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Encyclopedia > Liquid breathing

Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which a normally air-breathing organism breathes an oxygen rich liquid (usually a perfluorocarbon), rather than breathing air. It is used for medical treatment and could some day find use in deep diving and space travel. Liquid breathing is sometimes called fluid breathing, but this is misleading because both liquids and gases are fluids. // In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are compounds derived from hydrocarbons by replacement of hydrogen atoms by fluorine atoms. ... Layers of Atmosphere (NOAA) Air redirects here. ... For other uses, see Dive. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer-Earth objects and generally anything that involves the technologies, science, and politics regarding space endeavors. ... A fluid is defined as a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress regardless of the magnitude of the applied stress. ...

Contents

Methods of application

Despite recent advances in liquid ventilation, a standard mode of application of perfluorocarbon (PFC) has not been established yet.


Total Liquid Ventilation

Although Total Liquid Ventilation (TLV) with completely liquid filled lungs is beneficial, the necessity for a liquid filled tube system that contains pumps and heater and membrane oxygenator to deliver and remove tidal volume aliquots of conditioned perfluorocarbon to the lungs is of great disadvantage. In mathematics, an aliquot part (or simply aliquot) of an integer is any of its integer divisors. ...


Partial Liquid Ventilation

In contrast, Partial Liquid Ventilation (PLV) can be applied using standard ventilators connected with gas filled standard respirator systems, delivering tidal volumes of oxygen-air mixture to perfluorocarbon filled lungs.


The influence of PLV on oxygenation, carbon dioxide removal and lung mechanics has been investigated in several animal studies using different models of lung injury. Clinical applications of PLV have been reported in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), meconium aspiration syndrome, congenital diaphragmatic hernia and Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) of neonates. PLV requires extreme respiratory care, because the ventilatory setting is determined by the perfluorocarbon filled lung. Profound expertise is mandatory to perform and maintain filling of the lung with perfluorocarbon to Functional Residual Capacity (FRC). Disruption of PLV immediately deteriorates gas exchange. Incomplete filling of the lung has been shown to be less effective than filling the lung to functional residual capacity volume. Severe adverse events affecting gas exchange and pulmonary circulation limit the use of PLV. ARDS has multiple meanings: Ards is a district in Northern Ireland ARDS is the abbreviation of Acute respiratory distress syndrome, formerly known as adult respiratory distress syndrome This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


New application modes for PFC have been developed[1].


PFC vapor

Vaporization of perfluorohexane with two anesthetic vaporizers calibrated for perfluorohexane has been shown to improve gas exchange in oleic acid induced lung injury in sheep [2]. Predominantly PFCs with high vapor pressure are suitable for vaporization. Perfluorohexane Perfluorohexane (C6F14) or tetradecafluorohexane is a perfluorocarbon. ...


Aerosol-PFC

With aerosolized perfluorooctane, significant improvement of oxygenation and pulmonary mechanics was shown in adult sheep with oleic acid-induced lung injury. In surfactant-depleted piglets, persistent improvement of gas exchange and lung mechanics was demonstrated with Aerosol-PFC [3]. The aerosol device is of decisive importance for the efficacy of PFC aerosolization, as aerosolization of PF5080 (a less purified FC77) has been shown to be ineffective using a different aerosol device in surfactant-depleted rabbits (Kelly). Partial liquid ventilation and Aerosol-PFC reduced pulmonary inflammatory response [4]. Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. ... Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ... Piglet can refer to: Look up Piglet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A juvenile pig. ... The applications mission is treatment of pulmonary diseases by aerososolized perfluorocarbon(PFC). ...


Potential uses

Diving

In diving, the pressure inside the lungs must effectively equal the pressure outside the body, otherwise the lungs collapse. Mathematically speaking, if the diver is f feet (or m meters) deep, and the air pressure at the water surface is p bar (usually p = 1, but less at high-altitude lakes such as Lake Titicaca), he must breathe fluid at a pressure of f/33+p = m/10+p bar. The bar (symbol bar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ... Lake Titicaca is the highest commercially navigable lake in the world[1], at 3,812 m (12,507 feet) above sea level. ... The bar (symbol bar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ...


