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Encyclopedia > Lisbon
Lisbon
Flag of Lisbon
Municipal flag
Coat of arms of Lisbon
Municipal coat of arms
Location of Lisbon
Location  
 - Country Flag of Portugal Portugal
 - Region Lisboa
 - Subregion Grande Lisboa
 - District or A.R. Lisbon
Mayor (list) António Costa (elected)
 - Party PS
Area 84.8 km²
Population
 - Total 564,477
(2 million –
contiguous urban area)
 - Density 6,368/km²
No. of parishes 53
Coordinates 38°42'N 9°11'W
Municipal holiday Saint Anthony
June 13
Website: http://www.cm-lisboa.pt

Lisbon (Portuguese: Lisboa, IPA: [liʒ'boɐ]) is the capital and largest city of Portugal. It is also the seat of the district of Lisbon and capital of the Lisbon region. Its municipality, which matches the city proper excluding the larger continuous conurbation, has a municipal population of 564,477[1] in 84.8 km² (33 sq mi), while the Lisbon Metropolitan Area in total has around 2.8 million inhabitants, and 3.34 million people live in the broader agglomeration of Lisbon Metropolitan Region (includes cities ranging from Leiria to Setúbal).[2] Due to its economic output, standard of living, and market size, the Grande Lisboa (Greater Lisbon) subregion is considered the second most important financial and economic center of the Iberian Peninsula.[3] The Lisbon region is the wealthiest region in Portugal and it is well above the European Union's GDP per capita average - it produces 45% of the Portuguese GDP. It is also the political center of the country, as seat of government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is the name of several places in the world: Portugal: Lisbon, capital city (Lisboa in Portuguese) Lisboa (district) United States: Lisbon, Connecticut Lisbon, Florida Lisbon, Illinois Lisbon, Iowa Lisbon, Louisiana Lisbon, Maine Lisbon, Maryland Lisbon, New Hampshire Lisbon, New York Lisbon, North Dakota Lisbon, Ohio Lisbon, Wisconsin The Lisbon... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Pt-lsb1. ... Coat of Arms of the City of Lisbon Original file at: http://pt. ... Image File history File links LocalLisboa. ... This article describes the political subdivisions of Portugal: Districts, regions, metropolitan areas, urban communities, intermunicipal communities, undefined areas, autonomous regions, and former regions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Lisboa is one of the 7 NUTS II regions of Portugal. ... Map showing the location of the Grande Lisboa subregion Grande Lisboa (Greater Lisbon in English) is a Portuguese NUTS III subregion integrated in the Lisboa region. ... Lisbon (Lisboa in Portuguese) is a district of Portugal. ... This is a list of mayors of Lisbon (in Portuguese: presidente da Câmara Municipal de Lisboa, literally: President of the Municipal Council). Categories: | | ... António Costa (born 17 July 1961 in Lisbon) is a Portuguese politician and was a Member of the European Parliament for the Socialist Party; part of the Party of European Socialists. ... Political parties in Portugal lists political parties in Portugal. ... The Socialist Party (Portuguese: Partido Socialista, pron. ... A freguesia (pron. ... District or region Lisbon Mayor  - Party Carmona Rodrigues PSD Area 84. ... For others known as Saint Anthony, see Saint Anthony (disambiguation). ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Lisbon (Lisboa in Portuguese) is a district of Portugal. ... Lisboa is one of the 7 NUTS II regions of Portugal. ... Many of the municipalities of Portugal are older than the country itself. ... Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Portuguese: Área Metropolitana de Lisboa, or AML) is a territorial zone that includes 18 municipalities. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Centro  - Subregion Pinhal Litoral  - District or A.R. Leiria Mayor Isabel Damasceno Campos Costa  - Party PSD Area 564,66 km² km² Population  - Total 119,870 hab. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Península de Setúbal  - District or A.R. Setúbal Mayor Maria das Dores Meira  - Party CDU Area 171. ... Output in economics is the total value of all of the goods and services produced in an entitys economy. ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... In economics, a muppet is a theoretical model in which buyers and sellers interact to optimize certain variables such as utility or profit. ... Map showing the location of the Grande Lisboa subregion Grande Lisboa (Greater Lisbon in English) is a Portuguese NUTS III subregion integrated in the Lisboa region. ... The field of finance refers to the concepts of time, money and risk and how they are interelated. ... This article is about the human activity. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Lisboa is one of the 7 NUTS II regions of Portugal. ... Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a calculation method in national accounting (see Measures of national income and output) is defined as the total value of final goods and services produced within a countrys borders in a year, regardless of ownership. ... Categories: Lists of office-holders | Portugal | Presidents of Portugal ...


Lisbon was under Roman rule from 205 BC; Julius Caesar made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, it was captured by Moors in the 8th century. In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city for the Christians and since then it has been a major political, economic and cultural center of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed officially—by statute or in written form. Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see moor. ... The Crusaders (formerly the Canterbury Crusaders) are a New Zealand Rugby Union team based in Christchurch, New Zealand that competes in the Super 14 (formerly the Super 12). ... Alfonso I Henriques of Portugal (Guimarães, 1109, traditionally July 25, – 1185), also known as the Conqueror, was the first king of Portugal, declaring his independence from Leon_Castile, a deed often identifying the Condado Portucalense as the first nation_based state of Europe. ... Combatants Portugal Crusaders Moors Commanders Afonso I of Portugal Arnold III of Aerschot Christian of Ghistelles Henry Glanville Simon of Dover Andrew of London Saher of Archelle Unknown Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Lisbon, from July 1 to October 25 of 1147, was the military action... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Lisbon hosts two agencies of the European Union, namely, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA). The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), is also headquartered in Lisbon. The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is an agency of the European Union. ... Location: Lisbon, Portugal Formation: - Signed - Established 2002 Superseding pillar: European Communities Director: Willem de Ruiter Website: emsa. ... Headquarters Lisbon, Portugal Official language Portuguese Membership 8 (plus 2 observers) Leaders  -  Executive Secretariat Luís de Matos Monteiro da Fonseca Establishment 1996 Website http://www. ...


The present mayor of Lisbon is António Costa, elected by the Socialist Party. This is a list of mayors of Lisbon (in Portuguese: presidente da Câmara Municipal de Lisboa, literally: President of the Municipal Council). Categories: | | ... António Luís Santos da Costa, GCIH (born July 17, 1961 in Lisbon) is a Portuguese politician and current Mayor of Lisbon. ... Socialist Party is the name of several different socialist political parties around the world. ...


The municipal holiday is June 13, St. Anthony's Day. is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For others known as Saint Anthony, see Saint Anthony (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Geography and location

Historical map of Lisbon
Historical map of Lisbon

Image File history File linksMetadata Plan_von_Lissabon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Plan_von_Lissabon. ...

Location

Lisbon is situated at 38°42' north, 9°5' west, making it the westernmost capital in mainland Europe. It is located in the west of the country, on the Atlantic Ocean coast at the point where the river Tagus flows into the Atlantic Ocean. View over Tejo River from São Jorge Castle in Lisbon (June 2002). ...


The city occupies an area of 84.8 km² (33 sq mi). The city boundaries, unlike those of most major cities, are narrowly defined around the historical city perimeter. This gave rise to the existence of several administratively defined cities around Lisbon, such as Amadora, Queluz, Cacém, Odivelas, Loures, Sacavém, Almada, Barreiro, Seixal and Oeiras, which are in fact part of the metropolitan perimeter of Lisbon. Amadora is a city and municipality (Portuguese: concelho or município) in Portugal, in the northwest of the Lisbon metropolitan area. ... There are parishes that have the name Queluz: In Brazil: Queluz, São Paulo In Portugal: Queluz, a parish in the district of Sintra This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Cacém may refer to: Agualva-Cacém, a city in the municipality of Sintra, Portugal. ... CoA Odivelas (pron. ... Coat of Arms Loures is a municipality (concelho) to the north of Lisbon. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... District or region Setúbal Mayor   - Party Emília Sousa CDU Area 70. ... Coat of Arms Barreiro is a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 32. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Península de Setúbal  - District or A.R. Setúbal Mayor Alfredo Costa  - Party CDU Area 95. ... For other places with the same name, see Oeiras (disambiguation). ...


The western side of the city is mainly occupied by the Monsanto Forest Park, one of the largest urban parks in Europe with an area close to 10 square kilometres (almost 4 sq mi). A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) (symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ...


History

Main article: History of Lisbon

Neolithic era to the Roman Empire

Castle of Saint George
Castle of Saint George

During the Neolithic the region was inhabited by Iberian-related peoples, who also lived in other regions of Atlantic Europe at the time. They built religious monuments called megaliths. Dolmens and menhirs still survive in the countryside around the city. Image File history File linksMetadata Castelo_Sao_Jorge_Lisboa_2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Castelo_Sao_Jorge_Lisboa_2. ... Castle of São Jorge overlooking Lisbon. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Lady of Baza, made by Iberians The Iberians were an ancient, Pre-Indo-European people who inhabited the east and southeast of the Iberian Peninsula in prehistoric and historic times. ... Atlantic Europe is a geographical and anthropological term for the western portion of Europe which borders the Atlantic Ocean At its widest definition, it comprises Spain, France and the British Isles. ... Megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany Bronze age wedge tomb in the Burren area of Ireland For the record label, see Megalith Records. ... Poulnabrone dolmen in County Clare, Ireland For the French TV miniseries, see Dolmen (TV miniseries). ... -1...


