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Encyclopedia > Liquefied petroleum gas
45 kg LPG cylinders
45 kg LPG cylinders

Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 603 KB) Summary Two 45 kg LPG (Liquified petroleum gas) cylinders in New Zealand. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 603 KB) Summary Two 45 kg LPG (Liquified petroleum gas) cylinders in New Zealand. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fuel imports in 2005 Fuel is any material that is capable of releasing energy when its chemical or physical structure is altered. ... For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... The ozone layer is the part of the Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ...


Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are primarily propane, mixes that are primarily butane, and the more common, mixes including both propane (60%) and butane (40%), depending on the season—in winter more propane, in summer more butane. Propylene and butylenes are usually also present in small concentration. A powerful odorant, ethanethiol, is added so that leaks can be detected easily. The international standard is EN 589. Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... Propylene, also known by its IUPAC name propene, is an organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6. ... Butylene, also known as butene, is the name of the three isomeric hydrocarbon gases with chemical formula C4H8. ... Ethanethiol, also known as ethyl mercaptan, is an organic compound used as an odorant in propane. ...


LPG is manufactured during the refining of crude oil, or extracted from oil or gas streams as they emerge from the ground. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. ...



At normal temperatures and pressures, LPG will evaporate. Because of this, LPG is supplied in pressurised steel bottles. In order to allow for thermal expansion of the contained liquid, these bottles are not filled completely; typically, they are filled to between 80% and 85% of their capacity. The ratio between the volumes of the vaporised gas and the liquefied gas varies depending on composition, pressure and temperature, but is typically around 250:1. The pressure at which LPG becomes liquid, called its vapor pressure, likewise varies depending on composition and temperature; for example, it is approximately 220 kilopascals (2.2 bar) for pure butane at 20 °C (68 °F), and approximately 2.2 megapascals (22 bar) for pure propane at 55 °C (131 °F). LPG is heavier than air, and thus will flow along floors and tend to settle in low spots, such as basements. This can cause ignition or suffocation hazards if not dealt with. The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ... In physics, thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to increase in volume or pressure when heated. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... The pascal (symbol Pa) is the SI unit of pressure. ... The bar (symbol bar), decibar (symbol dbar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ... The megapascal, symbol MPa is an SI unit of pressure. ...

Contents

Production

LPG is synthesised by refining petroleum or natural gas; it was first produced in 1910 by Dr. Walter Snelling, and the first commercial products appeared in 1912. It currently provides about 3% of the energy consumed. Refining is the process of purification of a substance, usually used of a natural resource that is almost in a usable form, but which is more useful in its pure form. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. ...


Usage in vehicles

Main article: Autogas

When LPG is used to fuel internal combustion engines, it is often referred to as autogas. In some countries, it has been used since the 1940s as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engines. More recently, it has also been used in diesel engines. Autogas is the common name for liquified petroleum gas when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines in vehicles. ... An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ...


Refrigeration and air conditioning

In highly purified form, various blends of the LPG constituents propane and iso-butane are used to make hydrocarbon refrigerants, which are increasingly being used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems including domestic refrigerators, building air conditioners and vehicle air conditioning. This is partly because of concerns about the ozone depleting and greenhouse effects of the widely used HFC 134a. Hydrocarbons are more energy efficient, run at the same or lower pressure and are generally cheaper than HFC 134a. Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... “Freezer” redirects here. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths... A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ...


LPG as cooking fuel

Truck carrying LPG cylinders to residential consumers in Singapore
Truck carrying LPG cylinders to residential consumers in Singapore

According to the 2001 Census of India, 17.5% of Indian households or 33.6 million Indian households used LPG as cooking fuel in 2001.[1] 76.64% of such households were from urban India making up 48% of urban Indian households as compared to a usage of 5.7% only in rural Indian households. LPG is subsidised by the government. Increase in LPG prices has been a politically sensitive matter in India as it potentially affects the urban middle class voting pattern. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A delivery truck with Liquid Propane/Petroleum Gas being delivered to residential consumers. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A delivery truck with Liquid Propane/Petroleum Gas being delivered to residential consumers. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52... Crowded Shibuya, Tokyo shopping district An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


LPG was once a popular cooking fuel in Hong Kong; however, the continued expansion of town gas to buildings has reduced LPG usage to less than 24% of residential units. Town gas is a generic term referring to manufactured gas produced for sale to consumers and municipalities. ...


