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Encyclopedia > List of European Union member states by political system

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This is a list of European Union member states, their forms of government and their parliaments. The European Union is a confederation of democratic states. At a European Council Summit held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 21 June and 22 June 1993,[1] the European Union defined the Copenhagen criteria regarding the conditions a candidate country has to fulfill to be considered eligible for accession to the European Union: States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek δημοκρατία-demokratia demos, people, and kratos, rule) is a form of government in which all the citizens contribute to the decision making process. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... The European Council, informally called the European summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission. ... Copenhagen (IPA: , rhyming with pagan (the way the Danes themselves pronounce the name of the capital in English), or , with a as in spa; Danish   IPA: ) is the capital of Denmark and the countrys largest city (metropolitan population 1,211,542 (2006)), at present made up of 16 municipalities. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The Copenhagen criteria are the rules that define whether a nation is eligible to join the European Union. ... The European Union (EU) was originally created by six founding states in 1958 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952), but has grown to its current size of 25 member states. ...

   
List of European Union member states by political system
Membership criteria require that the candidate country must have achieved:
   
List of European Union member states by political system
██ European Union (all "free") ██ "free" ██ "partly free" ██ "unfree" ██ not rated
██ European Union (all "free") ██ "free" ██ "partly free" ██ "unfree" ██ not rated[3]

Consequently, all European Union member states are directly elected democracies that are considered to be "free" according to the criteria of Freedom House.[3] As of 2006, all European Union member states are representative democracies; however, they do not all have the same political system, with most of the differences arising from different historical backgrounds. Image File history File links Cquote1. ... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... A minority or subordinate group is a sociological group that does not constitute a politically dominant plurality of the total population of a given society. ... A market economy (aka free market economy and free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services takes place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system rather than by the state in a planned economy. ... A Political Union is a type of state which is composed of smaller states. ... This article covers the general information on the topic. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Image File history File links European_Union_neighbour_states_by_freedom. ... Image File history File links European_Union_neighbour_states_by_freedom. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into European Union. ... Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons or political party that they desire to see elected. ... Political freedom is the right, or the capacity, of self-determination as an expression of the individual will. ... This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ...


Many of the European Union's neighbour states are not considered to be "free" by the same criteria.[3] Most European states neighbouring the European Union are considered to be "free" or "partly free" — and improving — by Freedom House, with the notable exceptions of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus and Russia. On the other hand, almost all of the states in North Africa and Southwest Asia that neighbour the European Union are not considered to be "free", with the notable exception of Israel.[3]
This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Monarchism and republicanism

██ monarchy ██ republic
██ monarchy ██ republic
See also: Republicanism, Monarchism, and Monarchies in the European Union

At present, seven monarchies are members of the European Union: Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. All seven monarchies in the European Union are constitutional monarchies, which means that the monarch does not influence the politics of the monarch's country. Either the monarch is legally prohibited from doing so, or the monarch does not utilise the political powers vested in the office by convention. At the dawn of the 20th century, France was the only republic among the future members states of the European Union; the ascent of republicanism to the political mainstream only started at the beginning of the 20th century. Public opinion is currently strongly in favour of keeping the monarchy in the remaining seven monarchies in the European Union, and there is currently no ongoing campaign with popular support to abolish monarchy in any of them.
Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1236x1245, 94 KB)  monarchy  republic File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of European Union member states by political system Monarchies in the European Union Maps of... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1236x1245, 94 KB)  monarchy  republic File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of European Union member states by political system Monarchies in the European Union Maps of... Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on Liberty and ruled by the people. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. ... The crown of Christian IV, part of the Danish Crown Regalia. ... Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on Liberty and ruled by the people. ... Public Opinion is a book on media and democracy by Walter Lippmann. ...