The Indo-European Celts invaded after the first millennium BC and intermarried with the Pre-Indo-European population, giving a rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi. For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... This article is about the European people. ... (2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – 1st millennium AD – other millennia) Events The Iron Age began in Western Europe Egypt declined as a major power The Tanakh was written Buddhism was founded Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon and created the Persian Empire (6th century BC) Sparta and Athens fought the... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BCE Europe in ca. ...


Archaeological findings suggest that some Phoenician influence existed in the place since 1200 BC, leading some historians to the theory that a Phoenician trading post might have occupied the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of the Castle hill. The magnificent harbour provided by the estuary of the river Tagus made it an ideal spot for a settlement to provide foodstuffs to Phoenician ships travelling to the tin islands (modern Isles of Scilly) and Cornwall. For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... The Tagus (Latin Tagus, Spanish Tajo, Portuguese Tejo, pron. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... St Martins taken from the helicopter to Penzance View from Tresco, the second largest member of the Isles of Scilly For the area of Surrey, see Scilly Isles, Surrey. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ...


The new city might have been named Allis Ubbo or "safe harbor" in Phoenician, according to one of several theories for the origin of its name[citation needed]. Another theory is that it took its name from the pre-Roman name of the River Tagus, Lisso or Lucio.


Besides sailing to the North, the Phoenicians might also have taken advantage of a settlement at the mouth of Iberia's largest river to trade with the inland tribes for valuable metals. Other important local products were salt, salted fish, and the Lusitanian horses that were renowned in antiquity. This article is about common table salt. ... The Lusitano is a breed of horse from Portugal that closely resembles the Andalusian. ...


Recently, Phoenician remains from the eighth century BC were found beneath the Mediaeval Sé de Lisboa (Lisbon See), or main Cathedral of the modern city. Most modern historians[4], however, consider the idea of a Phoenician foundation of Lisbon as unreal, and instead believe that Lisbon was an ancient autochthonous settlement (what the Romans called an oppidum) that at most, maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, to account for the presence of Phoenician pottery and other material objects. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Santa Maria Maior de Lisboa is the Sé or cathedral of Lisbon and the oldest church in the City; it dates back to the year 306. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... Oppidum (plural oppida) is a Latin word meaning the main settlement in any administrative area of ancient Rome. ...


The Greeks knew Lisbon as Olissipo and "Olissipona", a name they thought was derived from Ulysses, though this was a folk etymology. According to an Ancient Greek myth, the hero founded the city after he left Troy, and departed to the Atlantic to escape the Greek coalition. On the other hand, the "ippo" (ipo) sufix is characteristic of several places in Iberia and can be related with a Tartessian or a later Turdetani area of influence.[5] [6] For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Tartessos (also Tartessus) was a harbor city on the south coast of the Iberian peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir river. ... The Turdetani were an ancient (Pre-Roman) people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania), living in what was to become the Roman Province of Hispania Baetica (modern Andalusia in todays Spain). ...


If all of Odysseus' travels were in the Atlantic as Cailleux[7] argued, then this could mean that Odysseus founded the city coming from the north, before trying to round Cape Malea, (which Cailleux located at Cabo de São Vicente), in a southeasterly direction, to reach his homeland of Ithaca, supposedly present Cadiz. However, the presence of Phoenicians (even if occasional) is thought to predate any Greek presence in the area. Where Troy Once Stood is a book by Iman Wilkens which argues that the city of Troy was located in England, and that Homers Iliad and Odyssey are orally transmitted epic poems of Western European origin. ... The Cabo de São Vicente (Cape St. ... Homer Where was Homers Ithaca? There have been many suggestions as to where, exactly, the Ithaca of the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer was geographically located: as many, perhaps, as the theories which once fought among themselves over whether Troy ever really existed, and if so where it was. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ...


Later on, the Greek name was corrupted in vulgar Latin to Olissipona. Some of the native gods worshiped in Lisbon were Aracus, Carneus, Bandiarbariaicus and Coniumbricenses. Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... Lusitanian (or Ancient Portuguese) Gods were later related with the Celtic and Roman invaders. ...


Roman Empire to the Moorish conquest

During the Punic wars, after the defeat of Hannibal (whose troops included members of the Conii[citation needed]) the Romans decided to deprive Carthage in its most valuable possession, Hispania (the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula). After the defeat of the Carthaginians by Scipio Africanus in Eastern Hispania, the pacification of the West was led by Consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC.[1] They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was Punici (older Poenici, from their Phoenician ancestry). ... Hannibal Barca (247 BC – c. ... Ancient map of the Golf of Cadis, showing part of the Roman Provinces of Lusitania and Betica. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS¹) (235–183 BC) was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus was a Roman politician and general of the 2nd century BC. Decimus Junius Brutus lead the Roman legions in the conquest of western Iberia after the death of Viriathus, chieftain of the Lusitanians. ...


He obtained the alliance of Olissipo which sent men to fight alongside the Legions against the Celtic tribes of the Northwest. In return, Olissipo was integrated in the Empire under the name of Felicitas Julia, a Municipium Cives Romanorum. It was granted self-rule over a territory going as far away as 50 kilometres (30 miles), exempted from taxes, and its citizens given the privileges of Roman citizenship.


It was in the newly created province of Lusitania, whose capital was Emerita Augusta. The attacks by the Lusitanians during the frequent rebellions over the next couple of centuries weakened the city, and a wall was built. In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, 120 AD Lusitania was an ancient Roman province approximately including current Portugal, except for the area between the rivers Douro and Minho (part of Hispania Tarraconensis), and part of modern day western Spain, the present autonomous communities of Extremadura... Roman Theater Mérida is the capital of the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain. ... The Lusitanians are seen as the ancestors of the Portuguese, that lived in the western area of the Iberian Peninsula. ...


During the time of Augustus the Romans built a great Theatre; the Cassian Baths underneath the current Rua da Prata; Temples to Jupiter, Diana, Cybele, Tethys and Idae Phrygiae (an uncommon cult from Asia Minor), besides temples to the Emperor; a large necropolis under Praça da Figueira; a large Forum and other buildings such as insulae (multi-storied apartment buildings) in the area between the modern Castle hill and Downtown. For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... The Diana of Versailles In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt, in literature the equivalent of the Greek goddess Artemis, though in cult she was Italic in origin. ... A fountain in Madrid depicting Cybele in her chariot drawn by lions, in the Plaza de Cibeles Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... In Greek mythology, Tethys was a Titaness and sea goddess who was both sister and wife of Oceanus. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... For the record label, see Necropolis Records. ... Praça da Figueira seen from Lisbon Castle. ... Insula is the Latin word for island. It has other meanings: A Roman building with several stories. ...


Many of these ruins were first unearthed during the middle Eighteenth century, when the recent discovery of Pompeii made Roman Archeology fashionable among Europe's upper classes. For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ...


Economically, Olissipo was known for its garum, a sort of fish sauce highly prized by the elites of the Empire and exported in Amphorae to Rome and other cities. Wine, salt and its famously fast horses were also exported. Garum is a type of fish sauce condiment popular in Ancient Roman society. ... Amphoræ on display in Bodrum Castle, Turkey An amphora is a type of ceramic vase with two handles, used for the transportation and storage of perishable goods and more rarely as containers for the ashes of the dead or as prize awards. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... This article is about common table salt. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


The city came to be very prosperous through suppression of piracy and technological advances, which allowed a boom in the trade with the newly Roman Provinces of Britannia (particularly Cornwall) and the Rhine, and through the introduction of Roman culture to the tribes living by the river Tagus in the interior of Hispania. This article is about maritime piracy. ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ...


The city was ruled by an oligarchical council dominated by two families, the Julii and the Cassiae. Petitions are recorded addressed to the Governor of the province in Emerita and to the Empreror Tiberius, such as one requesting help dealing with "sea monsters" allegedly responsible for shipwrecks. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ...

Lisbon Cathedral, built after 1147 over the remnants of the mosque of the Islamic period.
Lisbon Cathedral, built after 1147 over the remnants of the mosque of the Islamic period.

The Roman Sertorius led a large rebellion against the Dictator Sulla early in the Roman Period. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 507 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1902 × 2247 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 507 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1902 × 2247 pixel, file size: 3. ... Santa Maria Maior de Lisboa or Sé de Lisboa is the cathedral of Lisbon and the oldest church in the city. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Quintus Sertorius (died 72 BC), Roman statesman and general. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ...


Among the majority of Latin speakers lived a large minority of Greek traders and slaves. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


The city was connected by a broad road to Western Hispania's two other large cities, Bracara Augusta in the province of Tarraconensis (today's Portuguese Braga), and Emerita Augusta, the capital of Lusitania (now Mérida in Spain). Braga is a city in northwestern Portugal, in the province of Minho. ... Roman Imperial province of Hispania Tarraconensis, 120 AD Hispania Tarraconensis was a Roman province in what is known today as modern Spain. ... For other uses, see Braga (disambiguation). ... Roman Theater Mérida is the capital of the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain. ... In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, 120 AD Lusitania was an ancient Roman province approximately including current Portugal, except for the area between the rivers Douro and Minho (part of Hispania Tarraconensis), and part of modern day western Spain, the present autonomous communities of Extremadura... Mérida is the capital of the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain. ...


