinate) and one of the foremost rulers in western Germany in 1398. ... The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... Sigismund, aged approximately 50, depicted by unknown artist in the 1420s - the only contemporary portrait. ... The House of Luxembourg was a medieval Holy Roman Empire noble family. ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... Events February 11 : Peace of ToruÅ„ 1411 signed in ToruÅ„, Poland Births September 21 - Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, claimant to the English throne (died 1460) Juan de Mena, Spanish poet (died 1456) Deaths June 3 - Duke Leopold IV of Austria (born 1371) November 4 - Khalil Sultan, ruler of... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... Events Births June 23 - Francis II, Duke of Brittany Kettil Karlsson Vasa, later Regent of Sweden. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events foundation of All Souls College, University of Oxford. ... Jobst (or Jost) of Moravia was born in 1351 as son of John Henry of Bohemia, margrave of Moravia, the brother of emperor Charles IV. Jobst was margrave of Brandenburg from 1388-1411. ... The House of Luxembourg was a medieval Holy Roman Empire noble family. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 11 : Peace of ToruÅ„ 1411 signed in ToruÅ„, Poland Births September 21 - Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, claimant to the English throne (died 1460) Juan de Mena, Spanish poet (died 1456) Deaths June 3 - Duke Leopold IV of Austria (born 1371) November 4 - Khalil Sultan, ruler of... Albert II Habsburg (August 10, 1397 - October 27, 1439), German ruler, king of Bohemia and Hungary, and (as Albert V) duke of Austria, was born on August 10, 1397, the son of Albert IV of Habsburg, duke of Austria. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco In Italy, the siege of Brescia by the condottieri troops of Niccolò Piccinino was raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì. January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... Events Battle of Grotnik, which ended the hussite movement in Poland Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway is declared deposed in Sweden. ... Emperor Frederick III Frederick III of Habsburg (Innsbruck, September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in leap years). ... Events October - English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1519 (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Tízoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan dies. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Charles V (24 February 1500 - 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian territories (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Ferdinand I Habsburg Ferdinand I (10 March 1503–25 July 1564), Holy Roman Emperor (1556–1564), was born in Madrid, the son of Juana the Mad, Queen of Castile (1479–1555), and Philip I the Handsome, King of Castile (1478–1506), who was heir to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Aachen Cathedral The Aachen Cathedral, frequently referred to as the Imperial Cathedral (in German: Kaiserdom) of Aachen, is the oldest cathedral in northern Europe. ... Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II. His Coat of Arms Maximilian II of the Habsburg dynasty (July 31, 1527 – October 12, 1576) was king of Bohemia from 1562, king of Hungary from 1563 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1564 until his death. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1562 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ... Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II Rudolph IIs personal imperial crown, later crown of the Austrian Empire Rudolf II Habsburg was an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, king of Bohemia, and king of Hungary. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... Year 1575 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Holy Roman Emperor Matthias Matthias (February 24, 1557 - March 20, 1619) of the House of Habsburg reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1612-1619, as King of Hungary from 1608-1619 (as Matthias II), and as King of Bohemia from 1611-1617. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1620-1637. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 24 - King Christian of Denmark gives an order that all beggars that are able to work must be sent to Brinholmen Island to build ships or as galley rowers March 26 - Utrecht University founded in The Netherlands. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... Ferdinand IV (September 8, 1633 - July 9, 1654) was King of the Romans, of Hungary, and of Bohemia. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... Joseph I. Joseph I (July 26, 1678 – April 17, 1711), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, was the elder son of the emperor Leopold I and his third wife, Eleanora, Countess Palatine, daughter of Philip William of Neuburg, Elector Palatine. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI of Austria (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg, came first to the throne with the name Charles III of... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII Emperor Charles VII Albert (Brussels August 6, 1697 – January 20, 1745 in Munich), a member of the Wittelsbach family, was Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from January 24, 1742 until his death in 1745. ... The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... The Duchy of Lorraine was an independent state for most of the period of time between 843 to 1739. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia The worlds most famous coin, a silver thaler of Maria Theresa, dated 1780. ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (Joseph Benedict August Johannes Anton Michel Adam) (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Habsburg - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (87th in leap years). ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II. Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... Habsburg - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Francis II Francis I Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who may also be referred to as Francis von Habsburg or Emperor Franz I of Austria (February 12, 1768 - March 2, 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until August 6, 1806, when the Empire was disbanded. ... Habsburg - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The title of Emperor of Austria was proclaimed in 1804 by the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II, who feared for the future of the old Reich in the face of Napoleons aggressions, and wished to maintain his imperial title in the event that the Holy Roman Empire should...