Form of government

See also: Form of government

There are three types of government systems in European politics: in a presidential system, the president is the head of state and the head of government; in a semi-presidential system, the president and the prime minister share a number of competences; finally, in a parliamentary system, the president is a ceremonial figurehead who has few political competences. As with the definition of constitutional monarchies, sometimes the president does have non-ceremonial competences, but does not use them by constitutional convention; this is the case in Austria, for instance. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1236x1245, 80 KB)  presidential republic  semi-presidential republic  parliamentary republic  parliamentary constitutional monarchy File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of European Union member states by political... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1236x1245, 80 KB)  presidential republic  semi-presidential republic  parliamentary republic  parliamentary constitutional monarchy File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of European Union member states by political... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where the executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separate from the legislature, to which it is not accountable, and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government that features both a prime minister and a president who are active participants in the day to day functioning of government. ... A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A form of government is a colloquial term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state is organized in order to exert its powers over a political community [1] Note that this definition holds valid even if the government is illegitimate or if it is unsuccessful... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where the executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separate from the legislature, to which it is not accountable, and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government that features both a prime minister and a president who are active participants in the day to day functioning of government. ... A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... A figurehead is a person, usually in a political role, who may hold an important title or office yet executes little actual power. ...


By definition, constitutional monarchies are parliamentary, as there is no elected head of state who could assume non-ceremonial competences; of the eighteen republican member states of the European Union, only one is a presidential republic (Cyprus) and one is a semi-presidential republic (France).


Degree of self-governance

██ unitary state ██ devolved state ██ federacy ██ federation
██ unitary state ██ devolved state ██ federacy ██ federation
See also: Self-governance

Most of the European Union's member states are unitary states, which means that most of the competences lie with the central government and only minor or local issues are within the authority of regional governments. However, three states are federations (Austria, Belgium and Germany) of states or regions with equal competences, and six other states have either devolved certain powers to special regions or are federacies (or both): Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1236x1245, 81 KB)  unitary state  devolved state  federacy  federation File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of European Union member states by political system Category: ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1236x1245, 81 KB)  unitary state  devolved state  federacy  federation File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of European Union member states by political system Category: ... A map showing the unitary states. ... For the heavy metal band, see Devolved (band) Devolution or home rule is the granting of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... A federacy is form of government where one or several substate units enjoys considerably more independence than the majority of the substate units. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... Central government or the national government (or, in federal states, the federal government) is the government at the level of the nation state. ... Subnational entity is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy in a varying number of matters. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Most countries with a federal constitution are made up of a number of entities called states. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the heavy metal band, see Devolved (band) Devolution or home rule is the granting of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... A federacy is form of government where one or several substate units enjoys considerably more independence than the majority of the substate units. ...

Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... Motto: none Anthem: Ã…länningens sÃ¥ng Capital Mariehamn Largest city Mariehamn Swedish Government Autonomous province  - Governor Peter Lindbäck1  - Premier Roger Nordlund Autonomy    - Declared 1920   - Recognized 19212  Accession to EU January 1, 19953 Area  - Total 13,517 km² (n/a) 5,267 sq mi   - Water (%) 89 Population  - 2005 estimate... A collectivité doutre-mer (in English Overseas Community) or COM, is an administrative division of France. ... Pronunciation SOO-eye jen-ER-ihs Sui generis is a (post) Latin expression, literally meaning of its own kind/genus or unique in its characteristics. ... World map depicting Caribbean : West Indies redirects here. ... The Channel Islands are a group of islands off the coast of Normandy, France, in the English Channel. ... Crown dependencies are possessions of the British Crown, as opposed to overseas territories or colonies of the United Kingdom. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ... Motto: Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia by herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87,268 km²  17. ... Capital Vitoria-Gasteiz Official language(s) Spanish and Basque Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 14th  7,234 km²  1. ... Anthem: Els Segadors Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan, Spanish and Aranese Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 6th  32,114 km²  6. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Home Nations is a term used to refer to the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom - England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (collectively, but also as separate entities, distinct from the United Kingdom as a whole), or the nations of the British Isles (traditionally England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland). ... Motto: [citation needed] (French for God and my right)2 Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (de facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official language(s) English (de facto), Irish, Ulster Scots 3, NI Sign Language Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification... Motto: (Welsh for Wales forever) Anthem: Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff Official language(s) Welsh, English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Rhodri Morgan AM Unification    - by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 1056  Area    - Total 20,779... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ...