Olissipo, like most great cities in the Western Empire, was a centre for the dissemination of Christianity. Its first attested Bishop was St. Potamius (c. 356), and there were several martyrs killed by the pagans during the great persecutions; Maxima, Verissimus and Julia are the most significant names. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Patriarch of Lisbon is one of the few western Patriarchs in the Roman Catholic Church, an honorary title without actual authority except for the Patriarch of Rome, as Pope. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Saint Maxima of Rome was a slave and friend of Saint Ansanus of Siena. ... Look up Julia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


At the end of the Roman domain, Olissipo was one of the first Christian cities. It suffered invasions from the Sarmatian Alans and the Germanic Vandals, who controlled the region from 409 to 429. The Germanic Suebi, who established a kingdom in Gallaecia (modern Galicia and northern Portugal), with capital in Bracara Augusta (Braga), from 409 to 585, also controlled the region of Lisbon for long periods of time. Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Gallaecia or Callaecia (from Gaulish *gal-laikos smoke?-hero/warrior) was the name of a Roman province that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania (approximately the current Galicia of Spain and the north of Portugal). ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Braga (disambiguation). ...


In 585 the Suebi kingdom was included in the Germanic Visigothic kingdom of Toledo, that comprised all of the Iberian Peninsula. Lisbon was then called Ulishbona. A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ...


Moorish rule

In approximately 711 Lisbon was taken by the Moors (it was called al-ʾIšbūnah in Arabic الأشبونة), under whose rule the city flourished.[citation needed] The Moors, who were Muslims from North Africa and the Middle East, built many mosques and houses as well as a new city wall, currently named the Cerca Moura. The city kept a diverse population including Christians, Berbers, Arabs, Jews and Saqalibas. For other uses, see moor. ... Arabic redirects here. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... In the medieval Arab world, the term Saqaliba (سقالبة, sg. ...


Arabic was forced on the Christians as the official language. Mozarabic was the mother language spoken by the Christian population. Islam was the official religion practiced by the Arabs and Muladi (muwallad), the Christians could keep their religion but under Dhimmi status and were required to pay the jizyah. Arabic redirects here. ... Mozarabic was a continuum of closely related Iberian Romance dialects spoken in Muslim dominated areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the early stages of Romance languages development in Iberia. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A Muladi (pl: Muladies) is a term used to describe a sect of Moslems living in Spain with mostly Christian origins. ... Muladíes (sg. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... In Islamic law, jizyah (Arabic: جزْية) is a per capita tax required of adult males of other faiths under Muslim rule in exchange for the protection of the Muslim community. ...


The Moorish influence is still present in Alfama, the old part of Lisbon that survived the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. Many placenames are derived from Arabic; the Alfama, the oldest existing district of Lisbon, for example, is derived from the Arabic "al-hamma". Categories: Portugal geography stubs ... This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor. ... Categories: Portugal geography stubs ...

Belém Tower, built in the 1510s and a symbol of the Age of Discovery.
Belém Tower, built in the 1510s and a symbol of the Age of Discovery.

For a brief time during the Taifa period Lisbon was the center town in the Regulo Eslavo of the Taifa of Badajoz and then as an independent Taifa ruled by Abd al-Aziz ibn Sabur and Abd al-Malik ibn Sabur sons of Sabur al-Jatib(Sabur the Slav), a Slav that had been at the service of al-Hakam II before rulling the Taifa of Badajoz. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 609 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1780 × 1752 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 609 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1780 × 1752 pixel, file size: 2. ... Belém Tower Belém Tower, or Torre de Belém, is a 5-storey fortified lighthouse located in the Belém district of Lisbon, Portugal. ... See also: Age of Sail and Afro-Asiatic age of discovery For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... The Spanish and Portuguese term taifa (from Arabic: taifa, plural طوائف tawaif) in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of... The Spanish and Portuguese term taifa (from Arabic: taifa, plural طوائف tawaif) in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of... Location Badajoz, Spain location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Badajoz (Spanish) Spanish name Badajoz Founded 875 Area code 34 (Spain) + 924 (Badajoz) Website http://www. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Al-Hakam II was Caliph of Cordoba, in Al-Andalus, and son of Abd_ar_rahman III (al_Nasir). ...


In 1147, as part of the Reconquista, crusader knights led by Afonso I of Portugal, sieged and reconquered Lisbon. Lisbon was now back in Christian hands. Its inhabitants were around one hundred fifty-four thousand. For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... Afonso I, King of Portugal (English Alphonzo or Alphonse), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pron. ... Combatants Portugal Crusaders Moors Commanders Afonso I of Portugal Arnold III of Aerschot Christian of Ghistelles Henry Glanville Simon of Dover Andrew of London Saher of Archelle Unknown Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Lisbon, from July 1 to October 25 of 1147, was the military action...


The reconquest of Portugal and re-establishment of Christianity is one of the most significant events in Lisbon's history; although it is known through the chronicle Expugnatione Lyxbonensi, attributed to Osburnus, that there was a bishop in the town that was killed by the crusaders and that the population was praying to the Virgin Mary when afflicted with plague, which indicates that the Mozarab population followed the Mozarabic rite. Arabic lost its place in everyday life. Any remaining Muslim population were gradually converted to Roman Catholicism, or expelled, and the mosques were turned into churches. (Though in Portuguese historiography this was often mentioned as "turning the mosques back into churches", in fact many of the structures concerned were built as mosques to begin with[citation needed]). The Crusaders (formerly the Canterbury Crusaders) are a New Zealand Rugby Union team based in Christchurch, New Zealand that competes in the Super 14 (formerly the Super 12). ... The Mozarabs (in Spanish, mozárabes; in Portuguese, moçárabes) were Iberian Christians living under Muslim dominion, and their descendants. ... The Mozarabic rite is a form of Catholic worship within the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. ... Arabic redirects here. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ...


From the Middle Ages to the Portuguese Empire

It received its first Foral in 1179, and became the capital city of Portugal in 1255 due to its central location in the new Portuguese territory. The first Portuguese university was founded in Lisbon in 1290 by Dinis I of Portugal as Estudo Geral (General Study). The university was transferred several times to Coimbra, where it was installed definitively in the 16th century (today's University of Coimbra). Fueros is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, Forals. ... Events Königsberg was founded Births Emperor Albert I of Germany, in July Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Categories: 1255 ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Dinis of Portugal (pron. ... Studium Generale is the old name for a medieval university which was registered as an institution of international excellence by the Holy Roman Empire. ... Location    - Country  Portugal  - Region Centro  - Subregion Baixo Mondego  - District or A.R. Coimbra Mayor Carlos Encarnação  - Party PSD Area 319. ... The University of Coimbra (Portuguese: Universidade de Coimbra) is a Portuguese public university in Coimbra, Portugal. ...


During the last centuries of the Middle Ages, the city expanded substantially and became an important trading post with both northern Europe and Mediterranean cities.


Most of the Portuguese expeditions of the age of discovery left from Lisbon during the 15th to 17th centuries, including Vasco da Gama's departure to India in 1497. The 16th century marks the golden age for Lisbon. The city became the European hub of commerce with Africa, India, the Far East and, later, Brazil, exploring riches like spices, slaves, sugar, textiles and other goods. This was the time of the exuberant Manueline style, which has left its mark in two 16th century Lisbon monuments, the Belém Tower and the Jerónimos Monastery, both of which were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. See also: Age of Sail and Afro-Asiatic age of discovery For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... For other uses, see Vasco da Gama (disambiguation). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... In architecture, manueline is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and discoveries brought from the voyages of Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral. ... Belém Tower Belém Tower, or Torre de Belém, is a 5-storey fortified lighthouse located in the Belém district of Lisbon, Portugal. ... The Hieronymites Monastery (Mosteiro dos Jerónimos, pron. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...


Portugal lost its independence to Spain in 1580 after a succession crisis, and the 1640 revolt that restored the Portuguese independence took place in Lisbon (see Philip III of Portugal). In the early 18th century, gold from Brazil allowed King John V to sponsor the building of several Baroque churches and theatres in the city. Portuguese Restoration War (Portuguese: guerras da restauração) is the war between Portugal and Spain after the revolt of December 1640. ... Philip IV of Spain Philip IV (April 8, 1605 - September 17, 1665) was the king of Spain, from 1621 until his death, and king of Portugal until 1640. ... John V, King of Portugal (Portuguese João pron. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ...


1755 Lisbon earthquake

This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor.
This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor.