Imperial Vicars, 1437-1792

During interregna, imperial authority was exercised by two imperial vicars - the Elector of Saxony, in his role as Count Palatine of Saxony exercised this office in northern Germany, and the Elector Palatine, as Count Palatine of the Rhine, exercised it in southern Germany. The confusion over the Palatine electorate during the Thirty Years War and after led to some confusion about who the rightful vicar was in the later years of the Empire. In the broadest sense, a vicar (from the Latin vicarius) is anyone acting as a substitute or agent for a superior (compare vicarious). In this sense, the title is comparable to lieutenant. ... List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918 The original Duchy of Saxony was in Northern Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony and Westphalia. ... A palatinate is an area administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ...

Began Ended Count Palatine of Saxony Count Palatine of the Rhine
9 December 1437 18 March 1438 Frederick II, Elector of Saxony Louis IV, Elector Palatine
27 October 1439 2 February 1440 Frederick II, Elector of Saxony Louis IV, Elector Palatine
12 January 1519 17 June 1519 Frederick III, Elector of Saxony Louis V, Elector Palatine
20 January 1612 13 June 1612 John George I, Elector of Saxony Frederick V, Elector Palatine
20 March 1619 28 August 1619 John George I, Elector of Saxony Frederick V, Elector Palatine
2 April 1657 18 July 1658 John George II, Elector of Saxony Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria
17 April 1711 12 October 1711 Frederick Augustus I, Elector of Saxony John William, Elector Palatine
20 October 1740 14 January 1742 Frederick Augustus II, Elector of Saxony Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria
20 January 1745 13 September 1745 Frederick Augustus II, Elector of Saxony Maximilian III, Elector of Bavaria
20 February 1790 30 September 1790 Frederick Augustus III, Elector of Saxony Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria
1 March 1792 5 July 1792 Frederick Augustus III, Elector of Saxony Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria

December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events foundation of All Souls College, University of Oxford. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco In Italy, the siege of Brescia by the condottieri troops of Niccolò Piccinino was raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì. January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert... Frederick II, the Gentle and Elector of Saxony (1428 — 1464), was an Elector of Saxony. ... Louis IV, Count Palatine of the Rhine (1 January 1424, Heidelberg – 13 August 1449, Worms) was an Elector Palatine of the Rhine from the house of Wittelsbach in 1436 - 1449. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... Events Battle of Grotnik, which ended the hussite movement in Poland Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway is declared deposed in Sweden. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... Frederick II, the Gentle and Elector of Saxony (1428 — 1464), was an Elector of Saxony. ... Louis IV, Count Palatine of the Rhine (1 January 1424, Heidelberg – 13 August 1449, Worms) was an Elector Palatine of the Rhine from the house of Wittelsbach in 1436 - 1449. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Frederick in an engraved portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1524 Frederick III (January 17, 1463 – May 5, 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise, was Elector of Saxony (from the House of Wettin) from 1486 to his death. ... Louis V, Count Palatine of the Rhine (* 2 July 1478 in Heidelberg; † 16 March 1544 in Heidelberg; ) a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty was prince elector of the Palatinate. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... John George I (5 March 1585 - 8 October 1656), elector of Saxony, second son of the elector Christian I. He succeeded to the electorate in June 1611 on the death of his elder brother, Christian II. The geographical position of electoral Saxony hardly less than her high standing among the... Frederick is also called the Winter King of Bohemia because his peers derisively thought he would only last through the Winter before he would be overthrown. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... John George I (5 March 1585 - 8 October 1656), elector of Saxony, second son of the elector Christian I. He succeeded to the electorate in June 1611 on the death of his elder brother, Christian II. The geographical position of electoral Saxony hardly less than her high standing among the... Frederick is also called the Winter King of Bohemia because his peers derisively thought he would only last through the Winter before he would be overthrown. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... John George II (31 May 1613 - 22 August 1680) was elector of Saxony, succeeding his father John George I in October 1656. ... Ferdinand Maria, Picture from 1658 Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria (October 31, 1636 - May 26, 1679) was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire from 1651 to 1679. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Reign From 1697, until 1706 and from 1709, until February 1, 1733 Elected In 1697 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents John George III Wettin Anne Sophie Consorts  ? Children August III Sas Maurice... Johann Wilhelm II, Elector Palatine, also known as Johann Wilhelm von Pfalz-Neuburg, (April 19, 1658 – June 8, 1716) was Elector Palatine (1690-1716), Duke Palatine of Neuburg/Danube (1690-1716), Duke of Jülich and Berg (1679-1716), and Duke of Oberpfalz and Cham (1707-1714). ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Reign From 1734 until October 5, 1763 Elected In 1734 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 17, 1734 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents August II Mocny ? Consorts Marie Josepha Children Frederick Christian Date of Birth October 7, 1696 Place of... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII Emperor Charles VII Albert (Brussels August 6, 1697 – January 20, 1745 in Munich), a member of the Wittelsbach family, was Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from January 24, 1742 until his death in 1745. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Reign From 1734 until October 5, 1763 Elected In 1734 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 17, 1734 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents August II Mocny ? Consorts Marie Josepha Children Frederick Christian Date of Birth October 7, 1696 Place of... Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Frederick Augustus I (or III) of Saxony (December 23, 1750 - May 5, 1827). ... Karl Theodor Karl Theodor (born in 1724) reigned as Elector and Prince of the Palatinate from 1742 until his death 1799, and also as Duke of Bavaria from 1777 (until his death in 1799). ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Frederick Augustus I (or III) of Saxony (December 23, 1750 - May 5, 1827). ... Karl Theodor Karl Theodor (born in 1724) reigned as Elector and Prince of the Palatinate from 1742 until his death 1799, and also as Duke of Bavaria from 1777 (until his death in 1799). ...

Notes

The relationship between the title of "king" and "emperor" in the area that is today called Germany is just as complicated as the history and the structure of the Holy Roman Empire itself. The following remarks may or may not clarify things a little (for details, refer to the Holy Roman Empire article): An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ...

  1. The Holy Roman Empire (although only titled as such much later) started when Charlemagne, King of the Franks and the Lombards was crowned Emperor of the Romans in 800. The Kingdom of Germany started out as the eastern section of the Frankish kingdom, which was split by the Treaty of Verdun in 843 (while the western section eventually became France). The rulers of the eastern area thus called themselves rex Francorum, king of the Franks, and later just rex. A reference to the "Germans", indicating the emergence of a German nation of some sort, did not appear until the eleventh century, when the pope referred to his enemy Henry IV as rex teutonicorum, King of the Teutons, in order to brand him as a foreigner. The kings reacted by consistently using the title rex Romanorum, King of the Romans, to emphasize their universal rule even before becoming Emperor. This title remained until the end of the Empire in 1806 (but in this and related entries, the kings are called kings of Germany, for clarity's sake.)
  2. The kingdom was never entirely hereditary; instead, ancestry was only one of the factors that determined the succession of kings. The king was formally elected by the leading nobilty in the realm, continuing the Frankish tradition. Gradually the election became the privilege of a group of princes called Electors and the Golden Bull of 1356 formally defined election proceedings.
  3. In the Middle Ages, the King did not assume the title "Emperor" (since 982 the full title was Imperator Augustus Romanorum, August Emperor of the Romans) until crowned by the Pope. He also had to be crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, after which he assumed the title of rex Italicum, King of Italy. After this he would ride on to Rome and be crowned Emperor by the Pope.
  4. In 1508 Maximilian I was the first king who announced that henceforth he would use the title of "Emperor-Elect", after his attempt to march to Rome and be crowned by the Pope had failed. His successor, Charles V, was the last emperor to be crowned by the Pope. From Ferdinand I onwards, all Emperors were merely "Emperors-Elect", although they were normally referred to as "the Emperor." At the same time, chosen successors of the Habsburg emperors were called "King of the Romans", if elected during their father's lifetime.