Houses of parliament

██ unicameral ██ bicameral
██ unicameral ██ bicameral

A further distinction is the number of chambers in the national legislature. While there had been legislatures with more than two chambers (tricameral and tetracameral ones), nowadays there are only unicameral and bicameral ones. There is no clear trend towards either model as of 2006, and there's also no real common factor which determines whether a country's legislature is unicameral or bicameral, except for the fact that federations and countries with strong regional differences or regional identities are normally bicameral to reflect the regions' interests in national bills. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1236x1245, 80 KB)  unicameral  bicameral File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of European Union member states by political system Category: ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1236x1245, 80 KB)  unicameral  bicameral File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of European Union member states by political system Category: ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The bicameral legislature of the United States is housed in a capitol building with two wings. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... Tricameralism is the practice of having three legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Tetracameralism (tetra + Latin camera, chamber) is the practice of having four legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The bicameral legislature of the United States is housed in a capitol building with two wings. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


In the member states of the European Union, if the parliament has only one chamber, it is wholly directly elected in all cases. If there are two chambers, the lower house is directly elected in all cases, while the upper house can be directly elected (as in Poland); or indirectly elected, for example, by regional legislatures (as in Austria); or non-elected, but representing certain interest groups (as in Slovenia); or non-elected as a remnant of a non-democratic political system in earlier times (as in the United Kingdom). Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons or political party that they desire to see elected. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... Indirect election is a process in which voters in an election do not actually choose between candidates for an office but rather elect persons who will then make the choice. ... An interest group (also called an advocacy group, lobbying group, pressure group (UK), or special interest) is a group, however loosely or tightly organized, doing advocacy: those determined to encourage or prevent changes in public policy without trying to be elected. ...

Listed by form of government

State Government Head of state Head of government
Flag of Austria Austria parliamentary federal republic Federal President (Bundespräsident)[4] Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler)[5]
 Belgium parliamentary federal constitutional popular monarchy King (Koning / Roi / König)[6] Prime Minister (Eerste Minister / Premier Ministre / Premierminister)[7] [8]
 Cyprus presidential unitary republic President (Πρόεδρος / Cumhurbaşkanı)[9]
 Czech Republic parliamentary unitary republic President (Prezident)[10] Prime Minister (Předseda vlády)[11]
Flag of Denmark Denmark parliamentary federate constitutional monarchy Queen (Dronning)[12] Prime Minister (Statsminister)[13]
 Estonia parliamentary unitary republic President (President)[14] Prime Minister (Peaminister)[15]
 Finland parliamentary federate republic President (Presidentti / President)[16] Prime Minister (Pääministeri / Statsminister)[17]
Flag of France France semi-presidential federate republic President (Président)[18] Prime Minister (Premier ministre)[19]
Flag of Germany Germany parliamentary federal republic Federal President (Bundespräsident)[20] Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler)[21] [22]
Flag of Greece Greece parliamentary unitary republic President (Πρόεδρος)[23] Prime Minister (Πρωθυπουργός)[24]
Flag of Hungary Hungary parliamentary unitary republic President (Köztársasági Elnök)[25] Prime Minister (Miniszterelnök)[26]
Flag of Republic of Ireland Ireland parliamentary unitary republic President (Uachtarán)[27] Taoiseach[28]
Flag of Italy Italy parliamentary unitary republic President (Presidente)[29] Prime Minister (Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri)[30] [31]
Flag of Latvia Latvia parliamentary unitary republic President (Prezidente)[32] Prime Minister (Premjerministrs)[33]
Flag of Lithuania Lithuania parliamentary unitary republic President (Prezidentas)[34] Prime Minister (Ministras Pirmininkas)[35]
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg parliamentary unitary constitutional monarchy Grand Duke (Grand-duc / Großherzog / Groussherzog)[36] [37] Prime Minister (Premier ministre / Premierminister / Premierminister)[36] [37]
 Malta parliamentary unitary republic President (President)[38] Prime Minister (Prim Ministru)[39]
Flag of Netherlands Netherlands parliamentary federate constitutional monarchy Queen (Koningin)[40] Prime Minister (Minister-president)[41]
 Poland parliamentary unitary republic President (Prezydent)[42] Prime Minister (Prezes Rady Ministrów)[43]
Flag of Portugal Portugal parliamentary unitary republic President (Presidente)[44] [45] Prime Minister (Primeiro-Ministro)[46]
 Slovakia parliamentary unitary republic President (Prezident)[47] Prime Minister (Predseda vlády)[48]
 Slovenia parliamentary unitary republic President (Predsednik)[49] Prime Minister (Predsednik vlade)[50]
Flag of Spain Spain parliamentary devolved constitutional monarchy King (Rey)[51] President of the Government (Presidente del Gobierno)[52]
Flag of Sweden Sweden parliamentary unitary constitutional monarchy King (Kung)[53] Prime Minister (Statsminister)[54]
Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom parliamentary federate and devolved constitutional monarchy Queen[55] Prime Minister[56]

Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... The Leopoldine Wing of Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna: home to the offices of the Federal President. ... The Chancellor of Austria (in German: Bundeskanzler) is the head of government in Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Popular Monarchy is a system of monarchical governance in which the monarchs title is linked with the people rather than a unitary state. ... Successive Belgian kings are 1831-1865: Léopold I (34) 1865-1909: Léopold II (44) 1909-1934: Albert I (25) 1934-1951: Léopold III (16) 1944-1950: Charles, reigned as Prince Regent 1951-1993: Baudouin I (42) Since 1993: Albert II (13) None of these were King of... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Belgium, known regionally as: Premier Ministre in French, Eerste Minister in Dutch, and Premierminister in German. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus_(bordered). ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where the executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separate from the legislature, to which it is not accountable, and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... The President of Cyprus is the countrys head of state. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic_(bordered). ... Flag of the President of the Czech Republic This is a list of presidents of the Czech Republic. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic, including the period when the republics territory was part of federative Czechoslovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... A federacy is form of government where one or several substate units enjoys considerably more independence than the majority of the substate units. ... This is a list of Danish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queen of Denmark, including Regents of the Kalmar Union. ... This is a list over the heads of government in Denmark, from the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in 1849 until present. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia_(bordered). ... The President of Estonia is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia. ... The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi Peaminister) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland_(bordered). ... The President of Finland (Suomen Tasavallan Presidentti; Republiken Finlands President) is the Head of State of Finland. ... The Prime Minister (Finnish Pääministeri, Swedish: Statsminister) is the head of government in Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government that features both a prime minister and a president who are active participants in the day to day functioning of government. ... The President of the French Republic (French: ) colloquially referred to as President of France, is Frances elected Head of State and also the ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra and Grand Master of the Légion dhonneur. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... The President of Germany (German: Bundespräsident) is Germanys head of state. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler or Bundeskanzler meaning federal chancellor). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... The flag of the President of Greece This is a list of presidents of Greece. ... The Prime Minister of Greece (Πρωθυπουργός in Greek) is the head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of the Greek cabinet. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... The first republic The 1848 revolution had particular impact on the Kingdom of Hungary. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Hungary: Prime Ministers of Hungary, 1848-1849 Count Lajos Batthyány: 17 March - 2 October 1848 Baron Ádám Récsey: 3 October - 26 November 1848 Lajos Kossuth: 26 November 1848 - 11 August 1849 Bertalan Szemere: 11 August - 13 August 1849 Prime... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... The President of Ireland (Irish: Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Taoiseach ( or [1]) — plural: Taoisigh ( or [1]) — or, more formally, An Taoiseach[2], is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet, the rough equivalent of a prime minister under the Westminster System. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... This is the list of Presidents of the Italian Republic with the title since 1948. ... The prime minister of Italy is officially the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: ). // List Kingdom of Italy Italian Republic See also List of Presidents of the Italian Republic Politics of Italy History of Italy Italian Minister of the Interior Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs Italian Minister of Defense... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... See also: Lists of office-holders Categories: Lists of office-holders | Presidents of Latvia ... The Prime Minister of Latvia is the most powerful member of the Latvian government, and presides over the Latvian cabinet. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... The following is a list of Lithuanian rulers - kings, grand dukes, governors and presidents of Lithuania or administrative units, that encompassed the territory of Lithuania during the periods of occupations. ... The Prime Minister of Lithuania is the head of the executive arm of Lithuanias government, and is chosen by the Lithuanian parliament. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... The Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg (House of Nassau-Weilburg, agnatically the House of Bourbon) consists of the extended family of the sovereign Grand Duke. ... The head of government in Luxembourg is known as the President of the Government. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta_(bordered). ... The office of the President of Malta, known in Maltese as President ta Malta, came into being on 13th December 1974, when Malta became a republic within the Commonwealth. ... The Prime Minister of Malta is the most powerful figure within the government of Malta, although the President of Malta has higher rank. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... The Netherlands have been an independent monarchy since March 16, 1815, and have been governed by members of the House of Orange-Nassau since. ... The prime minister of the Netherlands is the head of the cabinet, and, as such, coordinates the policy of the government. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_(bordered). ... Flag of the President of Poland The President of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is directly elected by the people to serve a term of five years. ... The Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland represents the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Categories: Lists of office-holders | Portugal | Presidents of Portugal ... In Portugal, the post of Prime Minister (Portuguese: Primeiro-Ministro) is the head of the countrys Government. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia_(bordered). ... Flag of the President of Slovakia This is a list of the Presidents of Slovakia. ... // Chairman/President of the Provisional Government for Slovakia (1918; within Czechoslovakia) Vavro Å robár (4 November 1918 – 14 November 1918) – ceased with the adoption of the Czechoslovak constitution Chairman of the Revolutionary Governing Council of the Slovak Soviet Republic (1919; in rebellion in eastern Slovakia) Antonín JanouÅ¡ek (20... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia_(bordered). ... Presidents of Slovenia: Milan Kučan (1990-2002) Janez Drnovšek (2002-2008) Categories: Lists of office-holders ... There have been five prime ministers of Slovenia since that country gained its independence in the breakup of Yugoslavia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... For the heavy metal band, see Devolved (band) Devolution or home rule is the granting of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... The Prime Minister, or President of the Government (Spanish: Presidente del Gobierno), of Spain is the Spanish head of government. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ... The Prime Minister or statsminister (minister of state) is the head of Government in Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article describes the British monarchy from the perspective of the United Kingdom. ... The Prime Minister is in practice the most important political office in the United Kingdom. ...