Prior to the 18th century, Lisbon had experienced several important earthquakes - eight in the 14th century, five in the 16th century (including the 1531 earthquake that destroyed 1,500 houses, and the 1597 earthquake when three streets vanished), and three in the 17th century. On 1 November 1755 the city was destroyed by another earthquake, which killed between 60,000 and 90,000 people and destroyed eighty-five percent of the city.[8] With an estimated population of 275,000, Lisbon was, in 1755, one of the largest cities in Europe. Among several important structures of the city, the Royal Ribeira Palace and the Royal Hospital of All Saints were lost. The event shocked the whole of Europe. Voltaire wrote a long poem, "Poême sur le désastre de Lisbonne", shortly after the quake, and mentioned it in his 1759 novel Candide (indeed, many argue that this critique of optimism was inspired by that earthquake). Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. also mentions it in his 1857 poem, The Deacon's Masterpiece, or The Wonderful One-Hoss Shay. In the town of Cascais, some 30 km west of Lisbon, the waves wrecked several boats and when the water withdrew, large stretches of sea bottom were left uncovered. In coastal areas such as Peniche, situated about 80 km north of Lisbon, many people were killed by the tsunami. In Setúbal, 30 km south of Lisbon, the water reached the first floor of buildings. The destruction was also great in the Algarve, southern Portugal, where the tsunami dismantled some coastal fortresses and, in the lower levels, razed houses. In some places the waves crested at more than 30 m. This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor. ... Image File history File links 1755_Lisbon_earthquake. ... Image File history File links 1755_Lisbon_earthquake. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor. ... 16th century drawing of the Ribeira Palace. ... 16th-century drawing of Rossio square. ... For other uses, see Voltaire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... For the Bernstein operetta based on the book, see Candide (operetta). ... “Positive Attitude” redirects here. ... Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... Location    - Country  Portugal  - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Greater Lisbon  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor António Capucho  - Party PSD/CDS-PP Area 97. ... Peniche is a city in Portugal, with approximately 10,000 inhabitants. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Península de Setúbal  - District or A.R. Setúbal Mayor Maria das Dores Meira  - Party CDU Area 171. ... Algarve NUTS II region, and the district of Faro in Portugal. ...


Almost all the coastal towns and villages of Algarve were heavily damaged, except Faro, which was protected by sandy banks. In Lagos, the waves reached the top of the city walls. For many Portuguese coastal regions, the destructive effects of the tsunami were more disastrous than those of the earthquake proper. In southwestern Spain, the tsunami caused damage to Cadiz and Huelva, and the waves penetrated the Guadalquivir River, reaching Seville. In Gibraltar, the sea rose suddenly by about two meters. In Ceuta the tsunami was strong, but in the Mediterranean Sea, it decreased rapidly. On the other hand, it caused great damage and casualties to the western coast of Morocco, from Tangier, where the waves reached the walled fortifications of the town, to Agadir, where the waters passed over the walls, killing many. Wall entrance City Hall The Hermitage of Nossa Senhora do Pé da Cruz Statue of King Afonso III Governo Civil Igreja da Sé (main church) Faros Island Faros Marina The old mercy/church and hospital in Faro Faro is both a city and a district in southern Portugal. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Algarve  - Subregion Algarve  - District or A.R. Faro Mayor Júlio Barroso  - Party PS Area 212. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Huelva is a city in southwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Huelva in the autonomous region of Andalusia. ... Guadalquivir is one of the major rivers of Spain. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Capital Ceuta City Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Tangier (disambiguation). ... Panorama of the seaside from the kasbah Agadir (Arabic: أكادير, Berber (Amazigh): ) is a city in southwest Morocco, capital of the Souss-Massa-Dra region. ...


After the 1755 earthquake, the city was rebuilt largely according to the plans of Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, the Marquis of Pombal; hence the designation of the lower town as Baixa Pombalina (Pombaline Downtown). Instead of rebuilding the medieval town, Pombal decided to demolish the remains of the earthquake and rebuild the downtown in accordance with modern urban rules. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Marquis of Pombal, or Marquês de Pombal, (13 May 1699 - 15 May 1782) was a Portuguese politician and statesman, prime minister of king Joseph I of Portugal throughout his reign. ... The Pombaline Downtown area in south Lisbon, Portugal. ...


19th and 20th centuries

In the first years of the 19th century, Portugal was invaded by the troops of Napoléon Bonaparte and Queen Maria I and Prince-Regent João (future John VI) temporarily fled to Brazil. Considerable property was pillaged by the invaders. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bonaparte as general Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... Maria I of Portugal (pron. ... John VI, King of Portugal (13 May 1767 – 26 March 1826) KG KGF (Portuguese João, pron. ...


The city felt the full force of the Portuguese liberal upheavals, beginning its tradition of cafés and theatres. In 1879 the Avenida da Liberdade was opened, replacing a previous public garden. Monument to the fallen in World War I in the Avenida da Liberdade. ...


Lisbon was the centre of the republican coup of October 5, 1910 which instated the Portuguese Republic. Previously, it was also the stage of the regicide of Carlos I of Portugal (1908). For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ... Carlos I, King of Portugal KG pron. ...


The city refounded its university in 1911 after centuries of inactivity in Lisbon, incorporating reformed former colleges and other non-university higher education schools of the city (such as the Escola Politécnica). Today there are 3 public universities in the city (University of Lisbon, Technical University of Lisbon and New University of Lisbon) and a public university institute (ISCTE) - see list of universities in Portugal. The University of Lisbon (Universidade de Lisboa) is a leading public university in Lisbon, Portugal, and is composed by eight faculties. ... The Technical University of Lisbon (UTL - Universidade Técnica de Lisboa) was created in 1930 in Lisbon, as a confederation of older schools, and comprises, nowadays, the Faculties of Veterinary Medicine; Agricultural Sciences; Economics and Business Administration; Engineering, Social and Political Sciences; Architecture; and Human Kinetics. ... The New University of Lisbon (Universidade Nova de Lisboa, pron. ... The ISCTE - Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa, in Lisbon, is a public university institute which offers courses in Management, Anthropology, Sociology, History, Economics and Psychology. ... // State-Run Universities Universidade dos Açores (Azores) Universidade do Algarve (Faro) Universidade de Aveiro (Aveiro) Universidade da Beira Interior (Covilhã) Universidade de Coimbra (Coimbra) Universidade de Évora (Évora) Universidade de Lisboa (Lisbon) Universidade da Madeira (Madeira) Universidade do Minho (Braga and Guimarães) Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Lisbon) Universidade...


During World War II Lisbon was one of the very few neutral, open European Atlantic ports, a major gateway for refugees to the U.S. and a spy nest. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In 1974, Lisbon was the central destination point of the Carnation Revolution maneuvers, the end of the Portuguese Corporative Regime (Estado Novo). The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese, Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, leftist, military-led coup détat, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, that effectively changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a liberal democracy after two years of a transitional period known as PREC... Estado Novo (Portuguese for New State; pron. ...


In 1988, a fire near the historical centre of Chiado greatly disrupted normal life in the area for about 10 years. Statue of poet António Ribeiro, the Chiado, in the Chiado Square. ...


In 1994, Lisbon was the European Capital of Culture. The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development. ...


Expo '98 was held in Lisbon. The timing was intended to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Vasco da Gama's sea voyage to India. It was considered by the Bureau of International Expositions[citation needed] the best world expo ever. Parque das Nações: exemplary modern architecture Expo 98 was a Worlds Fair held at Parque das Nações (Park of the Nations) in Lisbon, Portugal from May 22 to September 30, 1998. ... For other uses, see Vasco da Gama (disambiguation). ... The Bureau of International Expositions (or Bureau International des Expositions, which would actually translate as International Bureau of Expositions) is the organization responsible for sanctioning Worlds fairs. ...


Contemporary events

The Lisbon Agenda was a European Union agreement on measures to revitalize the EU economy, signed in Lisbon in March 2000. The Lisbon Strategy, also known as the Lisbon Agenda or Lisbon Process, is an action and development plan for the European Union. ...


Every March the city hosts the world-famous Lisbon Half Marathon, one of the most attended events of its kind in the world.[citation needed]


It regularly hosts countless other international events including various NATO, European Union and other summits. This article is about the military alliance. ...


In 2004, Portugal organised the soccer Euro cup, Luz and Alvalade stadiums held some of the games.


Rock in Rio, known for being the biggest pop-rock festival in the world with an attendance that can reach 100 000 people, was held in Lisbon twice (2004 and 2006) and will continue in the city for some years, hosting concerts of many high profile singers and bands, such as Anastacia, Metallica, Shakira, Guns N' Roses, Roger Waters, Britney Spears, Red Hot Chili Peppers and many more. Queen at Rock in Rio (1985) Rock in Rio is a series of rock festivals held in Brazil and later in Portugal. ... This article is about the singer. ... Metallica is a Grammy Award-winning American heavy metal/thrash metal band formed in 1981[1] and has become one of the most commercially successful musical acts of recent decades. ... This article is about the musician. ... Guns N Roses is an American hard rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1985. ... George Roger Waters (born 6 September 1943) is an English rock musician; singer, bassist, guitarist, songwriter, and composer. ... Britney Jean Spears (born December 2, 1981) is a Grammy Award-winning[1] American pop singer, dancer, actress, author and songwriter. ... The Red Hot Chili Peppers are an American alternative rock band formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1983. ...


In January 2006 and 2007, Lisbon was the starting city of the Dakar Rally. A Renault truck during the 2004 Dakar The Paris Dakar Rally (or simply The Dakar) is an annual professional off-road race, currently sponsored by Total S.A. and organized by the Amaury Sport Organisation. ...


