FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Liquefied natural gas

Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been processed to remove either valuable components e.g. helium, or those impurities that could cause difficulty downstream, e.g. water, and heavy hydrocarbons and then condensed into a liquid at almost atmospheric pressure (Maximum Transport Pressure set around 25 kPa) by cooling it to approximately -163 degrees Celsius. LNG is transported by specially designed cryogenic sea vessels and cryogenic road tankers; and stored in specially designed tanks. LNG is about 1/614th the volume of natural gas at standard temperature and pressure (STP), making it much more cost-efficient to transport over long distances where pipelines do not exist. Where moving natural gas by pipelines is not possible or economical, it can be transported by LNG vessels, where the most common tank types are membrane (prismatic), Moss Rosenberg (spheres) or Self-Supporting Prismatic Type. Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. ... Water vapor condensing over a cup of hot tea Condensation is the change in matter of a substance to a denser phase, such as a gas (or vapor) to a liquid. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ...

Contents

Basic Facts on LNG

LNG offers an energy density comparable to petrol and diesel fuels and produces less pollution, but its relatively high cost of production and the need to store it in expensive cryogenic tanks have prevented its widespread use in commercial applications. It can be used in natural gas vehicles, although these are more commonly designed to use compressed natural gas. Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume or per unit mass, depending on the context. ... Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Diesel or diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. ... A Natural gas vehicle or NGV is a vehicle that uses compressed natural gas (CNG) or, less commonly, liquified natural gas (LNG)) as a clean alternative to other automobile fuels. ... Typical North America vehicles carry this diamond shape symbol, meaning it is running on compressed natural gas fuel. ...


Conditions required to condense natural gas depend on its precise composition, the market that it will be sold to and the process being used, but typically involve temperatures between −120 and −170 degrees Celsius (pure methane liquefies at −161.6 °C) and pressures of between 101 and 6000 kPa (14.7 and 870 lbf/in² [approx 1-60 atm]). High pressure natural gas that is condensed is then reduced in pressure for storage and shipping. Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... The pascal (symbol Pa) is the SI unit of pressure. ...


The density of LNG is roughly 0.41 to 0.5 kg/L, depending on temperature, pressure and composition. In comparison water has a density of 1.0 kg/L. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


LNG does not have a specific heat value as it is made from natural gas, which is a mixture of different gases. The heat value depends on the source of gas that is used and the process that is used to liquefy the gas. The higher heating value of LNG is estimated to be 24 MJ/L at −164 degrees Celsius. This corresponds to a lower heating value of 21 MJ/L. The Higher Heating Value (HHV) of a fuel is defined as the amount of heat released by a specified quantity (initially at 25°C) once it is combusted and the reactants have returned to a temperature of 25°C. The Higher Heating Value takes into account the latent heat of... The lower heating value (also known as net calorific value) of a fuel is defined as the amount of heat released by combusting a specified quantity (initially at 25°C) and returning the temperature of the combustion products to 150°C. The lower heating value assumes the latent heat of...


The natural gas fed into the LNG plant will be treated to remove water, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and other components that will freeze (e.g., benzene) under the low temperatures needed for storage or be destructive to the liquefaction facility. Purified LNG typically contains more than 90% methane. It also contains small amounts of ethane, propane, butane and some heavier alkanes. The purification process can be designed to give almost 100% methane. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English), H2S, is a colorless, toxic, flammable gas that is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms, and is in a gaseous state in the atmosphere of the Earth. ... Freeze may refer to: Freeze, a particularly cold spell of weather, a snow storm or an ice storm. ... Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Ethane is a chemical compound with chemical formula C2H6. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... An alkane in organic chemistry is a type of hydrocarbon in which the molecule has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms and so has no double bonds (they are saturated). ...


The most important infrastructure needed for LNG production and transportation is an LNG plant consisting of one or more LNG trains, each of which is an independent unit for gas liquefaction. The largest LNG train is the SEGAS Plant in Egypt with a capacity of 5 million ton per annum (mtpa). Exxon Mobil operating Qatargas stage 2, of which one train has a production ability of 5 mtpa. Other facilities needed are load-out terminals for loading the LNG onto vehicles, LNG vessels for transportation, and a receiving terminal at the destination for discharge and regasification, where the LNG is reheated and turned into gas. Regasification terminals are usually connected to a storage and pipeline distribution network to distribute natural gas to local distribution companies (LDCs) or Independent Power Plants (IPPs). Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, is an oil producer and distributor formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ...