A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... Geopolitical divisions according to the Treaty of Verdun. ... HEINRIC·IMP[ERATOR], Emperor Henry Henry IV (November 11, 1050 – August 7, 1106) was King of Germany (Holy Roman Empire) from 1056 and Emperor from 1084, until his abdication in 1105. ... This entry is about the Teutonic people, not to be confused with the Teutonic Knights. ... King of the Romans (Latin: Rex Romanorum) was a title used by the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire before their coronation by the Pope, and later also by the heir designate of the Empire. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (see Diet of Nuremberg) that fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, an important aspect of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Iron Crown of Lombardy (Corona Ferrea) is both a reliquary and one of the most ancient royal insignia of Europe. ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1519 (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Charles V (24 February 1500 - 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian territories (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and... Ferdinand I Habsburg Ferdinand I (10 March 1503–25 July 1564), Holy Roman Emperor (1556–1564), was born in Madrid, the son of Juana the Mad, Queen of Castile (1479–1555), and Philip I the Handsome, King of Castile (1478–1506), who was heir to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I...

Confederation of the Rhine 1806-1813

Name Title House Began Ended
Napoleon I Emperor of the French, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine Bonaparte 25 July 1806 19 October 1813

The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (Rheinbund in German; in French officially États confédérés du Rhin but in practice Confédération du Rhin) lasted from 1806 to 1813 and was formed from sixteen German states by Napoleon after he defeated Habsburgs Francis II... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... Of Corsican origin, the Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) family is the family of Napoleon I, who was elected as first consul of France on November 10, 1799 with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, president of the Council of Five Hundred at Saint-Cloud. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...

German Confederation 1815-1866

Name Title House Began Ended
Francis I Emperor of Austria, President of the German Confederation Habsburg-Lorraine 20 June 1815 2 March 1835
Ferdinand I Emperor of Austria, President of the German Confederation Habsburg-Lorraine 2 March 1835 12 July 1848
Archduke Johann of Austria Imperial Vicar[1] Habsburg-Lorraine 12 July 1848 20 December 1849
Frederick William IV King of Prussia Hohenzollern offered title of Emperor of the Germans by the Frankfurt Assembly in 1849, but refused it.
Francis Joseph I Emperor of Austria, President of the German Confederation Habsburg-Lorraine 1 May 1850 24 August 1866

The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Francis II Francis I Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who may also be referred to as Francis von Habsburg or Emperor Franz I of Austria (February 12, 1768 - March 2, 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until August 6, 1806, when the Empire was disbanded. ... The title of Emperor of Austria was proclaimed in 1804 by the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II, who feared for the future of the old Reich in the face of Napoleons aggressions, and wished to maintain his imperial title in the event that the Holy Roman Empire should... Habsburg - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Emperor Ferdinand Ferdinand I Karl Leopold Joseph Franz Marchlin Emperor of Austria King of Hungary and Bohemia (April 19, 1793 – June 29, 1875) succeeded his father (Franz II Holy Roman Emperor/Franz I of Austria) as Emperor and King in 1835 and was forced to abdicate in 1848. ... The title of Emperor of Austria was proclaimed in 1804 by the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II, who feared for the future of the old Reich in the face of Napoleons aggressions, and wished to maintain his imperial title in the event that the Holy Roman Empire should... Habsburg - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Archduke Johann (or John) of Austria (January 20, 1782 - May 11, 1859) was the 13th child of Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany, who later became Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor. ... In the broadest sense, a vicar (from the Latin vicarius) is anyone acting as a substitute or agent for a superior (compare vicarious). In this sense, the title is comparable to lieutenant. ... Habsburg - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Photograph of Frederick King Frederick William IV of Prussia (October 15, 1795 - January 2, 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. ... The following is a list of Kings of Prussia (Könige von Preußen) from the Hohenzollern family. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... The Frankfurt Parliament is the name of the German National Assembly founded during the Revolutions of 1848 that tried to unite Germany in a democratic way. ... Franz Joseph I. Francis Joseph I (in German Franz Josef I. (August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916, and Apostolic King of Hungary from 1867 until 1916. ... The title of Emperor of Austria was proclaimed in 1804 by the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II, who feared for the future of the old Reich in the face of Napoleons aggressions, and wished to maintain his imperial title in the event that the Holy Roman Empire should... Habsburg - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Year 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...