On the 7 July 2007, Lisbon held the ceremony of the "New 7 Wonders Of The World" [5] election, in Luz stadium, with live transmition for millions of people all over the world. is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


On the 18 and 19 October 2007 Lisbon held the 2007 EU Summit, where agreement was reached regarding the Union governance model. The Treaty of Lisbon was signed on the 13 December 2007. is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Climate

Lisbon is one of the mildest European capitals.  Spring is cool to warm (between 6 °C and 27 °C) with plenty of sunshine and also some showers. Summer months are mostly sunny, dry and hot with temperatures between 16 °C to 37 °C. Autumn is mild and unsettled with temperatures between 8 °C and 23 °C and winters are typically rainy, windy and cool with some sunny days (temperatures between 3 °C and 18 °C), usually staying at an average of 11 °C. Snowfall is a very rare occurrence — Lisbon briefly witnessed snow on January 29, 2006 and January 28, 2007 thanks to cold waves from the Arctic that affected Europe in those days. Before 2006, no snowfall had been registered for over forty years, just some sleety days. On average, there are 3300 sunny hours per year and 100 days with rain per year. Lisbon's climate is strongly influenced by the Gulf Stream. is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ...


Demographics

The population of the city proper was 564,477 and the metropolitan area (Lisbon Metropolitan Area) was 2,800,000 according to the Instituto Nacional de Estatística[6] (National Institute of Statistics). The Lisbon Metropolitan Area coincides with two NUTS II units, Grande Lisboa (Greater Lisbon), in the northern bank of the Tagus, and Península de Setúbal (Setúbal Peninsula), to the south, which are the two subregions of Região Lisboa (Lisbon Region). The population density of the city itself is 6,658 inhabitants per square kilometer (17,244/sq mi). Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Portuguese: Área Metropolitana de Lisboa, or AML) is a territorial zone that includes 18 municipalities. ... The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative division of countries for statistical purposes. ... Map showing the location of the Grande Lisboa subregion Grande Lisboa (Greater Lisbon in English) is a Portuguese NUTS III subregion integrated in the Lisboa region. ... The Tagus (Latin Tagus, Spanish Tajo, Portuguese Tejo, pron. ... Map of the Península de Setúbal subregion The Península de Setúbal is a NUTS III subdivision of Lisbon Region (NUTS II), in Portugal. ... Lisboa is one of the 7 NUTS II regions of Portugal. ...


Like most big cities, Lisbon is surrounded by many satellite cities. It is estimated that more than one million people enter Lisbon every day from the outskirts. Cascais and Estoril are among the most interesting neighbouring towns for night life. Beautiful palaces, landscapes and historical sites can be found in Sintra and Mafra. Other major municipalities around Lisbon include Amadora, Oeiras, Odivelas, Loures, Vila Franca de Xira and, in the south bank of the Tagus river estuary, Almada, Barreiro and Seixal. Satellite cities are smaller municipalities that are adjacent to a major city which is the core of a metropolitan area. ... Location    - Country  Portugal  - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Greater Lisbon  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor António Capucho  - Party PSD/CDS-PP Area 97. ... Estoril Beach Estoril is a civil parish of the Portuguese municipality of Cascais. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Greater Lisbon  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Fernando Seara  - Party PSD-CDS-PPM-MPT Area 319. ... District Lisbon Mayor   - Party José Maria Ministro dos Santos PSD Area 291. ... Amadora is a city and municipality (Portuguese: concelho or município) in Portugal, in the northwest of the Lisbon metropolitan area. ... For other places with the same name, see Oeiras (disambiguation). ... CoA Odivelas (pron. ... Coat of Arms Loures is a municipality (concelho) to the north of Lisbon. ... Location    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Greater Lisbon  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Maria Luz Rosinha  - Party PS Area 317. ... View over Tejo River from São Jorge Castle in Lisbon (June 2002). ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... District or region Setúbal Mayor   - Party Emília Sousa CDU Area 70. ... Coat of Arms Barreiro is a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 32. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Península de Setúbal  - District or A.R. Setúbal Mayor Alfredo Costa  - Party CDU Area 95. ...


Lisbon is ranked number 1 in the Portuguese most livable cities survey of living conditions published yearly by Expresso.[9] The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... L Espresso Espresso is a strong, flavorful coffee beverage brewed by forcing hot water through finely ground dark-roasted coffee beans. ...

Demographic evolution of Lisbon (1801 – 2004)
1801 1849 1900 1930 1960 1981 1991 2001 2004
203.999 174.668 350.919 591.939 801.155 807.937 663.394 564.657 529.485

The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Culture and sights

The heart of the city is the Baixa (Downtown) or city centre; this area of the city is being considered for UNESCO World Heritage Site status. The Baixa is organised in a grid system and a network of squares built after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, which levelled a great portion of the medieval city. The Castle of São Jorge and the Lisbon Cathedral are located on one of the seven hills of Lisbon, to the east of the Baixa. The oldest district of the city is Alfama, close to the Tagus, which has made it relatively unscathed through the various earthquakes. Augusta street in the Pombaline Downtown. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor. ... Castle of São Jorge overlooking Lisbon. ... Santa Maria Maior de Lisboa or Sé de Lisboa is the cathedral of Lisbon and the oldest church in the city. ... Categories: Portugal geography stubs ...


Other monuments include: the Castle of São Jorge, atop the tallest hill of the central city, Praça do Comércio (Commerce Square) with the beautiful façade of the Church of Nossa Senhora da Conceição Velha nearby, Rossio Square, Restauradores Square, Elevador de Santa Justa, an elevator (lift) in Gothic revival style, built around 1900 to connect the Baixa and Bairro Alto, the richly-decorated Church of São Roque, the Baroque and Neoclassical Estrela Basilica, the Manueline Jerónimos Monastery, Belém Tower, Padrão dos Descobrimentos (Monument of the Discoveries),Monastery of São Vicente de Fora and Carmo Convent. Castle of São Jorge overlooking Lisbon. ... View of the Arch linking the Commerce Square and Augusta Street. ... Main portal of the Church of Nossa Senhora da Conceição Velha. ... View of the Rossio Square from the Santa Justa Lift. ... View of Restauradores Square and Obelisk. ... Santa Justa lift, a lift in Lisbon at Santa Justa Street, built by engineer Raul Mesnier de Ponsard in 1900 and finished in 1902, its 45 meters high, has two booths allowing 24 people each, and was built so people could go from Lisbon downtown Santa Justa Street to... For other uses, see Elevator (disambiguation). ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... The Church of São Roque (Portuguese: Igreja de São Roque) is located in Lisbon and used to be the Jesuit church of the city. ... Estrela Basilica, in Lisbon, Portugal. ... Jerónimos Monastery exterior The Jerónimos Monastery (Mosteiro dos Jerónimos) is located in the Belém district of Lisbon, Portugal. ... Belém Tower Belém Tower, or Torre de Belém, is a 5-storey fortified lighthouse located in the Belém district of Lisbon, Portugal. ... Padrão dos Descobrimentos The Padrão dos Descobrimentos (Monument to the Discoveries) is a 52m high slab of concrete, located next to the River Tagus in the Belém district of Lisbon, Portugal. ... The Church or Monastery of São Vicente de Fora — meaning of St. ... Ruins of the nave of the church of the Carmo Convent. ...


The city of Lisbon is rich in architecture; Romanesque, Gothic, Manueline, Baroque, Traditional Portuguese, Modern and Post-Modern constructions can be found all over the city. The city is also crossed by great boulevards and monuments along these main thoroughfares, particularly in the upper districts; notable among these are the Avenida da Liberdade (Liberty Avenue), Avenida Fontes Pereira de Melo, Avenida Almirante Reis and Avenida da República (Republic Avenue). South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... In architecture, manueline is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and discoveries brought from the voyages of Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Monument to the fallen in World War I in the Avenida da Liberdade. ...


The most famous museums in Lisbon are the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga (National Museum of Ancient Art), the Museu do Azulejo (Museum of Portuguese-style Tile Mosaics), the Museu Calouste Gulbenkian (Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, containing varied collections of ancient and modern art), the Lisbon Oceanarium (Oceanário de Lisboa, the largest in Europe), the Museu Nacional do Traje e da Moda (National Museum of Costume and Fashion), the Berardo Collection Museum (Modern Art) at the Belém Cultural Center, the Museu Nacional dos Coches (National Coach Museum, containing the largest collection of royal coaches in the world) and the Museu da Farmácia (Pharmacy Museum). The Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga (MNAA, National Museum of Ancient Art) of Lisbon is the most important art museum in Portugal and one of the most important European museums. ... Mission, or barrel, roof tiles A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, porcelain, metal or even glass. ... Museu Calouste Gulbenkian is a museum in Lisbon, Portugal, containing an impressive collection of ancient (and some modern) art. ... The Oceanarium in the Park of Nations. ... The Museu Nacional do Traje e da Moda is located in Lisbon, Portugal. ... Belém Cultural Center, Lisbon The Belém Cultural Center (CCB - Centro Cultural de Belém), located in the Belém quarter of Lisbon, is the largest building with cultural facilities in Portugal. ... Façade of the museum. ...


Lisbon's opera house, the Teatro Nacional de São Carlos, hosts a relatively active cultural agenda, mainly in autumn and winter. Other important theatres and musical houses are the Centro Cultural de Belém, the Teatro Nacional D. Maria II and the Gulbenkian Foundation. Main façade of the Teatro. ... Belém Cultural Center, Lisbon The Belém Cultural Center (CCB - Centro Cultural de Belém), located in the Belém quarter of Lisbon, is the largest building with cultural facilities in Portugal. ... Main façade of the Teatro Nacional D. Maria II. Portico of the Teatro Nacional D. Maria II. The National Theatre D. Maria II () is a theatre in Lisbon, Portugal. ... The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation (Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian) is a Portuguese private institution of public utility whose statutory aims are in the fields of arts, charity, education and science. ...

