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Encyclopedia > Liquid
A diagram of how the configuration of molecules/atoms differs for the solid, liquid, and gas phases.
A diagram of how the configuration of molecules/atoms differs for the solid, liquid, and gas phases.
A typical phase diagram. The dotted line gives the anomalous behaviour of water. The green lines show how the freezing point can vary with pressure, and the blue line shows how the boiling point can vary with pressure. The red line shows the boundary where sublimation or deposition can occur.

Liquid is one of the principal states of matter. A liquid is a fluid that has the particles loose and can freely form a distinct surface at the boundaries of its bulk material. The surface is a free surface where the liquid is not constrained by a container.[1] Wiktionary has a definition of: liquid Liquid may refer to: in chemistry a liquid is a fluid, in linguistics liquid consonants or liquids, are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels. ... Image File history File links Solid_liquid_gas. ... Image File history File links Solid_liquid_gas. ... In physical chemistry, mineralogy, and materials science, a phase diagram is a type of graph used to show the equilibrium conditions between the thermodynamically-distinct phases. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Freezing point can refer to several things: For the chemistry term, see Melting point. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Deposition (meteorology) be merged into this article or section. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... This box:      A fluid is defined as a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress regardless of how small the applied stress. ... The free surface of the sea, viewed from below In physics a free surface is the surface of a body that is subject to neither perpendicular normal stress nor parallel shear stress,[1] such as the boundary between two homogenous fluids,[2] for example liquid water and the air in...

Contents

Characteristics

A liquid's shape is confined to, not determined by, the container it fills. That is to say, liquid particles (normally molecules or clusters of molecules) are free to move about the volume, but they form a discrete surface that may not necessarily be the same as the vessel. The same cannot be said about a gas; it can also be considered a fluid, but it must conform to the shape of the container entirely. In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ...


At a temperature below the boiling point, a liquid will evaporate until, if in a closed container, the concentration of the vapors belonging to the liquid reach an equilibrium partial pressure in the gas. Therefore no liquid can exist permanently in a complete vacuum. The surface of the liquid behaves as an elastic membrane in which surface tension appears, allowing the formation of drops and bubbles. Capillarity is another consequence of surface tension. Only liquids can display immiscibility. The most familiar mixture of two immiscible liquids in everyday life is the vegetable oil and water in Italian salad dressing. A familiar set of miscible liquids is water and alcohol. Only liquids display wetting properties. Liquids at their respective boiling point change to gases (except when superheating occurs), and at their freezing points, change to solids (except when supercooling occurs). Even below the boiling point liquid evaporates on the surface. Objects immersed in liquids are subject to the phenomenon of buoyancy, which is also observed in other fluids, but is especially strong in liquids due to their high density. Liquid components in a mixture can often be separated from one another via fractional distillation. Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... In a mixture of ideal gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This box:      Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that causes it to behave as an elastic sheet. ... Water dropping from a faucet A drop is a small volume of liquid, bounded completely or almost completely by free surfaces. ... Look up bubble in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Capillary action. ... This box:      Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that causes it to behave as an elastic sheet. ... Miscibility is a term in chemistry that refers to the property of liquids to mix in all proportions, forming a homogeneous solution. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Wetting of different fluids. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, boiling delay, or defervescence) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its standard boiling point, without actually boiling. ... Freezing point can refer to several things: For the chemistry term, see Melting point. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... Supercool redirects here. ... Vaporization redirects here. ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ...


The volume of a quantity of liquid is fixed by its temperature and pressure. Unless this volume exactly matches the volume of the container, a surface is observed. Liquids in a gravitational field, like all fluids, exert pressure on the sides of a container as well as on anything within the liquid itself. This pressure is transmitted in all directions and increases with depth. In the study of fluid dynamics, liquids are often treated as incompressible, especially when studying incompressible flow. For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... In mathematics, an incompressible surface is a kind of two-dimensional surface inside of a 3-manifold. ... In fluid mechanics, an incompressible fluid is a fluid whose density (often represented by the Greek letter ρ) is constant: it is the same throughout the field and it does not change through time. ...


