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Encyclopedia > List of German Kings and Emperors


The following list of German Kings and Emperors is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. These are lists of incumbents, i. ...

Contents


Notes

The relationship between the title of "king" and "emperor" in the area that is today called Germany is just as complicated as the history and the structure of the Holy Roman Empire itself. The following remarks may or may not clarify things a little (for details, refer to the Holy Roman Empire article): This page is about the Germanic empire. ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ...

  1. The Holy Roman Empire (although only titled as such much later) started out as the eastern section of the Frankish kingdom, which was split by the Treaty of Verdun in 843 (while the western section eventually became France). The rulers of the eastern area thus called themselves rex Francorum, king of the Franks, and later just rex. A reference to the "Germans", indicating the emergence of a German nation of some sort, did not appear until the 11th century, when the pope referred to his enemy Henry IV as rex teutonicorum, king of the teutons, in order to brand him as a foreigner. The kings reacted by consistently using the title rex romanorum, king of the Romans, to emphasize their universal rule even before becoming Emperor. This title remained until the end of the Empire in 1806 (but in this and related entries, the kings are called kings of Germany, for clarity's sake.)
  2. The kingdom was never entirely hereditary; instead, ancestry was only one of the factors that determined the succession of kings. The king was formally elected by the leading nobilty in the realm, continuing the Frankish tradition. Gradually the election became the privilege of a group of princes called Electors and the Golden Bull of 1356 formally defined election proceedings.
  3. In the Middle Ages, the King did not assume the title "Emperor" (since 982 the full title was Imperator Augustus Romanorum, August Emperor of the Romans.) until crowned by the Pope. He also had to be crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, after which he assumed the title of rex italicum, king of Italy. After this he would ride on to Rome and be crowned Emperor by the Pope.
  4. In 1508 Maximilian I was the first king who announced that henceforth he would use the title of "Emperor-Elect", after his attempt to march to [[Rome] and be crowned by the Pope had failed. His successor, Charles V, was the last emperor to be crowned by the Pope. From Ferdinand I onwards, all Emperors were merely "Emperors-Elect", although they were normally referred to as "the Emperor." At the same time, chosen successors of the Habsburg emperors were called "King of the Romans", if elected during their father's lifetime.

The Franks were one of several west Germanic tribes who entered the late Roman Empire from Frisia as foederati and established a lasting realm in an area that covers most of modern-day France and the region of Franconia in Germany, forming the historic kernel of both these two modern... In the Treaty of Verdun of 843 the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious divided his territories, the Carolingian Empire, into three kingdoms. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... HEINRIC·IMP, Emperor Henry Henry IV (November 11, 1050 – August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Emperor from 1084, until his abdication in 1105. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (see Diet of Nuremberg) that fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, an important aspect of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Events Greenland founded by Erik the Red ; first contact of Europeans with North America Births Emma of Normandy Atisha the Bengali Buddhist Saint Deaths Categories: 982 ... The Iron Crown of Lombardy is both a reliquary and one of the most ancient royal insignia of Europe. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1... Events February - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor attacks Venice June 6 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three year truce and cede several territories to Venice December 10 - League of Cambrai formed as an alliance against Venice between... Emperor Maximilian I Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 - January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor Life and reign in the Habsburg hereditary lands Maximilian was born in Vienna as the son of the Emperor Frederick III and Eleanore of Portugal. ... Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V (Spanish: Carlos V) (24 February 1500–21 September 1558) was effectively (the first) King of Spain from 1516 to 1556 (in principle, he was from 1516 king of Aragon and from 1516 guardian of his insane mother, queen of... Ferdinand I Habsburg Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (March 10, 1503 – July 27, 1564) was one of the Habsburg emperors that at various periods during his life ruled over Austria, Germany, Bohemia and Hungary. ...

Conradine Dynasty

With the death of the last Carolingian king of East Francia, Louis the Child, the East Frankish nobles elected a replacement. Conrad came from a family as old as the Carolingians, and which had established substantial connections in East Francia. The following list of Frankish Kings is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... The last true Carolingian ruler of the east Franks, Louis the Child (893-911) was the son of the Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia. ...

Conrad I (or Konrad), Duke of Franconia, King of Germany was king of the German Holy Roman Empire from 911 to 918. ...

Ottonian (Saxon) Dynasty

Henry I, the Fowler (German, Heinrich der Vogler) (876 - July 2, 936), was Duke of Saxony from 912 and king of the Germans from 919 until his death in 936. ... Arnulf I, called der Böse (the Bad) (died July 14, 937), was duke of Bavaria from 907 until his death. ... Otto I at his victory over Berengar of Friuli Grave of Otto I in Magdeburg Otto I the Great (November 23, 912 - May 7, 973), son of Henry I the Fowler, king of the Germans, and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke of Saxony, King of the Germans and arguably the... Otto II ( 955 – December 7, 983, Rome), was the third German ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ... Henry II of Germany (972 - 13 July 1024), was the fifth and last Holy Roman Emperor of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ...