Partial view of Lisbon, viewed from Cacilhas.
Partial view of Lisbon, viewed from Cacilhas.

The monument to Christ the King (Cristo Rei) stands on the left side of the river, in Almada. With open arms, overlooking the whole city, it resembles the Corcovado monument in Rio de Janeiro, and was built after World War II, as thanks for Portugal's being spared the horrors and destruction of the war. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x300, 85 KB) Summary Lisbon viewed from Cacilhas. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x300, 85 KB) Summary Lisbon viewed from Cacilhas. ... District or region Setúbal Mayor   - Party Emília Sousa CDU Area 70. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Every June there are 5 days of popular street celebrations in memory of a saint born in Lisbon – Anthony of Lisbon (or Santo António). Saint Anthony, also known as Saint Anthony of Padua, was a wealthy Portuguese bohemian who was canonised and made Doctor of the Church after a life preaching to the poor, simpler people. Although Lisbon’s patron saint is Saint Vincent, whose remains are in the Lisbon Cathedral, there are no festivities associated with him. Saint Anthony of Padua Saint Anthony of Padua, also venerated as Anthony of Lisbon, particularly in Portugal (August 15, 1195 - June 13, 1231) is a Catholic saint born in Lisbon as Fernando de Bulhões, to a wealthy family. ... This article discusses the process of declaring saints. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... Santa Maria Maior de Lisboa or Sé de Lisboa is the cathedral of Lisbon and the oldest church in the city. ...


Parque Eduardo VII is the second largest park of the city after Parque Florestal de Monsanto, prolonging the main avenue (Avenida da Liberdade). Originaly named Parque da Liberdade, was after renamed Park Edward VII of England who visited Lisbon in 1903, it includes a large variety of plants in a winter garden (Estufa Fria). Monument to the fallen in World War I in the Avenida da Liberdade. ...


Lisbon is home every year to the Lisbon Gay & Lesbian Film Festival.[10] The Lisbon Gay & Lesbian Film Festival is one of the most important European forums of international LGBT film/video. ...


Economy

The Lisbon region is the wealthiest region in Portugal and it is well above the European Union's GDP per capita average - it produces 45% of the Portuguese GDP. Lisbon's economy is based primarily on the tertiary sector. Most of the headquarters of multinationals operating in Portugal are concentrated in the Grande Lisboa subregion, specially in the Oeiras municipality. Lisbon Metropolitan Area is heavily industrialized, especially the south bank of the Tagus river (Rio Tejo). Lisboa is one of the 7 NUTS II regions of Portugal. ... Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a calculation method in national accounting (see Measures of national income and output) is defined as the total value of final goods and services produced within a countrys borders in a year, regardless of ownership. ... The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... Map showing the location of the Grande Lisboa subregion Grande Lisboa (Greater Lisbon in English) is a Portuguese NUTS III subregion integrated in the Lisboa region. ... For other places with the same name, see Oeiras (disambiguation). ... Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Portuguese: Área Metropolitana de Lisboa, or AML) is a territorial zone that includes 18 municipalities. ...

Lisbon's seaport by the Tagus estuary
Lisbon's seaport by the Tagus estuary

The country's chief seaport and featuring one of the largest and most sophisticated regional markets within the Iberian Peninsula, Lisbon and its heavily populated surroundings, are also developing as an important financial center and a dynamic technological hub. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1958x1469, 380 KB) Vista do Porto de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lisbon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1958x1469, 380 KB) Vista do Porto de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lisbon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the...


Lisbon has the largest and most developed mass media sector of Portugal, and is home to several related companies ranging from leading television networks and radio stations to major newspapers. Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... // A newspaper of record is a colloquial term that generally refers to a newspaper that meets at least one of two criteria: high standards of journalism, the articles of which establish a definitive record of current events, for use by future scholars, and/or compliance with the legal requirements necessary...


The Euronext Lisbon stock exchange, part of the pan-European Euronext system together with the stock exchanges of Amsterdam, Brussels and Paris, is tied with the New York Stock Exchange since 2007, forming the multinational NYSE Euronext group of stock exchanges. Euronext Lisbon is a Portuguese stock exchange headquartered in Lisbon. ... Euronext N.V. is a pan-European stock exchange based in Paris[1] and with subsidiaries in Belgium, France, Netherlands, Portugal and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... NYSE Euronext, Inc. ...


Transport

Lisbon's public transport network is extremely far-reaching and reliable and has its Metro as its main artery, connecting the city centre with the upper and eastern districts, and now reaching the suburbs. Ambitious expansion projects will increase the network by almost one third, connecting the airport, and the northern and western districts. Bus, funicular and tram services have been supplied by the Companhia de Carris de Ferro de Lisboa (Carris), for over a century. The Lisbon Metro is the metro (subway) system that provides Lisbon, Portugal with mass-transit services. ... Many antique Carris trams still operate in Lisbon Carris (Companhia de Carris de Ferro de Lisboa) is a public transportation company in Lisbon, Portugal. ...


A traditional public transport in Lisbon is the tram. Originally introduced in the 19th century, the trams were originally imported from the U.S. and called americanos. The original trams can still be seen in the Museu da Carris (the Public Transport Museum) (Carris) This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


There are other commuter bus services from the city: Vimeca ([7]), Rodoviaria de Lisboa ([8]), Transportes Sul do Tejo ([9]), Boa Viagem ([10]), Barraqueiro ([11]) are the main ones, operating from different terminals in the city.


There are four commuter train lines departing from Lisbon: the Cascais, Sintra and Azambuja lines as well as a fourth line to Setúbal crossing the Tagus river over the 25 de Abril Bridge. The major railway stations are Santa Apolónia, Rossio, Gare do Oriente and Cais do Sodré. Location    - Country  Portugal  - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Greater Lisbon  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor António Capucho  - Party PSD/CDS-PP Area 97. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Greater Lisbon  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Fernando Seara  - Party PSD-CDS-PPM-MPT Area 319. ... Location    - Country Portugal  - Region Alentejo  - Subregion Lezíria do Tejo  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Joaquim Ramos  - Party PS Area 262. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Península de Setúbal  - District or A.R. Setúbal Mayor Maria das Dores Meira  - Party CDU Area 171. ... The Tagus (Latin Tagus, Spanish Tajo, Portuguese Tejo, pron. ... The Tagus River Bridge or 25th of April Bridge (Ponte 25 de Abril) in Lisbon, Portugal, was built by the American Bridge Company and completed in 1966, after four years of construction, for $32 million. ... Gare do Oriente is one of the main transport hubs in Lisbon, Portugal. ...


The city does not offer a light rail service (tram line 15, although running with new and faster trams does not fall onto this category), but there are plans to build some lines with this service around the city (but not into the city itself). This article is about light rail systems in general. ...


The city is connected to the far side of the Tagus by two important bridges:

Another way of crossing the river is by taking the ferry. The main company is Transtejo ([12]), which operates from different points in the city to Cacilhas, Seixal, Montijo, Porto Brandão and Trafaria and the other company is Soflusa ([13]), operating one only line to Barreiro. The Tagus River Bridge or 25th of April Bridge (Ponte 25 de Abril) in Lisbon, Portugal, was built by the American Bridge Company and completed in 1966, after four years of construction, for $32 million. ... António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE, GCSE, pron. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese, Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, leftist, military-led coup détat, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, that effectively changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a liberal democracy after two years of a transitional period known as PREC... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been created since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. ... The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening into the San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Vasco da Gama Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the Tagus River near Lisbon, Portugal. ... Municipality Almada Area 0. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Península de Setúbal  - District or A.R. Setúbal Mayor Alfredo Costa  - Party CDU Area 95. ... Coat of Arms Montijo (pron. ... Municipality Almada Area 5. ... Coat of Arms Barreiro is a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 32. ...


Lisbon is connected to its suburbs and the rest of Portugal by an extensive motorway network. There are three circular motorways around the city; the 2ª Circular, the CRIL and the CREL.


The Portela Airport is located within the city limits. TAP and Portugalia have their hubs here and the flights available are mostly to Europe, Africa and America. Portela Airport (Portuguese: Aeroporto da Portela or Aeroporto da Portela de Sacavém) (IATA: LIS, ICAO: LPPT) is located inside the city of Lisbon, capital of Portugal, although it takes its name from the neighbouring parish (freguesia) of Portela, also known as Portela de Sacavém). ... Look up tap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Portugália is a Portuguese airline. ...


Education in Lisbon

The city has several private and public secondary schools, primary schools as well as kindergartens. In Greater Lisbon area there are also international schools such as Saint Julian's School, the Carlucci American International School of Lisbon, St Dominic's International School, Deutsche Schule Lissabon, and Lycée Francais Charles Lepierre. High School also refers to the highest form of classical riding, High School Dressage. ... A primary school in ÄŒeský Těšín, Czech Republic. ... For other uses, see Kindergarten (disambiguation). ... Saint Julians is a private English language school in Carcavelos, Portugal, 19 minutes by train from Lisbon. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Thank you for experimenting with Wikipedia. ...