In 1964 the UK and France were the LNG buyers under the world’s first LNG trade from Algeria, witnessing a new era of energy. As most LNG plants are located in "stranded" areas not served by pipelines, the costs of LNG treatment and transportation were so huge that development has been slow during the past half century. The construction of an LNG plant costs USD 1-3 billion, a receiving terminal costs USD 0.5-1 billion, and LNG vessels cost USD 0.2-0.3 billion. Compared with the crude oil, the natural gas market is small but mature. The commercial development of LNG is a style called value chain, which means LNG suppliers first confirm the downstream buyers and then sign 20-25 year contracts with strict terms and structures for gas pricing. Only when the customers were confirmed and the development of a greenfield project deemed economically feasible could the sponsors of an LNG project invest in their development and operation. Thus, the LNG business has been regarded as a game of the rich, where only players with strong financial and political resources could get involved. Major international oil companies (IOCs) such as BP, ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell; and national oil companies (NOCs) such as Pertamina, Petronas are active players. Japan, South Korea and Taiwan import large sums of LNG due to their shortage of energy. In 2002 Japan imported 54 million tons of LNG, representing 48% of the LNG trade around the world that year. Also in 2002, South Korea imported 17.7 million tons and Taiwan 5.33 million tons. These three major buyers purchase approximately 70% of the world's LNG demand. This article is about the corporation known as BP. For other uses, see BP (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Exon (disambiguation). ... Royal Dutch Shell PLC is a multinational oil company (oil major) of British and Dutch origins. ... Pertamina (Perusahaan Tambang Minyak Negara, lit. ... Petronas, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad, is a Malaysian owned oil and gas company that was founded on August 17, 1974. ...


In recent years, as more players take part in investment, both in downstream and upstream, and new technologies are adopted, the prices for construction of LNG plants, receiving terminals and vessels have fallen, making LNG a more competitive means of energy distribution. The standard price for a 125,000-cubic-meter LNG vessel built in European and Japanese shipyards used to be USD 250 million. When Korean and Chinese shipyards entered the race, increased competition reduced profit margins and improved efficiency, reducing costs 60%. Costs in US dollar terms also declined due to the devaluation of the currencies of the world's largest shipbuilders, Japan and Korean. Since 2004, ship costs have increased due to a large number of orders increasing demand for shipyard slots. The per-ton construction cost of a LNG liquefaction plant fell steadily from the 1970s through the 1990s, with the cost reduced approximately 35%.


Due to energy shortage concerns, many new LNG terminals are being contemplated in the United States. Concerns over the safety of such facilities has created extensive controversy in the regions where plans have been created to build such facilities. One such location is in the Long Island Sound between Connecticut and Long Island. Broadwater Energy, an effort between TransCanada Corp. and Shell (A British-Dutch Corporation) wishes to build a LNG terminal in the sound on the New York side. Local politicians including the Suffolk County Executive have raised questions about the terminal. New York Senators Chuck Schumer and Hillary Clinton have both announced their opposition to the project. Several terminal proposals along the coast of Maine have also been met with high levels of resistance and questions. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is planning to deliver its report to Congress on LNG in the spring of 2006. TransCanada TSX: TRP is a large energy company based in Calgary, Alberta. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


Trade in LNG

LNG is shipped around the world in specially constructed seagoing vessels. The trade of LNG is completed by signing a sale and purchase agreement (SPA) between a supplier and receiving terminal, and by signing a gas sale agreement (GSA) between a receiving terminal and end-users. Most of the contract terms used to be DES or Ex Ship, which meant the seller was responsible for the transportation. But with low shipbuilding costs, and the buyer preferring to ensure reliable and stable supply, there are more and more contract terms of FOB, under which the buyer is responsible for the transportation, which is realized by the buyer owning the vessel or signing a long-term charter agreement with independent carriers. An LNG carrier is a ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas. ... Delivered Ex Ship (DES) is an Incoterm. ... Free on Board (FOB) is an Incoterm. ...


The agreements for LNG trade used to be long-term portfolios that were relatively inflexible both in price and volume. If the annual contract quantity is confirmed, the buyer is obliged to take and pay for the product, or pay for it even if not taken, which is called the obligation of take or pay (TOP).