LPG is the most common cooking fuel in Brazilian urban areas, being used in virtually all households. Poor families receive a government grant ("Vale Gás") used exclusively for the acquisition of LPG.


LPG and SNG

LPG has a higher calorific value (94 MJ/m³ equivalent to 26.1kWh) than natural gas (methane) (38 MJ/m³ equivalent to 10.6kWh), which means that LPG can not simply be substituted for natural gas. In order to allow the use of the same burner controls and to provide for similar combustion characteristics, LPG can be mixed with air to produce a synthetic natural gas (SNG) that can be easily substituted. LPG/air mixing ratios average 60/40, though this is widely variable based on the gases making up the LPG. The method for determining the mixing ratios is by calculating the Wobbe index of the mix. Gases having the same Wobbe index are held to be interchangeable. Heating value (or calorific value) is used to define the amount of heat released during the combustion of a fuel or food. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... The Wobbe Index (WI) is the main indicator of the interchangeability of fuel gases such as natural gas LPG and Town Gas and is frequently defined in the specifications of gas supply and transport utilities. ...


LPG-based SNG is used in emergency backup systems for many public, industrial, and military installations, and many utilities use LPG peak shaving plants in times of high demand to make up shortages in natural gas supplied to their distributions systems. LPG-SNG installations are also used during initial gas system introductions, when the distribution infrastructure is in place before gas supplies can be connected. Developing markets in India and China (among others) use LPG-SNG systems to build up customer bases prior to expanding existing natural gas systems. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Grid-tied electrical system. ...


Fire risk and mitigation

? This section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the talk page for details.
A spherical gas container typically found in refineries
A spherical gas container typically found in refineries

LPG containers that are subjected to fire of sufficient duration and intensity can undergo a boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE). Due to the destructive nature of LPG explosions, the substance is classified as a dangerous good.[2] This is typically a concern for large refineries and petrochemical plants that maintain very large containers. The remedy is to equip such containers with a measure to provide a fire-resistance rating. If the containers are cylindrical and horizontal, they are referred to as "cigars", whereas circular ones are "spheres". Large, spherical LPG containers may have up to a 15 cm steel wall thickness.[citation needed] Ordinarily, they are equipped with an approved pressure relief valve on the top, in the centre. One of the main dangers is that accidental spills of hydrocarbons may ignite and heat an LPG container, which increases its temperature and pressure, following the basic gas laws. The relief valve on the top is designed to vent off excess pressure in order to prevent the rupture of the tank itself. Given a fire of sufficient duration and intensity, the pressure being generated by the boiling and expanding gas can exceed the ability of the valve to vent the excess. When that occurs, an overexposed tank may rupture violently, launching pieces at high velocity, while the released products can ignite as well, potentially causing catastrophic damage to anything nearby, including other tanks. In the case of "cigars", a midway rupture may send two "rockets" going off each way, with plenty of fuel in each to propel each segment at high speed until the fuel is spent. Image File history File links Circle-question. ... Image File history File links Gaskessel_gr. ... Image File history File links Gaskessel_gr. ... A refinery is composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations used for refining certain materials or converting raw material into products of value. ... A BLEVE erupting from a tanker. ... Dangerous goods are substances which pose risk to health, safety, property or the environment during operation and/or transportation. ... International time/temperature curves used to run commercial furnaces for testing the Fire-resistance rating of passive fire protection systems, such as firestops, fire doors, wall and floor assemblies, etc. ... These water valves are operated by handles. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... The gas laws are a set of laws that describe the relationship between thermodynamic temperature (T), pressure (P) and volume (V) of gases. ...


Mitigation measures include separating LPG tanks from potential sources of fire. In the case of rail transport, for instance, LPG tanks can be staggered, so that other goods are put in between them. This is not always done, but it does represent a low-cost remedy to the problem. LPG rail cars are easy to spot from the relief valves on top, typically with railings all around.