Since external and internal pressures must be equal, the required gas pressure increases with depth to match the increased external water pressure, rising to around 13 bar at 400 feet (120m), and around 500 bar on the oceans' abyssal plains. These high pressures may have adverse effects on the body, especially when quickly released (as in a too-rapid return to the surface), including air emboli and nitrogen narcosis and decompression sickness (colloquially known as "the bends"). (Diving mammals, as well as free-diving humans who dive to great depths on a single breath, have little or no problem with decompression sickness despite their rapid return to the surface, since a single breath of gas does not contain enough total nitrogen to cause tissue bubbles on decompression. In very deep-diving mammals and deep free-diving humans, the lungs almost completely collapse). Abyssal plains are flat or very gently sloping areas of the deep ocean basin floor. ... In medicine, an embolism occurs when an object (the embolus, plural emboli) migrates from one part of the body (through the circulation) and cause(s) a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel in another part of the body. ... Nitrogen narcosis or inert gas narcosis is a reversible alteration in consciousness producing a state similar to alcohol intoxication in scuba divers at depth. ... Decompression sickness (DCS), the diver’s disease, the bends, or caisson disease is the name given to a variety of symptoms suffered by a person exposed to a reduction in the pressure surrounding their body. ...


One solution is a rigid articulated diving suit, but these are bulky and clumsy. A more moderate option to deal with narcosis is to breathe heliox or trimix, in which some or all of the nitrogen is replaced by helium. However, this option does not deal with the problem of bubbles and decompression sickness, because helium dissolves in tissues and causes bubbles when pressures are released, just like nitrogen does. Two divers, one wearing a 1 atmosphere diving suit and the other standard diving dress, preparing to explore the wreck of the RMS Lusitania, 1935. ... Heliox is a gas that is composed of a mixture of helium (He) and oxygen (O2). ... Trimix is a breathing gas, consisting of oxygen, helium and nitrogen, and is often used during the deep phase of dives carried out using Technical diving techniques. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... Decompression sickness (DCS), the diver’s disease, the bends, or caisson disease is the name given to a variety of symptoms suffered by a person exposed to a reduction in the pressure surrounding their body. ...


Liquid breathing provides a third option. With liquid in the lungs, the pressure within the diver's lungs could accommodate changes in the pressure of the surrounding water without the huge gas partial pressure exposures required when the lungs are filled with gas. Liquid breathing would not result in the saturation of body tissues with high pressure nitrogen or helium that occurs with the use of non-liquids, thus would reduce or remove the need for slow decompression. (This technology was dramatized in James Cameron's 1989 film The Abyss.) Decompresion has several meanings: in physics, decompression is the release of pressure and is the opposition of compression in medicine, scuba diving and aviation, decompression can refer to a sickness in scuba diving, decompression can refer to a stop, a chamber, a buoy, a trapeze, tables or a computer in... James Francis Cameron (born August 16, 1954) is a three-time Academy Award winning director, producer and screenwriter. ... The Abyss is an award-winning science fiction film from 1989, written and directed by James Cameron, starring Ed Harris, Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio, and Michael Biehn. ...


A significant problem, however, arises from the required density of the liquid and the corresponding reduction in its ability to remove CO2. All uses of liquid breathing for diving must involve total liquid ventilation (see above). Total liquid ventilation, however, has difficulty moving enough fluid to carry away CO2, because no matter how great the total pressure is, the amount of partial CO2 gas pressure available to dissolve CO2 into the breathing liquid can never be much more than the pressure at which CO2 exists in the blood (about 40 mm of mercury (Torr)).


At these pressures, most fluorocarbon liquids require about 70 mL/kg minute-ventilation volumes of liquid (about 5 L/min for a 70 kg adult) to remove enough CO2 for normal resting metabolism.[5] This is a great deal of fluid to move, particularly as it is about 1.8 times as dense as water; any activity on the diver's part which increases CO2 production would increase this figure, which is at the limits of realistic flow rates in liquid breathing.[6][7] It seems unlikely that a person would move 10 liters/min of fluorocarbon liquid without assistance from a mechanical ventilator, so "free breathing" may be unlikely.


Medical treatment

The first medical use of liquid breathing was treatment of premature babies and adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the 1990s. Liquid breathing was used in clinical trials after the development by Alliance Pharmaceuticals of the fluorochemical perfluorooctyl bromide, or perflubron for short. Useful as an emulsified blood substitute and for liquid ventilation, perflubron (under Alliance Pharmaceutical's brand name LiquiVent) is poured directly into the lungs of patients with acute respiratory failure (caused by infection, severe burns, inhalation of toxic substances, and premature birth), whose air sacs have collapsed. Once inside the lungs, perflubron enables collapsed alveoli (air sacs) to open and permits a more efficient transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or adult respiratory distress syndrome (in contrast with IRDS) is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries to the lung. ... Some important fluorocarbons. ... // Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which a normally air-breathing organism breathes an oxygen rich liquid (usually a perfluorocarbon), rather than breathing air. ... // Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which a normally air-breathing organism breathes an oxygen rich liquid (usually a perfluorocarbon), rather than breathing air. ...