In contrast to LNG imported to North America, where the price is pegged to Henry Hub, most of the LNG imported to Asia is pegged to crude oil prices by a formula consisting of indexation called the Japan Crude Cocktail (JCC). Henry Hub is the pricing point for natural gas futures contracts traded in the New York Mercantile Exchange, or NYMEX. It is a point on the natural gas pipeline system in southern Louisiana. ...


The pricing structure that has been widely used in Asian LNG SPAs is as follows: PLNG = A+B×Pcrude oil, where A refers to a term that represents various non-oil factors, but usually a constant determined by negotiation at a level that can prevent LNG prices from falling below a certain level. It thus varies regardless of oil price fluctuation. Typical figures of ex-ship contracts range from USD 0.7 to 0.9. B is a degree of indexation to oil prices; typical figures are 0.1485 or 0.1558, and Pcrude oil usually denominated in JCC. PLNG and Pcrude oil stand for price of oil in USD per million British Thermal Unit (MMBTU (in the fuel industry, M stands for 1000 and MM for 1 000 000)). With the demand of LNG moving up and down, the price of LNG moves in a "S" curve. With new demand from China, India and US increasing dramatically, and crude oil price skyrocketing, the LNG price is on the rise too.


In the mid 1990s LNG was a buyer's market. At the request of buyers, the SPAs began to adopt some flexibilities on volume and price. The buyers had more upward and downward flexibilities in TOP, and short-term SPAs less than 15 years came into effect. At the same time, alternative destinations for cargo and arbitrage were also allowed. By the turn of the 21st century, the market was again in favor of sellers. Sellers now propose rigid SPAs and would like an association similar to OPEC to be established to protect their interests. It is certain that the competition between sellers and buyers will go on. The Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF) is an organization of worlds leading gas producers, which was established in Tehran in 2001. ...


Until 2003, LNG prices have closely followed oil prices. Since then, LNG prices to Europe and Japan, have been lower than oil prices, though the link between LNG and Oil is still strong In contrast, recent prices in the US and UK markets have skyrocketed then fallen as a result of changes in supply and storage.


Price arbitrage has not yet led to a convergence of regional prices and to a global market For the time being, the market is a seller’s market (hence net-back is best estimation for prices). The balance of market risks between the buyers (taking most of the volume risks through off-take obligations) and the sellers (taking most of the value risks through indexation to crude oil and petroleum products) is changing.



Receiving terminals exist in several countries (see the list of importing countries in table below; China is expected to move onto the list by 2006), allowing gas imports from other areas (see list of exporting countries in table below).


The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration provides estimates of LNG trade in 2002 as follows: The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ...



In 2005, Egyptian NG production outpaced consumption and it joined the LNG exporting countries. The group of countries exporting natural gas (NG) in liquified form. ...


Global LNG demand is expected to reach 500 bcm/year by 2015 and 635 bcm/year in 2020. The International Energy Agency estimates that European imports of gas from Africa and the Middle East (mainly in the form of LNG) will quadruple by 2030 (source: Economist, 14/4/07, p39).


LNG Environmental Concerns

Natural gas is the most environmentally friendly of the fossil fuels, and many environmental groups advocate its use over coal or oil. LNG is often portrayed as being as environmentally friendly as domestic natural gas, but environmental groups argue this is not the case. One study concluded that a proposed LNG terminal proposed near Oxnard, California will emit 25 million tons of greenhouse gases per year. Highly combustible LNG terminals are a significant public safety hazard and the sites where the liquid natural gas originates are already feeling the ecological impacts of gas exploration and extraction. On the West Coast of the United States where a whole series of new LNG importation terminals have been proposed environmental groups, such as Pacific Environment and Ratepayers for Affordable Clean Energy (RACE) have moved to oppose them[1]. Whilst natural gas power plants emit approximately half the carbon dioxide of an equivalent coal power plant, the natural gas combustion required to produce and transport LNG to the plants adds 20 to 40 percent more carbon dioxide than burning natural gas alone[2]. With the extraction, processing, chilling transportation and conversion back to a usable form is taken into account LNG is a major source of greenhouse gasses. In addition to this many of the sites where LNG is being extracted, such as Sakhalin 2 have suffered fairly serious environmental destruction. Sakhalin Offshore Fields The Sakhalin II (Сахалин-2) project, like its sister project Sakhalin-I, is a consortium created to locate and produce oil and gas on Sakhalin Island and immediately offshore, in the Sea of Okhotsk, from two fields: Piltun-Astokhskoye and Lunskoye. ...