In the case of new LPG containers, one may simply bury them, only leaving valves and armatures exposed, for easy maintenance. Great care must be taken there though, as mechanical damage has been known to occur to the primers, which has resulted in hazardous corrosion of the containers.[citation needed] For the buried container, only the exposed parts need to be treated with approved fireproofing materials, such as intumescent and or endothermic coatings, or even fireproofing plasters. The rest are amply protected by soil. Specialty removable covers exist for easy access to the dials and components that must be accessed for proper maintenance and operation of the equipment. Fireproofing, a passive fire protection measure, subject to bounding, refers to the act of making materials or structures more resistant to fire, or to those materials themselves. ... An intumescent is a substance which swells as a result of heat exposure, thus increasing in volume, and decreasing in density. ... In thermodynamics, the word endothermic describes a process or reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat. ... Gypsum based plaster used in spray fireproofing in a low-rise industrial building in Vancouver, British Columbia. ...


LPG containers are subject to significant motion due to expansion, contraction, filling and emptying – even with very thick steel walls. This operational motion makes the burial option less attractive in the long run because one cannot tell mechanical damage to the outer waterproofing through soil. A simple pebble scraping back and forth across the epoxy-painted hull can remove the waterproofing and be the cause for corrosion. Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... In chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in... Corrosion is deterioration of essential properties in a material due to reactions with its surroundings. ...


Whilst one may calculate and justify on paper the use of inorganic plasters to cover entire spheres, it can be difficult to keep plasters operable for extended periods of time. Major errors have also been made in the past in this field, as the presumption was that the steel substrate would be adequately protected from rusting through the use of alkaline plasters. The alkalinity in such plasters is due to the presence of cement stone. This alkalinity, however, does not typically have a permanent character, which means that waterproofing with high quality epoxy primers is very important. Also, exterior waterproofing of the plaster is required by some fireproofing plaster vendors, as reduced alkalinity in exposed plasters can have a deleterious effect on the cement stone, which binds the plaster in the first place. By contrast, the intumescent and endothermic coatings are usually epoxy based to begin with, meaning that corrosion of the substrate is no problem whatsoever. Gypsum based plaster used in spray fireproofing in a low-rise industrial building in Vancouver, British Columbia. ... In chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in...


Fireproofing, not unlike all passive fire protection products, is subject to stringent bounding[citation needed][original research?]. The problem with this is though, that exterior structures of this nature are not subject to the building code or the fire code, meaning that one still sees the majority of LPG containers without any fireproofing at all, as there are often no local regulations, let alone any Authority Having Jurisdiction, apart from an insurance inspector, to force owners to use the proper mitigation methods. Insurance companies are also in a competitive quandary, where such items are concerned, as they compete not only on the basis of rates, but also on the strictness of the demands by their inspectors. LPG vessel fireproofing tests are varied. The only realistic exposure offered done at the Braunschweig test facility of "BAM" Berlin. BAM's procedure is to expose a small LPG container to the hydrocarbon test curve and to quantify the results. North American methods are based on UL1709. While UL1709 uses the correct time/temperature curve for testing, it is limited to testing steel columns, whereas BAM actually exposes a real LPG container that has been fireproofed. No matter the fireproofing method one uses, it is very important to pay close attention to bounding[citation needed][original research?] and to be sure that the product one chooses has undergone product certification, whereby the original test included the environmental exposures that the product will be exposed to during operations. Particularly with organic products, such as the endothermic and intumescent ones, one must closely review the ageing criteria and be able to quantify how long the product is expected to be operable for. This is where UL1709 "shines". Anything that can withstand the full battery of environmental exposures prior to the actual fire test, is a very tough product indeed. The idea is to rule out conditions that may render the product inoperable before it is ever exposed to a fire. By using products that have received the appropriate environmental tests FIRST, and the fire expose afterwards, using the very same test sample with all the applicable exposures, one can then demonstrate due diligence, but not otherwise. Likewise, the DIBt ageing qualifications for intumescents have proven to be very reliable. With close attention to the bounding and coverage of ageing and environmental exposures, it is absolutely possible to buy a lot of time for firefighting measures to relieve the LPG containers of the energy exposure from accidental fires and thus reduce the likelihood of a BLEVE to the maximum possible extent. Fire-resistance rated wall assembly with fire door, cable tray penetration and intumescent [1] cable coating. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. ... Cranes are essential in large construction projects, such as this skyscraper In project architecture and civil engineering, construction is the building or assembly of any infrastructure. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Inspector is a rank in many police forces. ... A Fire Test is a means of determining whether or not fire protection products meet minimum performance criteria as set out in a building code or other applicable legislation. ... Coordinates: Time zone: CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country: Germany State: Lower Saxony District: Urban district City subdivisions: 20 Boroughs Lord Mayor: Gert Hoffmann (CDU) Governing parties: CDU / FDP Basic Statistics Area: 192. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Product certification or product qualification is the cornerstone of all bounding and the process of certifying that a certain product has passed performance and/or quality assurance tests or qualification requirements stipulated in regulations such as a building code and nationally accredited test standards, or that it complies with a... Due diligence is a term used for a number of concepts involving either the performance of an investigation of a business or person, or the performance of an act with a certain standard of care. ...