Salian (Frankish) Dynasty

  • Conrad II, king 1024, emperor 1027-1039
  • Henry III, king 1039, emperor 1046-1056
  • Henry IV, king 1056, emperor 1084-1105
  • Henry V, king 1098-1125 (until 1105 under his father), emperor 1111-1125

Conrad II (c. ... Henry III (1017-1056) was a member of the Salian (sometimes Franconian) dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. ... HEINRIC·IMP, Emperor Henry Henry IV (November 11, 1050 – August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Emperor from 1084, until his abdication in 1105. ... Rudolf of Rheinfelden (also Rudolf of Swabia), died October 15, 1080, was Duke of Swabia (1057–1077) and German Antiking (1077–1080). ... Conrad (12 February 1074 - 27 July 1101 was the second son of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV. As such he was King of Germany from 1087 to 1098 and also King of Italy from 1093 to 1098. ... Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, (1081 - May 23, 1125) was the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty. ...

Supplinburger

Lothair III of Supplinburg (1075–1137), was Duke of Saxony (1106), King of Germany (1125), and Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 to 1137. ...

Staufen (or Hohenstaufen dynasty)

  • Frederick II, king 1212, emperor 1220-1250
  • Conrad IV, king 1237-1254 (until 1250 under his father)
    • Heinrich Raspe of Thuringia, anti-king 1246-1247

Hohenstaufen was a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... Conrad III (1093-1152), the first German king of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was the son of Frederick I, Duke of Swabia. ... Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen (1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (November 1165 - September 28, 1197) was king of Germany 1190-1197, and Holy Roman Emperor 1191-1197. ... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right). ... Philip of Swabia (1177-1208), German king and duke of Swabia, the rival of the emperor Otto IV, was the fifth and youngest son of the emperor Frederick I and Beatrix, daughter of Renaud III, count of Burgundy, and consequently brother of the emperor Henry VI. He entered the church... The Welfs were a Frankish dynasty so named because many of its members were named Welf. ... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right). ... This article refers to the King of the Romans Henry (VII) of the House of Hohenstaufen. ... Conrad IV (April 25, 1228 Andria, Italy - May 21, 1254), Lavello, was king of Jerusalem 1228-1254, Germany 1237-1254, and Sicily 1250-1254. ... Heinrich Raspe (1204 - February 16, 1247) became Landgraf, or count, of Thuringia (now part of modern-day Germany) in 1227; he later became king in 1246-1247 in opposition to Conrad IV. First in Thuringia, Heinrich ruled for his under-age nephew Hermann II, whom he had expelled from the...

Interregnum

Count Willem II of Holland Granting Privileges by Caesar van Everdingen (1654) William II of Holland, (February 1228-28 January 1256), was a count of Holland (1235-1256) and king of Germany (1247-1256). ... Richard (5 January 1209 - 2 April 1272) was Count of Poitou (bef. ... Alfonso X, El Sabio, or the Learned, (November 23, 1221 - April 4, 1284) was a king of Castile and León (1252 - 1284). ...

Miscellaneous Houses

  • Rudolph I (House of Habsburg), king 1273-1291
  • Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg, king 1292-1298
  • Albert I (House of Habsburg), anti-king 1298, king 1298-1308
  • Henry VII (House of of Luxemburg), king 1308, emperor 1312-1313
  • Louis IV the Bavarian (House of Wittelsbach), rival king 1314, emperor 1328-1347
  • Charles IV (House of of Luxemburg), anti-king 1346, king 1347, emperor 1355-1378
    • Günther of Schwarzburg, anti-king 1349
  • Wenceslaus of Bohemia (House of of Luxemburg), king 1378-1400
  • Ruprecht of Palatinate (House of Wittelsbach), king 1400-1410
  • Sigismund (House of of Luxemburg), king 1410, emperor 1433-1437

The brass of the tomb of Rudolph I in Speyer Rudolph I (Rudolph of Hapsburg) (May 1, 1218 - July 15, 1291) was a German king. ... Adolf of Nassau was King of the Romans 1292-1298. ... Albert I (July 1255 – May 1, 1308) was a German king, duke of Austria, and eldest son of King Rudolph I of Habsburg. ... Henry VII, (german: Heinrich; ca. ... Louis IV of Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach, born 1282, was duke of Bavaria from 1294, duke of the Palatinate from 1329 and, after 1314, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Frederick the Handsome (born 1286; died January 13, 1330), from the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria as Frederick I and King of the Romans as Frederick (III). ... Charles IV, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV ( May 14, 1316 – 29 November 1378), of the House of Luxembourg, King of the Romans (as Charles (Karl) IV, 1368 – 1378), Holy Roman Emperor (Charles IV, 1355 – 1378), King of Bohemia (Charles (Karel) I 1346 – 1378), Count of Luxemburg (1346 – 1353), Margrave... Wenceslaus (German: Wenzel; sometimes known as the Drunkard, Czech: Václav IV) of the house of Luxembourg (born February 26, 1361, died August 16, 1419) succeeded his father Charles IV as Holy Roman Emperor (ruled 1378 - 1400) and as king of Bohemia (ruled 1378 - 1419). ... Rupert of the house of Wittelsbach (1352 - 1410) succeeded his father Rupert II as Rupert III, Count Palatine of the Rhine (see Palatinate) and one of the foremost rulers in western Germany in 1398. ... Sigismund (February 14/15, 1368 - December 9, 1437) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 to 1437. ... Jobst (or Jost) of Moravia was born in 1351 as son of John Henry of Bohemia, margrave of Moravia, the brother of emperor Charles IV. Jobst was margrave of Brandenburg from 1388-1411. ...