LNG safety and accidents

In its liquid state, LNG is not explosive. For an explosion to occur with LNG, it must first vaporize, then mix with air in the proper proportions (the flammable range is 5% to 15%), and then be ignited. Serious accidents involving LNG to date are listed below: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Explosive limit. ...

  • 1944, 20 October. The East Ohio Natural Gas Company experienced a failure of an LNG tank in Cleveland, Ohio.[3] 128 people perished in the explosion and fire. The tank did not have a dike retaining wall, and it was made during World War II, when metal rationing was very strict. The steel of the tank was made with an extremely low amount of nickel, which made the tank brittle when exposed to the extreme cold of LNG, and the tank ruptured, spilling LNG into the city sewer system.
  • 1973, February, Staten Island, New York. While repairing the interior of an empty storage tank, a fire started.[3] The pressure increased inside the tank so fast the concrete dome on the tank lifted and then collapsed falling inside the tank and killing the 37 construction workers below. No LNG was involved in this incident.
  • 1979, October, Lusby, Maryland, at the Cove Point LNG facility a pump seal failed, releasing gas vapors, which entered and settled in an electrical conduit.[3] A worker switched off a circuit breaker, igniting the gas vapors, killing a worker and causing heavy damage to the building. National fire codes were changed as a result of the accident.
  • 2004, 19 January, Skikda, Algeria. Explosion at Sonatrach LNG liquefaction facility.[3] 27 killed, 80 injured, three LNG trains destroyed, 2004 production was down 76% for the year. A cold hydrocarbon leak occurred and hydrocarbon gases were drawn into the combustion air for a high-pressure steam boiler. The explosion inside the boiler fire box precipitated a larger explosion of vapors outside the box.

Seaborne LNG transport tankers (including their loading terminals) have not had a "major" (term undefined) accident in over 47,000 voyages [4] since maritime inception in 1959. There have, however, been several significant incidents with LNG ships, but with only minor spills. In addition to accidents, terrorism experts are concerned that intentional sabotage could lead to unprecedented releases, resulting in massive fires and other damaging effects. The latter may include detonations (producing large blast waves) and deflagration-to-detonation transition phenomena. As the Department of Energy notes in its December 2004 report (Sandia National Labs, SAND2004-6258), the available testing data on LNG spills are based on releases of very small size in comparison to releases expected from intentional attacks. The Sandia report assumes that a ship's tank with a hole in it (up to several square meters in area) from any cause will drain by gravity while a fire burns outside the ship. This may not be a valid assumption for holes in tanks below the waterline of a vessel, or at the waterline. If the hole is below the waterline, the LNG in contact with water may vaporize violently in a rapid-phase transition, possibly pressurizing the tank and forcing LNG and gas to exit the hole under the water. The Sandia report notes the experimentally observed phenomena of RPT causing extensive damage to a marine structure, and gives a corresponding yield of high explosive for a relatively small LNG spill into water. The extent of damage to an LNG tank from RPT phenomena that could lead to a cascading failure of all tanks on an LNG ship remains to be determined. For a hole at the waterline in the presence of a pool fire, the contact of water with the LNG may also cause RPT at the hole, and might cause a dynamic pressure condition within the holed tank, leading to a higher rate of LNG release than from gravity alone. For a hole above the waterline in the presence of fire, the volume of LNG released from an unvented rigid tank must be replaced by an equal volume of some mass entering the tank. In the context of the Sandia report analysis, the available mass to enter the tank above the waterline consists of one or more of the following components: LNG vapor, air, flame, and combustion products. If the tank is rigid and vented while holed, the same components are presumably present to enter the holed tank. This import of mass and corresponding heat energy might be expected to vaporize the LNG in the tank, and may create the conditions needed for a detonation inside the tank. The recent GAO report of February 2007 (GAO-07-316) surveyed experts who were not unanimous in confirming the findings of the original Sandia report. The expert GAO panel concluded that additional research was needed to understand the potential effects of LNG ship accidents and malevents. The Department of Energy has funded Sandia to continue research, but not all of the topics identified by the GAO study are included in the current Sandia research agenda. While natural gas explosions are common in confined spaces such as houses, claims that outdoor releases of natural gas are at low risk of explosion must consider adjacent structures as enclosed spaces. If an LNG ship release occurs, any buildings, vehicles, or escort vessels close to the release constitute enclosed spaces where natural gas explosions may occur. Despite intense local opposition, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has approved a site permit for an LNG terminal in Fall River, Massachusetts in a densely populated harbor area. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Cleveland East Ohio Gas Explosion occurred on the afternoon of Friday, October 20th, 1944. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... General Name, Symbol, Number nickel, Ni, 28 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 4, d Appearance lustrous, metallic and silvery with a gold tinge Standard atomic weight 58. ... Year 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. ... Staten Island (IPA: ) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. ... NY redirects here. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Lusby is a census-designated place located in Calvert County, Maryland. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Skikda (Arabic: ولاية سكيكدة ) is a city in north eastern Algeria and a port on the Gulf of Stora, the ancient Sinus Numidicus. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