There are 4 major public universities in Lisbon: the University of Lisbon (founded in 1911 it is Lisbon's oldest higher education institution in continuous operation), the Technical University of Lisbon, the New University of Lisbon and the ISCTE, providing degrees in all academic disciplines. There is also a state-run polytechnic institute, the Polytechnical Institute of Lisbon. A public university is an institution of higher education that is funded by public means through a national or regional government. ... The University of Lisbon (Universidade de Lisboa) is a leading public university in Lisbon, Portugal, and is composed by eight faculties. ... The Technical University of Lisbon (UTL - Universidade Técnica de Lisboa) was created in 1930 in Lisbon, as a confederation of older schools, and comprises, nowadays, the Faculties of Veterinary Medicine; Agricultural Sciences; Economics and Business Administration; Engineering, Social and Political Sciences; Architecture; and Human Kinetics. ... The New University of Lisbon (Universidade Nova de Lisboa, pron. ... The ISCTE - Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa, in Lisbon, is a public university institute which offers courses in Management, Anthropology, Sociology, History, Economics and Psychology. ... The term polytechnic, from the Greek πολύ polú meaning many and τεχνικός tekhnikós meaning arts, is commonly used in many countries to describe an institution that delivers vocational or technical education and training, other countries do not use the term and use alternative terminology. ... Lisbon Polytechnic (Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa) is one of the biggest polythecnics in Portugal. ...


Major private institutions of higher education include the Portuguese Catholic University, as well as the Moderna University, the Lusíada University, the Universidade Lusófona, the Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada and the Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa. The Catholic University of Portugal (UCP – Universidade Católica Portuguesa, pron. ... Moderna University (Universidade Moderna) is a Portuguese private university headquartered in Lisbon, with departments in Setúbal, Porto and Beja. ... The Lusíada University (Universidade Lusíada, pron. ... Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias (Lusophone University of Humanities and Tecnologies) is a portuguese private university, and the main institution of Grupo Lusófona, which administers other universities and colleges in Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique. ... Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa (UAL; Autonomous University of Lisbon) is a private university located in Lisbon, the capital of Portugal. ...


Sports

The Lisbon sports clubs Sport Lisboa e Benfica (commonly "Benfica") and Sporting Clube de Portugal (commonly "Sporting"), have many sports teams in the highest Portuguese divisions and European competitions. Belenenses, another important club with a great tradition in Portuguese sport, is also from the Portuguese capital. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sport Lisboa e Benfica (commonly referred to as simply SL Benfica, Benfica or Benfica Lisbon) is a football club based in Lisbon, Portugal. ... Sporting Clube de Portugal (pron. ... Clube de Futebol «Os Belenenses» is one of the most important and historical Portuguese sports club. ...


Football is the most popular sport in Lisbon. Major football clubs include SL Benfica, with its home 65,000 seat stadium the UEFA 5-Star Stadium Estádio da Luz (named after the area in which the stadium is situated (Luz) and not, as is popularly believed, 'Stadium of Light'). Benfica has won the UEFA Champions League twice and has appeared in the final seven times. Sporting Clube de Portugal is the other major football team from the city, also having a UEFA 5-Star stadium, 52,000 seat Estádio José de Alvalade stadium. It has won the UEFA Cup Winners Cup once and was the UEFA Cup finalist in the 2004-05 season. Former players from this team include Luís Figo and Cristiano Ronaldo. Belenenses is the third most important football team in the city, having Estádio do Restelo as its home stadium in the Belém neighbourhood of Lisbon. Belenenses holds the distinction of being the first club, other than perennial winners Sporting, Benfica and Porto, to win the Portuguese League, taking the trophy in the 1945-46 season. Soccer redirects here. ... Benfica redirects here. ... The UEFA Stadia List is a ranking of football stadia compiled by UEFAs Stadia and Security Committee. ... The emblem of Benfica at the entrance to the stadium The Estádio da Luz (pron. ... European Cup redirects here. ... Sporting Clube de Portugal (pron. ... Estádio José Alvalade Estádio José Alvalade is a football stadium in Lisbon, home of Sporting Lisbon, one of Portugals biggest clubs. ... The Cup Winners Cup was a football club competition between the winners of the European domestic cup competitions. ... For the current season, see UEFA Cup 2007-08. ... Luís Filipe Madeira Caeiro Figo, (born November 4, 1972 in Lisbon, Portugal) is a professional Portuguese footballer. ... Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro, OIH (pron. ... Clube de Futebol «Os Belenenses» is one of the most important and historical Portuguese sports club. ... Estadio do Restelo is a multi-use stadium in Lisbon, Portugal. ... Belém (or Santa Maria de Belém, pron. ... FC Porto emblem (Larger version) Futebol Clube do Porto (short: FC Porto, FCP) is a Portuguese sports club, best known for its football section. ...


Other sports, such as indoor football, handball, basketball and roller hockey are also popular. Indoor football is a variation of American football with rules modified to make it suitable for play within ice hockey arenas. ... Handball is the name of several different sports: Team handball, or Olympic/European Handball is a game somewhat similar to association football, but the ball is played with the hand, not the foot. ... This article is about the sport. ... Roller Hockey is a form of hockey played on a dry surface using skates with wheels. ...


There are many other sport facilities in Lisbon, ranging from athletics to sailing to golf to mountain-biking. A womens 400 m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track in the Helsinki Olympic Stadium in Finland. ... For either of the songs named Sailing, see Sailing (song). ... This article is about the sport. ... Mountain biker riding in the Arizona desert. ...


Tourist attractions

Belém

Main article: Belém

Along the Rio Tejo (Tagus River), is the historic neighborhood of Belém. Its prime attraction is the grand Mosteiro dos Jeronimos. Construction started in 1501, and took 70 years to complete. During its construction, the monastery cost an equivalent of 70 kg (154 lb) of gold each year. Most of the construction costs were financed through the spice trade. It is a prime example of what is called Manueline architecture, with inspiration brought back from the explorations, as well as being influenced by the Gothic and Renaissance periods. Nearby is the Belem Tower. Belém (or Santa Maria de Belém, pron. ... Belém Tower at the banks of the Tagus river. ...


Bairro Alto

Main article: Bairro Alto

Bairro Alto (literally upper quarter in Portuguese) is an area of central Lisbon. It functions as a residential, shopping and entertainment district. Today, the Bairro Alto is the heart of Lisbon's youth and of the Portuguese capital's nightlife. Lisbon's Punk, Gay, Metal, Goth, Hip Hop and Reggae scenes, all have the Bairro as their home, due to the number of clubs and bars dedicated to each of them. The fado, Portugal's national song, still survives in the new Lisbon's nightlife. The crowd is a mix of local and tourist, straight and gay, and almost anything else imagined. Bairro Alto (literally upper quarter in Portuguese) is an area of central Lisbon, Portugal. ... The punk subculture is a subculture that is based around punk rock. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... This article is about metallic materials. ... This article is about the subculture. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Fado (translated as destiny or fate) is a music genre which can be traced from the 1820s in Portugal, but probably with much earlier origins. ...


Gare do Oriente

Main article: Gare do Oriente
Gare do Oriente

Gare do Oriente (Orient Station) is one of the main transportation hubs of Lisbon, for trains, metro, buses and taxis. Its glass and steel columns are reminiscent of palms, making the whole structure fascinating to look at (especially in sunlight or when illuminated at night). It was designed by the architect Santiago Calatrava from Valencia (Spain). Cross through the shopping mall just across the street and you're in Parque das Nações (Park of the Nations), site of the 1998 World Expo. Gare do Oriente is one of the main transport hubs in Lisbon, Portugal. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 356 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 569 pixel, file size: 1,008 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Created by: Katemina Upload by: User:Rei-artur Foto: Flickr File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 356 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 569 pixel, file size: 1,008 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Created by: Katemina Upload by: User:Rei-artur Foto: Flickr File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Santiago Calatrava Valls (born July 28, 1951) is an internationally recognized and award-winning Spanish architect and structural engineer whose principal office is in Zurich, Switzerland. ...


Lisbon Trams and Funiculars

Transportation in Lisbon is more charming than in most cities. Much is owed to its geography; much of Lisbon has been built on its seven hills. No visit to Lisbon is complete without riding the 1930s trams. The greatest attractions, though, are the funiculars, of which there are three. These are Elevador da Glória, Elevador da Bica, and Elevador da Lavra. Perhaps the most picturesque is the Elevador da Bica, which passes through a charming residential neighborhood just below Bairro Alto.[11].[12] List of cities claimed to be built on seven hills: Amman, Jordan Asunción, Paraguay Bath, England Edinburgh, Scotland Jerusalem, Israel [1] Kampala, Uganda Lisbon, Portugal Moscow, Russia Nevada City, United States Prague, Czech Republic, said to be built on seven or nine hills: Hradčany, Vítkov, (OpyÅ¡), V...


Parishes

Map of the Freguesias
Map of the Freguesias

There are 53 freguesias (civil parishes) in Lisbon: A freguesia is a secondary local administrative unit in Portugal and the former Portuguese overseas province of Macao. ... In England a civil parish (usually just parish) is the smallest area used for local government. ...