Listed by type of parliament

State Unicameral /
bicameral
Overall name of legislature
Lower house (members) Upper house (members)
Flag of Austria Austria bicameral Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung)[57]
National Council (Nationalrat)[57] (183) Federal Council (Bundesrat)[57] (62)
 Belgium bicameral[I] Federal Parliament (Federaal Parlement / Parlement Fédérale / Föderales Parlament)
Chamber of People's Representatives
(Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers /
Chambre des Représentants /
Abgeordnetenkammer)
[58] [59] (150)
Senate (Senaat / Sénat / Senat)[60] (71)[II]
 Cyprus unicameral House of Representatives (Βουλή των Αντιπροσώπων / Temsilciler Meclisi)[61] (59)
 Czech Republic bicameral Parliament (Parlament)
Chamber of Deputies (Poslanecká sněmovna)[62] (200) Senate (Senát)[63] (81)
Flag of Denmark Denmark unicameral Parliament (Folketinget)[64] (179)
 Estonia unicameral State Council (Riigikogu)[65] (101)
 Finland unicameral Parliament (Eduskunta / Riksdag)[66] (200)
Flag of France France bicameral Parliament (Parlement) / Congress (Congrès)[67]
National Assembly (Assemblée nationale)[68] (577) Senate (Sénat)[69] [70] (331)[III]
Flag of Germany Germany bicameral [IV]
Federal Diet (Bundestag)[71] (614)[V] Federal Council (Bundesrat)[72] (69)
Flag of Greece Greece unicameral Assembly of the Greeks (Βουλή των Ελλήνων)[73] (300)
Flag of Hungary Hungary unicameral National Assembly (Országgyűlés)[74] (386)
Flag of Republic of Ireland Ireland bicameral Parliament (Oireachtas)[75]
Meeting (Dáil)[75] (166) Senate (Seanad)[75] (60)
Flag of Italy Italy bicameral Parliament (Parlamento)[76] [77]
Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati)[78] (630) Senate of the Republic (Senato della Repubblica)[79] [77] (315)[VI]
Flag of Latvia Latvia unicameral Parliament (Saeima)[80] (100)
Flag of Lithuania Lithuania unicameral Parliament (Seimas)[81] (141)
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Députés / Abgeordnetenkammer / Châmber vun Députéirten)[82] [83] (60)
 Malta unicameral House of Representatives (il-Kamra tar-Raprezentanti)[84] (65)
Flag of Netherlands Netherlands bicameral States–General (Staten–Generaal)[85]
Second Chamber (Tweede Kamer)[86] (150) First Chamber (Eerste Kamer)[87] (75)
 Poland bicameral National Assembly (Zgromadzenie Narodowe)
Parliament (Sejm)[88] (460) Senate (Senat)[89] (100)
Flag of Portugal Portugal unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia da República)[90] (230)
 Slovakia unicameral National Council (Národná rada)[91] (150)
 Slovenia bicameral Parliament (Parlament)
National Assembly (Državni zbor)[92] (90) National Council (Državni svet)[93] (40)
Flag of Spain Spain bicameral General Courts (Cortes Generales)
Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados)[94] (350) Senate (Senado)[95] (259)
Flag of Sweden Sweden unicameral Diet (Riksdagen)[96] (349)
Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom bicameral Parliament[97]
House of Commons[97] (646) House of Lords[97] (713)

