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Encyclopedia > Lishenets

Lishenets (Russian: лишенец), literally translated as disenfranchised, was a person stripped of the right of voting in the Soviet Union of 19181936. Disenfranchising was a means of repression of the categories of population that were classified as "enemies of the working people". It has been suggested that ballot be merged into this article or section. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Disenfranchising refers to the removal of the ability to vote from a person or group of people. ... The term enemy of the people (Russian language: враг народа, vrag naroda) was a fluid designation under the Bolsheviks rule in regards to their real or suspected political or class opponents, sometimes including former allies. ...


The 1918 Soviet Constitution enumerated the categories of disenfranchised people: those who used hired labor, religious figures, former policemen, merchants, etc. The 1924 Soviet Constitution and subsequent decrees detailed this list further and added new categories. The first Soviet Constitution, which governed the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, described the regime that assumed power in the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. ... The 1924 Soviet Constitution legitimated the December 1922 union of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian SSR, the Belarusian SSR, and the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ...


Being disenfranchised meant much more than simply being disallowed to vote or be elected. A lishenets could not occupy any governmental position, or receive higher and technical education. He was deprived of various privileges and subsidies: employment, housing, retirement, etc. He could not be a member of kolkhozes and other kinds of cooperatives. A kolkhoz   listen? (Russian: колхо́з) was a form of collective farming in the Soviet Union that existed along with state farms or sovkhozes. ...


Members of the family whose head was lishenets were automatically disenfranchised.


During the rationing system of 1929-1930, disenfranchised were also deprived of rations. Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services: it restricts how much people are allowed to buy or consume. ...


The voting rights could be restored by local election commissions upon the proof of engagement in productive labor and of the loyalty to the Soviet power. The ultimate authorities were the Central Election Commission and Presidium of the Central Executive Committee. This article needs cleanup. ... The Presidium or Praesidium (from Latin praesidium meaning protection or defense so plural presidia or praesidia) is the name for the executive committee of various legislative and organizational bodies. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ...


The 1936 Soviet Constitution instituted universal suffrage, and the category of lishenets was eliminated. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of suffrage, or the right to vote, to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, or social status. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Lishenets (242 words)
Lishenets (Russian: лишенец), literally translated as disenfranchised, was a person stripped of the right of voting in the Soviet Union of 1918 — 1936.
He was deprived of various priviliges and subsidies: unemployment, housing, retirement, etc. They could not be members of kolkhozes and other kinds of cooperatives.
1936 Soviet Constitution instituted the universal suffrage, and the category of lishenets was eliminated.
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