If a liquid is at rest in a uniform gravitational field, the pressure  p at any point is given by A gravitational field is a model used within physics to explain how gravity exists in the universe. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ...

 p=rho g z

where:

 rho = the density of the liquid (assumed constant)
 g = gravity
 z = the depth of the point below the surface.

Note that this formula assumes that the pressure at the free surface is zero, and that surface tension effects may be neglected. For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... This box:      Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that causes it to behave as an elastic sheet. ...


Liquids generally expand when heated, and contract when cooled. Water between 0 °C and 4 °C is a notable exception; this is why ice floats. Liquids have little compressibility : water, for example, does not change its density appreciably unless subject to pressure of the order of hundreds bar. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about water ice. ... Fluid Dynamics Compressibility (physics) is a measure of the relative volume change of fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change: . For a gas the magnitude of the compressibility depends strongly on whether the process is adiabatic or isothermal, while this difference is small in... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ...


Examples of everyday liquids besides water are mineral oil and gasoline. There are also mixtures such as milk, blood, and a wide variety of aqueous solutions such as household bleach. Only six elements are liquid at or about room temperature and pressure: mercury (densest liquid), bromine, francium, caesium, gallium and rubidium.[2] In terms of planetary habitability, liquid water is required for the existence of life. Mineral oil or liquid petrolatum is a by-product in the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline. ... Petrol redirects here. ... A glass of cows milk. ... This article is about the chemical whitener. ... This article is about the element. ... Bromo redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... Understanding planetary habitability is partly an extrapolation of the Earths conditions, as it is the only planet currently known to support life. ... This article is about life in general. ...


Liquid measures

Quantities of liquids are commonly measured in units of volume. These include the litre, not an SI unit, and the cubic metre (m³) which is an SI unit. For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ...


See also

Look up Liquid in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... A multiphasic liquid, also known as a multiphasic liquid-liquid-liquid system, is a mixture consisting of more than two immiscible liquid phases. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... This box:      Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that causes it to behave as an elastic sheet. ... Long exposure image of multi-bubble sonoluminescence created by a high intensity ultrasonic horn immersed in a beaker of liquid. ...

Notes

  1. ^ White, Frank (2003). Fluid mechanics. New York: McGraw-Hill, p. 4. ISBN 0-07-240217-2. 
  2. ^ Liquid Elements
A Colloid or colloidal dispersion is a type of homogeneous mixture. ... A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its thermodynamic critical point. ... Helium II will creep along surfaces in order to find its own level - after a short while, the levels in the two containers will equalize. ... Phase diagram for 4He A supersolid is a spatially ordered superfluid. ... Degenerate matter is matter which has sufficiently high density that the dominant contribution to its pressure arises from the Pauli exclusion principle. ... A QGP is formed at the collision point of two relativistically accelerated gold ions in the center of the STAR detector at the relativistic heavy ion collider at the Brookhaven national laboratory. ... A fermionic condensate is a superfluid phase formed by fermionic particles at low temperatures. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... In physics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ... In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a relation between state variables. ... A cooling curve of naphthalene from liquid to solid. ... This is a list of the different states of matter including the more exotic ones (see phases of matter). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Liquid Sculpture - Water Drop Art (410 words)
Martin Waugh's Liquid Sculpture images are water art photographs of fascinating liquid shapes that were created by dropping and splashing water, or other liquids.
The shapes are affected by many things: the physical properties of the liquid, such as surface tension and viscosity, as well as the timing of the drops and when the camera's shutter is opened and flash fired.
Wendy W. Zhang from the University of Chicago presented an illuminating paper on capturing liquid motion and water drops in Boulder in 2006.
Chem4Kids.com: Matter: Liquids (346 words)
Another trait of liquids is that they are difficult to compress.
Liquids are in the middle but tend to be difficult.
Liquids already have their atoms close together, so they are hard to compress.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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