A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... The bicameral legislature of the United States is housed in a capitol building with two wings. ... The Federal Assembly of Austria or Österreichische Bundesversammlung is a federal-level deliberative body consisting of the members of the two houses of the Austrian parliament, the National Council and the Federal Council, in joint session. ... The National Council or Nationalrat is one of the two houses of the Federal Assembly, the bicameral federal parliament of the Federal Republic of Austria. ... The Federal Council of Austria or Bundesrat is one of the two separate councils of parliament of Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... The Belgian Federal Parliament is a bicameral parliament. ... The Belgian Chamber of Representatives (Dutch: de Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers, French: la Chambre des Représentants) is one of the two chambers of the Belgian Federal Parliament. ... The Belgian Senate (Dutch: de Senaat, French: le Sénat) is one of the two chambers of the Belgian Federal Parliament. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus_(bordered). ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosópon/Temsilciler Meclisi) is the parliament of Cyprus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic_(bordered). ... The Parliament of the Czech Republic (in Czech Parlament ÄŒeské republiky) is the legislative body of the Czech Republic. ... The Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic (in Czech Poslanecká snÄ›movna Parlamentu ÄŒeské republiky, abbr. ... The Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic (Czech: , usually referred to as Senát) is the upper chamber of the Parliament of the Czech Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... The Folketing, or Folketinget, is the name of the national parliament of Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia_(bordered). ... The Riigikogu is the legislative assembly of Estonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland_(bordered). ... The Eduskunta (in Finnish), or the Riksdag (in Swedish), is the Parliament of Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... The Parlement of France is bicameral, and consists of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate (Sénat). ... The French Congress (French: ) is the name given to the body created when both houses of the present-day French Parliament – the French National Assembly and the French Senate – reunite at the Château of Versailles to vote on revisions to the French constitution. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... The Hellenic Parliament (Greek: Βουλή των Ελλήνων; transliterated Vouli ton Ellinon; literally Council of the Greeks) is the parliament of Greece, located in Syntagma Square in Athens. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... The National Assembly of Hungary (Országgyűlés) is the national parliament of Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Dáil Chamber Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of Ireland. ... The Seanad Chamber The Seanad meets in the former picture gallery in Leinster House. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Parliament of Italy (Italian: Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of Italy. ... The Italian Chamber of Deputies (Italian: Camera dei Deputati) is the lower house of the Parliament of Italy. ... The Italian Senate (Italian: Senato della Repubblica, Senate of the Republic) is the upper house of the Parliament of Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... The Saeima Plenary Chamber The Saeima is the parliament of the Republic of Latvia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Seimas is the Lithuanian parliament. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... The Chamber of Deputies (French: Chambre des Députés) is the unicameral legislative branch of the government of Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta_(bordered). ... The Parliament of Malta, the House of Representatives (Il-Kamra tar-Raprezentanti), has 65 members, elected for a five year term in 13 5-seat constituencies with a possibility of rewarding bonus members for the popular largest party which doesnt succeed in getting absolute majority in parliament. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... The States-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ... The Tweede Kamer (second chamber) is the lower house of the Staten-Generaal, the parliament in the Netherlands. ... The Eerste Kamer (literally First Chamber in Dutch) is the Upper House or Senate of the Netherlands parliament, the States-General. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_(bordered). ... The National Assembly (Zgromadzenie Narodowe) is the name of both chambers of the Polish parliament, the Sejm and the Senate, when sitting in joint session. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... The Polish Senate The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... The Assembly of the Republic (Portuguese: Assembleia da República) is the Portuguese parliament; its building in Lisbon is referred to as Palácio de São Bento (Saint Benedicts Palace). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia_(bordered). ... The National Council of the Slovak Republic (in Slovak: Národná rada Slovenskej republiky, often just: Národná rada) (NR SR) has been the name of the parliament of Slovakia since 1993 (more precisely since 1 October 1992). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia_(bordered). ... The Slovenian Parliament (Slovenian: ) is the legislative body of Slovenia. ... The National Assembly (Državni zbor) is the assembly of the parliament of the Republic of Slovenia. ... The National Council (Slovenian: Državni svet) is the constitutional representative of social, economic, professional and local interest groups and can be considered as the upper house of the Slovenian parliament. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... The Cortes Generales (Spanish for General Courts) is the legislature of Spain. ... The Spanish Congress of Deputies (Spanish: Congreso de los Diputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spains legislative branch. ... The Spanish Senate (Spanish: Senado) is the upper house of the Cortes Generales, Spains legislative branch. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... The parliament building from outside. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...