North German Confederation 1867-1871

Name Title House Began Ended
Wilhelm I King of Prussia, President of the North German Confederation Hohenzollern 1 July 1867 18 January 1871

He became German Emperor in 1871. Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Wilhelm I of Germany (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871 – 9 March 1888 and King of Prussia, ruled 2 January 1861 – 9 March 1888. ... The following is a list of Kings of Prussia (Könige von Preußen) from the Hohenzollern family. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


German Empire (1871-1918)

Name Title House Began Ended
Wilhelm I German Emperor, King of Prussia Hohenzollern 18 January 1871 9 March 1888
Friedrich III German Emperor, King of Prussia Hohenzollern 9 March 1888 15 June 1888
Wilhelm II German Emperor, King of Prussia Hohenzollern 15 June 1888 9 November 1918

Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... Wilhelm I of Germany (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871 – 9 March 1888 and King of Prussia, ruled 2 January 1861 – 9 March 1888. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The following is a list of Kings of Prussia (Könige von Preußen) from the Hohenzollern family. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Friedrich III (October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruled 1888. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The following is a list of Kings of Prussia (Könige von Preußen) from the Hohenzollern family. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The following is a list of Kings of Prussia (Könige von Preußen) from the Hohenzollern family. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Pretenders to the German Empire

Monarchists still refered to Wilhelm II as emperor and head of the house of Hohenzollern and when he died, they recognised his descendents as Hohenzollern heads and the rightful emperors. The Pretenders are a New Wave and rock band, known best for innovative songwriting and charismatic performances by bandleader, guitarist, and vocalist Chrissie Hynde. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ... German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ...

Name Title In Pretense House Began Ended
Wilhelm III German Emperor, King of Prussia Hohenzollern 1941 1951
Louis Ferdinand I German Emperor, King of Prussia Hohenzollern 1951 1994
Georg Friedrich I German Emperor, King of Prussia Hohenzollern 1994 Incumbent

A Pretender is a claimant to an abolished throne or to a throne already occupied by somebody else. ... Wilhelm, German Crown Prince and Crown Prince of Prussia (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor August Ernst; 6 May 1882 - 20 July 1951) was the last Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Prussia and the German Empire. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The following is a list of Kings of Prussia (Könige von Preußen) from the Hohenzollern family. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia (German: Louis Ferdinand Viktor Eduard Albert Michael Hubertus Prinz von Preussen) (November 9, 1907 - September 26, 1994), a member of the Hohenzollern family, was the pretender to the abolished German monarchy, opponent of the National Socialist German Workers Party in Germany, a business man, and... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The following is a list of Kings of Prussia (Könige von Preußen) from the Hohenzollern family. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Georg Friedrich Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia, (German: Georg Friedrich Ferdinand Prinz von Preußen) (born June 10, 1976 in Bremen) is the current head of the royal house of Prussia and the imperial house of Germany. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The following is a list of Kings of Prussia (Könige von Preußen) from the Hohenzollern family. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... The incumbent, in politics, is the current holder of a political office. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ elected by the Frankfurt National Assembly as Imperial Vicar of a new German Reich. The German Confederation was considered to have been dissolved.

The Frankfurt Parliament is the name of the German National Assembly founded during the Revolutions of 1848 that tried to unite Germany in a democratic way. ...

External links

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Holy Roman Emperors

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List of Holy Roman Emperors - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (433 words)
After the coronation of Otto I, the imperial title became a prerogative of the ruler of Germany; however, while not all German rulers were crowned, the numbering of the various rulers reflects the complete list of German monarchs, so there are gaps in the sequence of ordinals in a strictly imperial list.
For instance, King Henry the Fowler was never crowned as emperor and is thus not on this list; nevertheless, his great-grandson, who was crowned, is referred to as Henry II, not Henry I. This situation changed somewhat in the early modern period.
His successor Charles V was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1530, but Ferdinand I and all his successors did not seek a papal coronation and remained emperors-elect.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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