LNG storage

LNG storage tank at EG LNG
LNG storage tank at EG LNG

LNG above-ground tanks are mainly of double-wall, high-nickel steel construction with extremely efficient insulation between the walls. Large tanks are low aspect ratio (height to width) and cylindrical in design with a domed roof. Storage pressures in these tanks are very low, less than 5 psig. Sometimes more expensive frozen-earth, underground storage is used. Pre-stressed concrete backed up with suitable thermal insulation, are designed to be both under and above ground to suit sites conditions and local safety regulations and requirements. Smaller quantities, 190,000 US gallons (700 m³) and less, are stored in horizontal or vertical, vacuum-jacketed, pressure vessels. These tanks may be at pressures anywhere from less than 5 psig to over 250 psig (35 to 1700 kPa gauge pressure). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... CGI view of the plant EG LNG is a LNG company that is constructing a liquid natural gas terminal and plant in Malabo, Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. ...


LNG must be maintained cold (at least below −117 °F or −83 °C) to remain a liquid, independent of pressure. There will inevitably be some degree of boil-off as a result of heat gained from the outside ambient atmosphere. This gas may be returned to storage by recompression and reliquefaction, or used in the liquefaction process.


LNG refrigeration

The insulation, as efficient as it is, will not keep the temperature of LNG cold by itself. LNG is stored as a "boiling cryogen," that is, it is a very cold liquid at its boiling point for the pressure it is being stored. Stored LNG is analogous to boiling water, only 470 °F (260 °C) colder. The temperature of boiling water (212 °F or 100 °C) does not change, even with increased heat, as it is cooled by evaporation (steam generation). In much the same way, LNG will stay at near constant temperature if kept at constant pressure. This phenomenon is called "autorefrigeration". As long as the steam (LNG vapor boil off) is allowed to leave the tea kettle (tank), the temperature will remain constant.


If the vapor is not drawn off, then the pressure and temperature inside the vessel will rise. However, even at 1000 psig (7 MPa), the LNG temperature will still be only about −200 °F (−130 °C).


LNG, LPG, and CNG

Liquefied natural gas (LNG)

When natural gas is cooled to a temperature of approximately −260 °F (−160 °C) at atmospheric pressure it condenses to a liquid called liquefied natural gas (LNG). One volume of this liquid takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas at a stove burner tip. LNG is only about 45% the density of water. LNG is odorless, colorless, non-corrosive, and non-toxic. When vaporized it burns only in concentrations of 5% to 15% when mixed with air. Neither LNG, nor its vapor, can explode in an unconfined environment. Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. ...


Natural gas is composed primarily of methane (typically, at least 90%), but may also contain ethane, propane and heavier hydrocarbons. Small quantities of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds, and water may also be found in "pipeline" natural gas. The liquefaction process removes the oxygen, carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds, and water. The process can also be designed to purify the LNG to almost 100% methane. Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Ethane is a chemical compound with chemical formula C2H6. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is a cleaning solution consisting only of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms, and is in a gaseous state in the atmosphere of the Earth. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ...


Compressed natural gas (CNG)

Compressed natural gas (CNG) is natural gas pressurized and stored in welding bottle-like tanks at pressures up to 3,600 psig (25 MPa). Typically, it is same composition of the local "pipeline" gas, with some of the water removed. CNG and LNG are both delivered to the engines as low pressure vapor (ozf/in² to 300 psig, up to 2.1 MPa). CNG is often misrepresented as the only form natural gas can be used as vehicle fuel. LNG can be used to make CNG. This process requires much less capital intensive equipment and about 15% of the operating and maintenance costs. Typical North America vehicles carry this diamond shape symbol, meaning it is running on compressed natural gas fuel. ...