House of Habsburg

Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Albert II Habsburg (August 10, 1397 - October 27, 1439), German ruler, king of Bohemia and Hungary, and (as Albert V) duke of Austria, was born on August 10, 1397, the son of Albert IV of Habsburg, duke of Austria. ... Detail of Aeneas Piccolomini Introduces Eleonora of Portugal to Frederick III by Pinturicchio (1454-1513) Frederick III of Habsburg (born September 21 in Innsbruck, 1415; died August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... Emperor Maximilian I Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 - January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor Life and reign in the Habsburg hereditary lands Maximilian was born in Vienna as the son of the Emperor Frederick III and Eleanore of Portugal. ... Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V (Spanish: Carlos V) (24 February 1500–21 September 1558) was effectively (the first) King of Spain from 1516 to 1556 (in principle, he was from 1516 king of Aragon and from 1516 guardian of his insane mother, queen of... Ferdinand I Habsburg Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (March 10, 1503 – July 27, 1564) was one of the Habsburg emperors that at various periods during his life ruled over Austria, Germany, Bohemia and Hungary. ... Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II Maximilian II of the Habsburg dynasty was born in 1527 at Vienna and died in 1576 in Regensburg. ... Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II Rudolf II Habsburg was an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, king of Bohemia, and king of Hungary. ... Holy Roman Emperor Matthias Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor (1612-1619) was born in Vienna on February 24, 1557 and died in Vienna on March 20, 1619. ... Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the house of Habsburg, ruled 1620-1637. ... Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... Ferdinand IV (September 8, 1633 - July 9, 1654) was King of the Romans, of Hungary, and of Bohemia. ... Leopold I Habsburg (June 9, 1640 – May 5, 1705), Holy Roman emperor, was the second son of the emperor Ferdinand III and his first wife Maria Anna, daughter of Philip III of Spain. ... Joseph I. Joseph I (July 26, 1678 – April 17, 1711), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, was the elder son of the emperor Leopold I and his third wife, Eleanora, Countess Palatine, daughter of Philip William of Neuburg, Elector Palatine. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ...

Interregnum (1740-1745)

House of Wittelsbach

He fought against Maria Theresa of Austria and also claimed tbe kingdom of Bohemia. The Wittelsbach family were the ruling dynasty of the German kingdom of Bavaria from 1180 to 1918 and of the Rhine Palatinate from 1214 until 1805; in 1815 the latter territory was incorporated into Bavaria, which had been a kingdom since 1806. ... Categories: People stubs | Holy Roman emperors | Dukes of Bavaria ... This page is about Maria Theresa of Austria (often only known as Empress Maria Theresa), ruler of the Habsburg Empire from 1740-1780. ... Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: Čechy; German: Böhmen) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ...


Habsburg-Lorraine

In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire collapsed under the military pressure from Napoleon I of France. From 1806 until the foundation of the 1871 German Empire, there was no single leader of a united German territory. Habsburg - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Francis I Francis I (December 8, 1708 – August 18, 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... This page is about Maria Theresa of Austria (often only known as Empress Maria Theresa), ruler of the Habsburg Empire from 1740-1780. ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790. ... This page is about Maria Theresa of Austria (often only known as Empress Maria Theresa), ruler of the Habsburg Empire from 1740-1780. ... Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (Vienna, May 5, 1747 – Vienna, March 1, 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand-duke of Tuscany. ... Francis II Francis I Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who may also be referred to as Francis von Habsburg or Emperor Franz I of Austria (February 12, 1768 - March 2, 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until August 6, 1806, when the Empire was disbanded. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The term German Empire (Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ...


List of emperors of the German Empire


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Complete List of Holy Roman Emperors . (12200 words)
Frederick II, 1194–1250, Holy Roman emperor (1220–50) and German king (1212–20), king of Sicily (1197–1250), and king of Jerusalem (1229–50), son of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI and of Constance, heiress of Sicily.
Charles V, 1500–1558, Holy Roman emperor (1519–58) and, as Charles I, king of Spain (1516–56); son of Philip I and Joanna of Castile, grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragón, Isabella of Castile, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Mary of Burgundy.
The election (Sept., 1745) of Francis to succeed Charles VII as emperor was recognized by Frederick in the Treaty of Dresden (Dec., 1745) with Maria Theresa.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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