See also

Energy Portal

Image File history File links Crystal_128_energy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In thermodynamics, the word endothermic describes a process or reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat. ... Fireproofing, a passive fire protection measure, subject to bounding, refers to the act of making materials or structures more resistant to fire, or to those materials themselves. ... International time/temperature curves used to run commercial furnaces for testing the Fire-resistance rating of passive fire protection systems, such as firestops, fire doors, wall and floor assemblies, etc. ... A hybrid vehicle (HV) is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power or fuel sources such as: An on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled power source (internal combustion engine) for vehicle propulsion Human or sail powered bicycle with battery assist A human-powered or... A Toyota Prius, one example of a hybrid electric vehicle. ... An intumescent is a substance which swells as a result of heat exposure, thus increasing in volume, and decreasing in density. ... Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been processed to remove either valuable components e. ... Fire-resistance rated wall assembly with fire door, cable tray penetration and intumescent [1] cable coating. ... Product certification or product qualification is the cornerstone of all bounding and the process of certifying that a certain product has passed performance and/or quality assurance tests or qualification requirements stipulated in regulations such as a building code and nationally accredited test standards, or that it complies with a... The UL Mark Underwriters Laboratories Inc. ... The World LP Gas Association (WLPGA) is a worldwide industry association which represents the interests of the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) industry globally. ...

References

  1. ^ Distribution of households by availability of separate kitchen and type of fuel used for cooking.
  2. ^ The Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations. Retrieved on 27 June 2007.

External links

  • WLPGA — World LP Gas Association
  • PERC — Propane Education & Research Council
  • NPGA — National Propane Gas Association, USA
  • The LP Gas Distribution Chain — Discover LP Gas, from its source to your home (graphic animation)
  • PGAC — Propane Gas Association of Canada
  • LPGSASA — LP Gas Safety Association of South Africa
  • LP Gas Association — LPG in the UK
  • LPG consumer forum — UK Forum | Price | Suppliers | Install | Alternatives
  • [1] Poten & Partners: A collection of articles relating to LPG
  • LPG @ Shell: Dedicated section of its public web site
  • LPG @ BP: Dedicated section of its public web site

  Results from FactBites:
 
Liquified petroleum gas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (475 words)
Liquified petroleum gas (also called liquefied petroleum gas, liquid petroleum gas, LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing fluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer.
LPG is manufactured during the refining of crude oil, or extracted from oil or gas streams as they emerge from the ground.
LPG was once a popular cooking fuel in Hong Kong; however, the continued expansion of town gas to buildings has reduced LPG usage to less than 24% of residential units.
HF 348 ... the regulation of liquefied petroleum gas storage tank... (3295 words)
A liquefied petroleum gas storage tank that is subject 4 17 to regulation under or registration with either the federal 4 18 department of transportation or state department of 4 19 transportation, or both, is exempt from the registration 4 20 requirements of this division.
A liquefied petroleum gas storage tank registration 11 10 fund is created as a separate fund in the state treasury under 11 11 the control of the department of public safety, division of 11 12 fire protection.
The bill 12 22 provides that a liquefied petroleum gas storage tank which is 12 23 subject to regulation by or registration with either the 12 24 federal department of transportation or state department of 12 25 transportation, or both, is exempt from the state fire marshal 12 26 registration requirements.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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