Clinical trials with premature infants, children and adults were conducted. Since the safety of the procedure and the effectiveness were apparent from an early stage, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) gave the product "fast track" status (meaning an accelerated review of the product, designed to get it to the public as quickly as is safely possible) due to its life-saving potential. Clinical trials showed that using perflubron with ordinary ventilators improved outcomes as much as using high frequency oscillating ventilation (HFOV). But because perflubron was not better than HFOV, the FDA did not approve perflubron, and Alliance is no longer pursuing the partial liquid ventilation application. Whether perflubron would improve outcomes when used with HFOV remains an open question. FDA logo The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, biological medical products, blood products, medical devices, radiation-emitting devices, veterinary products, and cosmetics in the United States. ... Ambulance ventilation equipment A medical ventilator is a device designed to provide mechanical ventilation to a patient. ... The use of high frequency ventilation at low tidal volume allows the primary goals of ventilation, oxygenation and CO2 removal, to be achieved without the costs of pressure-induced lung injury. ...


In 1996 Mike Darwin and Dr. Steven B. Harris proposed using cold liquid ventilation with perfluorocarbon to quickly lower the body temperature of victims of cardiac arrest and other brain trauma to allow the brain to better recover.[8] The technology came to be called gas/liquid ventilation (GLV), and was shown able to achieve a cooling rate of 0.5 degrees Celsius per minute in large animals.[9] It has not yet been tried in humans. Michael G. Darwin (Mike Darwin) was the President of the cryonics organization Alcor Life Extension Foundation from 1983 to 1988, and Research Director until 1992. ... Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are compounds derived from hydrocarbons by replacement of hydrogen atoms by fluorine atoms. ...


Space travel

Liquid immersion provides a way to reduce the physical stress of G forces. Forces applied to fluids are distributed as omnidirectional pressures. Because liquids are (virtually) incompressible, they do not change density under high acceleration such as performed in aerial maneuvers or space travel. A person immersed in liquid of the same density as tissue has acceleration forces distributed around the body, rather than applied at a single point such as a seat or harness straps. This principle is used in a new type of G-suit called the Libelle G-suit, which allows aircraft pilots to remain conscious and functioning at more than 10 G acceleration by surrounding them with water in a rigid suit. Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... A G-suit is worn by aviators and astronauts who are subject to high levels of acceleration (G). It is designed to prevent a black-out and g-LOC (g-induced Loss Of Consciousness), due to the blood pooling in the lower part of the body when under G, thus...


Acceleration protection by liquid immersion is limited by the differential density of body tissues and immersion fluid, limiting the utility of this method to about 15 to 20 G[10] Extending acceleration protection beyond 20 G requires filling the lungs with fluid of density similar to water. An astronaut totally immersed in liquid, with liquid inside all body cavities, will feel little effect from extreme G forces because the forces on a liquid are distributed equally, and in all directions simultaneously. However effects will be felt because of density differences between different body tissues, so an upper acceleration limit still exists.


Around 1970, liquid breathing found its way into television, in alien spacesuits in the Gerry Anderson UFO series, which enabled a spaceman to withstand extreme acceleration forces. Apollo 15 space suit A spacesuit is a complex system of garments, equipment, and environmental systems designed to keep a person alive and comfortable in the harsh environment of outer space. ... Gerry Anderson (MBE), born 14 April 1929, is a British producer, director and writer, famous for his futuristic television programmes, particularly those involving specially modified marionettes, a process called Supermarionation. His first television production was the 1957 Roberta Leigh childrens series The Adventures of Twizzle. ... UFO is a British television science fiction series created by Gerry Anderson and Sylvia Anderson and produced by the Andersons and Lew Grades Century 21 Productions for Grades ITC Entertainment company. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit outside the U.S. Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. ...


Author Joe Haldeman, in his science fiction novel The Forever War, describes fluid being introduced into all 7 natural orifices in the human body, and one surgically-added connection, through which the thoracic cavity would be filled and drained. In such a situtation, the fluid in the lungs would have to be pumped in and out to provide an inspiration/expiration cycle (total liquid ventilation). Alternatively blood could be oxygenated extracorporeally while lungs remained full of passive fluid, although this is not really liquid breathing. Joseph William Haldeman is an American science fiction author. ... 1977 Orbit paperback edition. ... The thoracic cavity is the chamber of the human body (and other animal bodies) that is enclosed by the ribcage and the diaphragm. ... In intensive care medicine, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a technique of providing both cardiac and respiratory supportoxygen to patients whose heart and lungs are so severely diseased that they can no longer serve their function. ...