Notes

I : Due to Belgium's complex federal structure the Brussels Regional Parliament (Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Parlement / Parlement de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale / Brüsseler Regionalparlament)[98] [99] (89, regional assembly), Flemish Parliament (Vlaams Parlement)[100] (124, regional and community assembly), the Walloon Parliament (Parlement wallon)[101] [102] (75, regional assembly), the Parliament of the French Community (Parlement de la Communauté française)[103] (94, community assembly) and the Parliament of the German-speaking Community (Parlament der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft)[104] (25, community assembly) have competences in federal legislation that affects their interests.
II : In addition to the 71 elected senators, the ruling monarch's children (or, in case there are none, her or his siblings) are also entitled to sit in the Senate after reaching the age of 18 and entitled to vote after reaching the age of 21 as senators by law (senator van rechtswege / sénateur de droit / Senator von Rechts wegen), although they do not use the right to vote by constitutional convention. There are currently three such senators.
III : The number of Senators will gradually increase to 341 in 2008 and 346 in 2011 to reflect changes in French demography.
IV : While there is a Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung) similar to the Austrian Federal Assembly, it is not simply a joint session of the Federal Diet and the Federal Council and as such not the overall name of the legislature.
V : Technically, the Federal Diet only has 598 members; the additional sixteen seats are overhang seats.
VI : In addition to the 315 elected members, there are currently six senators for life (senatore a vita); these include former Italian Presidents, who are ex officio senators for life, as well as a senators appointed by the President "for outstanding patriotic merits in the social, scientific, artistic or literary field". There can only be five appointed senators in addition to the ex officio ones at any one time.



The Kingdom of Belgium is a sovereign, independent state. ... The Council of the Region of Brussels-Capital, or Brussels Regional Parliament (French: Conseil de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale or Parlement Bruxellois, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Parlement or Brusselse Hoofdstedelijke Raad), is the Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... The Flemish Parliament (Dutch: Vlaams Parlement, and formerly called Flemish Council or Vlaamse Raad) constitutes the legislative power in Flanders, for matters which fall within the competence of Flanders, both as a geographic region and a cultural and linguistic community of Belgium. ... The Walloon Parliament, or Walloon Regional Parliament (French: Parlement wallon or Parlement régional wallon; formerly Walloon Regional Council or Conseil régional wallon), is the parliament of Wallonia, the southern region of Belgium. ... The Parliament of the French Community (Parlement de la Communauté française or PCF) is the legislative assembly of the French community of Belgium based in the Quartier Royal. ... The Parliament of the German-speaking Community (German: or PDG) is the legislative assembly of the German-speaking community of Belgium based in Eupen. ... Senators by law (Dutch: , French: , German: ) are non-elected members of the Belgian Senate. ... A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2011 (MMXI) will be a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the scientific study of human population dynamics. ... The Federal Convention (Bundesversammlung) is a special body in the institutional system of Germany, convoked only for the purpose of selecting the Bundespräsident every five years. ... The Federal Assembly of Austria or Österreichische Bundesversammlung is a federal-level deliberative body consisting of the members of the two houses of the Austrian parliament, the National Council and the Federal Council, in joint session. ... The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ... Overhang seats can arise in elections under mixed member proportional (MMP), when a party is entitled to fewer seats as a result of party votes than it has won constituencies. ... A senator for life is a member of the Italian Senate appointed by the President of the Italian Republic for outstanding merits in the social, scientific, artistic or literary field. Former Presidents of the Republic are ex officio life senators. ... The President of the Italian Republic is the head of State of Italy, and represents national unity. ... This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ...

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