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Encyclopedia > Liquid oxygen
Liquid Oxygen In Test Tube

Liquid oxygen (also LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industry) is the liquid form of oxygen. It has a pale blue color and is strongly paramagnetic. Liquid oxygen has a density of 1.141 g/cm³ (1.141 kg/L) and is moderately cryogenic (freezing point: 50.5 K (-222.65 °C), boiling point: 90.188 K (-182.96 °C) at 101.325 kPa (760 mm Hg). In commerce, liquid oxygen is classified as an industrial gas and is widely used for industrial and medical purposes. Liquid oxygen is obtained from the oxygen found naturally in air by fractional distillation. Liquid oxygen has an expansion ratio of 860:1, and because of this, is used in commercial and military aircraft today. Image File history File links Liquid_Oxygen. ... Image File history File links Liquid_Oxygen. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Simple Illustration of a paramagnetic probe made up from miniature magnets. ... Cryogenics is a branch of physics (or engineering) that studies the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... Industrial gas is a group of gases that are commercially manufactured and sold for uses in other applications. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ... Expansion ratio is used in the context of liquefied and cryogenic substances. ...

Due to its cryogenic nature, LOX can cause the materials it touches to become extremely brittle. Liquid oxygen is also a very powerful oxidising agent: organic materials will burn rapidly and energetically in liquid oxygen. Further; if soaked in LOX some can detonate unpredictably on subsequent contact. Petrochemicals often exhibit this behavior, including asphalt. A petrochemical is any chemical derived from fossil fuel. ... Base layer of asphalt concrete in a road under construction. ...

LOX is a common liquid oxidizer propellant for spacecraft rocket applications, usually in combination with liquid hydrogen or kerosene. It was used in the very first rocket applications like the V2 missile and Redstone, R-7 Semyorka or Atlas boosters. LOX is useful in this role because it creates a high specific impulse. LOX was also used in some early ICBMs, although more modern ICBMs do not use LOX because its cryogenic properties and need for regular replenishment to replace boiloff make it harder to maintain and launch quickly. Despite this, many modern rockets do use LOX, including the main engines on the Space Shuttle. During World War II, liquid oxygen was used as an oxidizer in several Nazi Germany military rocket designs, under name A-Stoff and Sauerstoff. An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ... A remote camera captures a close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine during a test firing at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi Propulsion means to add speed or acceleration to an object, by an engine or other similar device. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Kerosene or paraffin oil (British English, not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... The Vergeltungswaffe 2 (V-2) (Reprisal weapon 2 Propaganda name given by Joseph Goebbels) , also known, in the Development Process as the A4 (Aggregat 1-4), was the first and till date has the most lethal combat record of any ballistic missile. ... First launched in 1953, the American Redstone rocket was a direct descendant of the German V-2. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 Semyorka was the worlds first intercontinental ballistic missile and was deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War from 1959 to 1968. ... Mercury Atlas 9 rocket and capsule on pad The Atlas is a venerable line of space launch vehicles built by Lockheed Martin. ... Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a way to describe the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... For the current Space Shuttle mission, see STS-117 NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

LOX also had extensive use in making oxyliquit explosives, but is rarely used now due to a high rate of accidents. An oxyliquit is an explosive material made of a mixture of liquid oxygen (LOX) with a suitable fuel, usually carbon (as lampblack) or some organic chemical (eg. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ...

Liquid nitrogen has a significantly lower boiling point, at -196 °C (77 K) than oxygen's -183 °C (90 K), and vessels containing liquid nitrogen can condense oxygen from air: when most of the nitrogen has evaporated from such a vessel there is a risk that liquid oxygen remaining can react violently with organic material. Conversely, liquid nitrogen or liquid air can be oxygen-enriched by letting it stand in open air; atmospheric oxygen dissolves in it, while nitrogen evaporates preferentially. General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Liquid air is air that has been liquified by compression and cooled to very low temperatures. ...

See also

. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Categories: Stub | 1846 births | 1915 deaths | Polish chemists | Polish mathematicians | Polish physicists ... Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski (1845 - 1888) was a Polish chemist and physicist. ... Rocket fuel is a propellant that reacts with an oxidizing agent to produce thrust in a rocket. ... Tetraoxygen, also called red oxygen (O4), is an allotrope of oxygen occuring in extremely high pressures (in order of 20 GPa). ...

External links

  • Demonstration of the paramagnetism of LOx

  Results from FactBites:
oxygen: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (5803 words)
Oxygen is a major component of air, produced by plants during photosynthesis, and is necessary for aerobic respiration in animals.
Liquid oxygen is attracted to a magnet to a sufficient extent that a bridge of liquid oxygen may be supported against its own weight between the poles of a powerful magnet, in laboratory demonstrations.
In the 19th century, oxygen was often mixed with nitrous oxide to promote an analgesic effect; a stable 50% gaseous mixture (Entonox) is commonly used in medicine today as an analgesic, and 30% oxygen with 70% nitrous oxide is the common basic anaesthetic mixture.
Liquid Oxygen (1463 words)
Oxygen is the second largest component of the atmosphere, comprising 20.8% by volume.
Oxygen is often stored as a liquid, although it is used primarily as a gas.
Oxygen may be withdrawn as a gas by passing liquid through an internal vaporizer or as a liquid under its own vapor pressure.
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