Liquid breathing for acceleration protection may never be practical because of the difficulty of finding a suitable breathing medium of similar density to water that is compatible with lung tissue. Perfluorocarbon fluids are twice as dense as water, hence unsuitable for this application. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are compounds derived from hydrocarbons by replacement of hydrogen atoms by fluorine atoms. ...


Acknowledgement

Taken, with permission, from: Fluid Breathing, and afterwards edited.


Fiction

  • The James Cameron film The Abyss features a character using liquid breathing to dive thousands of feet without compressing. The Abyss also has a scene with a rat actually being submerged and breathing fluorocarbon liquid in real life.
  • In the Anime series Neon Genesis Evangelion, the Eva pilots use liquid breathing when they are inside their robotic-like machines.
  • In the Anime series Wolf's Rain, Cheza was kept in a liquid breathing dome.
  • In season one, episode seventeen of Seven Days chrononaut Frank Parker used a liquid breathing suit to board a Russian submarine.

James Francis Cameron (born August 16, 1954) is a three-time Academy Award winning director, producer and screenwriter. ... The Abyss is an award-winning science fiction film from 1989, written and directed by James Cameron, starring Ed Harris, Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio, and Michael Biehn. ... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ... Original run October 4, 1995 – March 27, 1996 No. ... Unit 01 runs through Tokyo-3; the buildings in the background give a frame of reference for the size of the Eva. ... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ... Original run January 6, 2003 – July 29, 2003 No. ... For other meanings of Seven Days, see Seven Days (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ "A significant positive step was the use of PFC-associated gas exchange, now termed partial liquid ventilation (PLV)." Hlastala, Michael P. and Jennifer E. Souders (2001). "Perfluorocarbon Enhanced Gas Exchange". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 164: 1–2. 
  2. ^ "Vaporization is a new application technique for perfluorocarbon that significantly improved oxygenation and pulmonary function in oleic acid-induced lung injury." Bleyl JU et al. (1999). "Vaporized perfluorocarbon improves oxygenation and pulmonary function in an ovine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome". Anesthesiology 91: 340–2. 
  3. ^ "Aerosolized perfluorocarbon improved pulmonary gas exchange and lung mechanics as effectively as PLV did in surfactant-depleted piglets, and the improvement was sustained longer." Kandler, Michael A. et al. (2001). "Persistent Improvement of Gas Exchange and Lung Mechanics by Aerosolized Perfluorocarbon". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: 31–35. 
  4. ^ "In a surfactant-depleted piglet model, aerosol therapy with perfluorocarbon but not LV-PLV reduces the initial pulmonary inflammatory reaction at least as potently as PLV at FRC volume." von der Hardt, Katharina et al. (2002). "Aerosolized Perfluorocarbon Suppresses Early Pulmonary Inflammatory Response in a Surfactant-Depleted Piglet Model". Pediatric Research 51: 177–182. 
  5. ^ Miyamoto, Y.; Mikami, T. (1976). "Maximum capacity of ventilation and efficiency of gas exchange during liquid breathing in guinea pigs". Jpn. J. Physiol. 26: 603–618. PMID 1030748
  6. ^ Koen, P. A.; Wolfson, M. R.; Shaffer, T. H. (1988). "Fluorocarbon ventilation: maximal expiratory flows and CO2 elimination". Pediatr Res. 24: 291–296. PMID 3145482
  7. ^ Matthews, W. H. et al. (1978). "Steady-state gas exchange in normothermic, anesthetized, liquid-ventilated dogs". Undersea Biomed. Res. 5: 341–354. PMID 153624
  8. ^ Darwin, M.G. (1996). "Liquid Ventilation: A Bypass on The Way to Bypass". BPI Tech Briefs 19. 
  9. ^ Harris, S.B. et al. (2001). "Rapid (0.5degC/min) minimally invasive induction of hypothermia using cold perfluorochemical lung lavage in dogs". Resusciation 50: 189–204. 
  10. ^ Guyton, Arthur C. (1986). Textbook of Medical Physiology, 7th Ed., Aviation, Space, and Deep Sea Diving Physiology. W.B. Saunders Company. 

See also

mechanical or forced ventilation is the use of powered equipment, e. ... Air is the most common and only natural breathing gas. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Liquid breathing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2624 words)
Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which a normally air-breathing organism breathes an oxygen rich liquid (usually from the perfluorocarbon family), rather than breathing air.
Liquid breathing is sometimes called "fluid breathing", but this is misleading as both liquids and gases are fluids.
Liquid breathing began to be used by the medical community after the development by Alliance Pharmaceuticals of the fluorochemical perfluorooctyl bromide, or perflubron for short.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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