  • Ajuda (formerly Nossa Senhora da Ajuda)
  • Alcântara
  • Alto do Pina
  • Alvalade
  • Ameixoeira (formerly Funchal)
  • Anjos
  • Beato
  • Benfica
  • Campo Grande
  • Campolide
  • Carnide
  • Castelo
  • Charneca
  • Coração de Jesus (formerly Camões)
  • Encarnação
  • Graça
  • Lapa
  • Lumiar
  • Madalena
  • Mártires
  • Marvila
  • Mercês
  • Nossa Senhora de Fátima
  • Pena
  • Penha de França
  • Prazeres
  • Sacramento
  • Santa Catarina
  • Santa Engrácia (formerly Monte Pedral)
  • Santa Isabel
  • Santa Justa
  • Santa Maria de Belém
  • Olivais (formerly Santa Maria dos Olivais)
  • Santiago
  • Santo Condestável
  • Santo Estêvão
  • Santos-o-Velho
  • São Cristóvão e São Lourenço (formerly São Lourenço)
  • São Domingos de Benfica
  • São Francisco Xavier
  • São João
  • São João de Brito
  • São João de Deus
  • São Jorge de Arroios
  • São José
  • São Mamede
  • São Miguel
  • São Nicolau
  • São Paulo (formerly Marquês de Pombal)
  • São Sebastião da Pedreira
  • São Vicente de Fora (formerly Escolas Gerais)
  • Socorro

Furthermore, and more commonly referred to by its inhabitants, Lisbon is divided into historical "bairros" with no clearly defined boundaries, such as Amoreiras, Bairro Alto, Bica, Alfama, Mouraria, Avenidas Novas, Intendente, Chelas and Lapa. Ajuda is a Portuguese parish (freguesia) in the municipality (concelho) of Lisbon with 3. ... Alcântara docks Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Category:Alcântara Alcântara (pron. ... Municipality Lisbon Area 0. ... Municipality Lisbon Area 0. ... Municipality Lisbon Area 1. ... Municipality Lisbon Area 7. ... Municipality Lisbon Area 0. ... Belém (or Santa Maria de Belém, pron. ... Municipality Lisbon Area 4. ... Municipality Lisbon Area 0. ...


Prominent people born in Lisbon

Bronze statue of poet Fernando Pessoa in the Café A Brasileira, in the Chiado neighbourhood.
Bronze statue of poet Fernando Pessoa in the Café A Brasileira, in the Chiado neighbourhood.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2448x3264, 3620 KB) Summary Original Photograph taken by Nol Aders on 18th October 2005, 12:45 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Fernando Pessoa Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2448x3264, 3620 KB) Summary Original Photograph taken by Nol Aders on 18th October 2005, 12:45 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Fernando Pessoa Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Fernando Pessoa Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa (pron. ... A bronze statue of Fernando Pessoa sits permanently outside. ... Statue of poet António Ribeiro, the Chiado, in the Chiado Square. ... Saint Anthony of Padua (August 15, 1195 – June 13, 1231), also venerated (particularly in Portugal and Portuguese-speaking countries) as Saint Anthony of Lisbon (Santo António de Lisboa), is a Catholic saint who was born in Lisbon, Portugal as Fernando de Bulhões (pron. ... Pope John XXI (1215 – May 20, 1277), born Pedro Julião, a Portuguese also called Pedro Hispano (Latin, Petrus Hispanus), was Pope from 1276 until his death. ... A portrait of Francisco de Almeida in the National Museum of Ancient Art. ... Antonio Vieira (February 6, 1608 _ 1697), Portuguese Jesuit and writer, the prince of Catholic pulpit-orators of his time, was born in Lisbon. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Catherine of Braganza (November 25, 1638 – November 30, 1705) (Catherine Henrietta, Portuguese: Catarina Henriqueta de Bragança), was the queen consort of King Charles II of England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Richard William Church (April 25, 1815 - December 6, 1890), English divine, son of John Dearman Church, brother of Sir Richard Church, a merchant, was born at Lisbon, his early years being mostly spent at Florence. ... Fernando Pessoa Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa (pron. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Amália Rodrigues Amália Rodrigues, pron. ... Fado (translated as destiny or fate) is a music genre which can be traced from the 1820s in Portugal, but probably with much earlier origins. ... For other uses, see Singer (disambiguation). ... Mário Cesariny de Vasconcelos also known as Mário Cesariny (b. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... Alexandre ONeill Alexandre Manuel Vahia de Castro O’Neill de Bulhões (December 19, 1924 - August 21, 1986) was a Portuguese surrealist autodidact poet of Irish origin. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares GColTE, GCC, GColL, KE (pron. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Paula Figueiroa Rego, GCSE, pron. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... An illustrator is a graphic artist who specializes in enhancing written text by providing a visual representation that corresponds to the content of the associated text. ... Printmaking is a process for producing a work of art in ink; the work (called a print) is created indirectly, through the transfer of ink from the surface upon which the work was originally drawn or otherwise composed. ... Jorge Fernando Branco de Sampaio, GCIH, GColL (pron. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres (pron. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... José Manuel Duroso Barrão, GCC (pronounced: IPA,  ) (born in Lisbon, March 23, 1956) is a Portuguese politician and the 11th President of the European Commission. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ...

Sister cities

The following places are sister cities to Lisbon: Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm Town twinning or sister cities is a concept whereby towns or cities from geographically and politically distinct areas are paired, with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Within the context of development cooperation, Lisbon is also linked to: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The skyline of Jersey City, as seen from Lower New York Bay. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macau. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Nickname: Location in Brazil Coordinates: , Country Brazil Region State Minas Gerais Founded 1901 Incorporated (as city) December 12, 1897 Government  - Mayor Fernando da Mata Pimentel (PT) Area  - City 330. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea-Bissau. ... Bissau, estimated population 355,000 (2004), is the capital of Guinea-Bissau. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Bras lia is the capital city of Brazil and is located in the center of the country in a federal district created in the state of Goi s. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea-Bissau. ... Cacheu is a town in north western Guinea-Bissau, lying on the Cacheu River. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Angola. ... Luanda (formerly called Loanda) is the largest city and capital of Angola. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1502 Granted city status 2003 Government  - Mayor Zaini Md Nor Area  - City 303 km²  (114. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mozambique. ... Maputo is the capital of Mozambique. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cape_Verde. ... For other uses, see Praia (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Mausoleum of Mohammed V through mosque ruins NASA image of Rabat Rabat (Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ), population 1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... This article is about the city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sao_Tome_and_Principe. ... São Tomé (population 53,300 in 2003) is the capital city of São Tomé and Príncipe and is by far the nations largest town. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Portugal Portal
  • Flag of Lisbon
  • Coat of arms of Lisbon

Image File history File links Portal. ...

References

  1. ^ UMA POPULAÇÃO QUE SE URBANIZA, Uma avaliação recente - Cidades, 2004 Nuno Pires Soares, Instituto Geográfico Português (Geographic Institute of Portugal)
  2. ^ Fernando Nunes da Silva (2005), Alta Velocidade em Portugal, Desenvolvimento Regional, CENSUR, IST
  3. ^ Competitive Cities in the Global Economy
  4. ^ Mattoso, José (dir.), História de Portugal. Primeiro Volume: Antes de Portugal, Lisboa, Círculo de Leitores, 1992 - in Portuguese.
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ Pays Atlantiques décrits par Homère, Th. Cailleux, 1879, Paris.
  8. ^ Historical Depictions of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake
  9. ^ Classificação Expresso das melhores cidades portuguesas para viver em 2007, Expresso
  10. ^ Official web-site.. Lisbon Gay and Lesbian Film Festival. Retrieved on 2006-11-06.
  11. ^ [3] Information from Carris, Lisbon transportation company.
  12. ^ [4] Details of Lisbon's trams, from Luso Pages

Where Troy Once Stood is a book by Iman Wilkens which argues that the city of Troy was located in England, and that Homers Iliad and Odyssey are orally transmitted epic poems of Western European origin. ... L Espresso Espresso is a strong, flavorful coffee beverage brewed by forcing hot water through finely ground dark-roasted coffee beans. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Find more about Lisbon on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • Câmara Municipal de Lisboa - Official page of the city
  • Lisbon travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Visit Portugal: Lisbon Past and Present - Official page by the Government of Portugal
  • Associação de Turismo de Lisboa - Official site of the Lisbon Tourism Association
  • OTLIS - Official site of the Lisbon Region Transport Operators Consortium
  • Portal das Nações Official site of Parque das Nações in Lisbon

Coordinates: 38°42′N, 9°11′W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Lisbon travel guide - Wikitravel (4147 words)
Lisbon (Portuguese: Lisboa) [1] is the capital of Portugal.
Lisbon has three ring roads: The 2ª circular, which connects the A1 to the IC19; the CRIL IC17 (still incomplete), which connects the Vasco da Gama bridge with the A1 and A8; and the CREL A9, which connects the A1 with the A8, IC19, A5, and goes all the way to the Estoril coast.
Due to the relative proximity of Lisbon's airport to the city centre, it is quite easy to cycle from the airport to the centre, and could be recommended if you arrive for a cycling trip.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lisbon (2561 words)
Lisbon is along the steep slopes of the Castello de S. Jorge, which had been the stronghold of the Moors.
Lisbon began to quarter the tiara with three crowns, though without the keys, on their coat of arms is uncertain and there are no documents referring to the grant of such a
Lisbon in 1883; was named Cardinal of the Title of the Twelve Apostles, 24 March, 1884, and at present ranks as senior cardinal priest.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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