Liquid petroleum gas (LPG)

Liquid petroleum gas (LPG, and sometimes called propane) is often confused with LNG and vice versa. They are not the same and the differences are significant. Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are primarily propane, mixes that are primarily butane, and mixes including propane, propylene, n-butane, butylene and iso-butane. Depending on the season—in winter more propane, in summer more butane. Vapor pressures, at 30 °C, are for commercial propane in the range 10-12 barg (1 to 1.2 MPa), for commercial butane, 2-4 barg (0.2 to 0.4 MPa). In some countries LPG is composed primarily of propane (upwards to 95%) and smaller quantities of butane. The vapor pressure of commercial butane is generally too low to release it from the top vapor space. Pumps and (hot water, steam, electricity or direct-fired) vaporizers are frequently used. An alternative to using neat butane vapor which overcomes the need for pipework heating, is to use a gas-air mixture (well outside flammability limits). Air depresses the vapor dew-point temperature. Another advantage is that the mixture can be made to "simulate" natural gas or town gas to produce the same heat release through a burner under equal supply pressures, characterized by a term known as Wobbe number or Wobbe index. Liquified petroleum gas (also called liquefied petroleum gas, liquid petroleum gas, LPG, LP gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing fluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... The Wobbe Index (WI) is the main indicator of the interchangeability of fuel gases such as natural gas LPG and Town Gas and is frequently defined in the specifications of gas supply and transport utilities. ...


LPG compared to natural gas has a significantly higher heating value and requires a different air-to-gas mixture (propane: 24:1, butane: 30:1) for good combustion. Heating value (or calorific value) is used to define the amount of heat released during the combustion of a fuel or food. ...


LPG can be stored as a liquid in tanks by applying pressure alone. While the distribution of LNG requires heavy infrastructure investments (pipelines, etc.), LPG is portable. This fact makes LPG very interesting for developing countries and rural areas. LPG (sometimes called autogas) has also been used as fuel in light duty vehicles for many years. An increasing number of petrol stations around the world offers LPG pumps as well. A final example that should not be forgotten is that the "bottled gas" can often be found under barbecue grills. Autogas is the common name for liquified petroleum gas when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines in vehicles. ... It has been suggested that Gas grill parts be merged into this article or section. ...


Existing LNG Terminals

US and Gulf Of Mexico

The following LNG off-loading and regasification terminals are located in the United States [5]:

Everett is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts near Boston. ... Everett is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts near Boston. ... Everett is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts near Boston. ... The Cove Point LNG Terminal is located near Lusby, Maryland on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay, which receives imported liquified natural gas and also stores gas. ... Lusby is a census-designated place located in Calvert County, Maryland. ... This article is about the City of Lake Charles, La. ... Elba (top center) from space, February 1994 Elba and the Tuscan Archipelago. ... Gulf Gateway Deepwater Port is a facility for docking and unloading liquefied natural gas tankers. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Sabine Pass, Texas is a city located in Jefferson County, Texas, 15 miles south of Port Arthur, Texas, on the west bank of Sabine Pass, near the Louisiana border. ... Sabine Pass, Texas is a city located in Jefferson County, Texas, 15 miles south of Port Arthur, Texas, on the west bank of Sabine Pass, near the Louisiana border. ... The Atlantic LNG Company of Trinidad and Tobago is a liquefied natural gas (LNG) producing company. ... Look up Trinidad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Kenai is a city in Kenai Peninsula Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska. ... Peñuelas (PAIN-wai-lahs) is a town in Puerto Rico located in the southern coast of the island, south of Adjuntas, east of Guayanilla, west of Ponce and north of the Caribbean Sea. ...

UK

Grain church The Isle of Grain, (OE Greon meaning gravel) is in north Kent, England at the eastern end of the Hoo peninsula. ...

Africa

Bonny Island is situated at the southern edge of Rivers State in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. ... CGI view of the plant EG LNG is a LNG company that is constructing a liquid natural gas terminal and plant in Malabo, Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. ... Location of Malabo in Equatorial Guinea Malabo is the capital city of Equatorial Guinea, located on the northern coast of Bioko Island (formerly Fernando Póo). ... Bioko (spelled also Bioco) is an island off the west coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea, formerly called Fernando Pó or Fernando Póo and known as Otcho to Bubi. ...

Proposed LNG Terminals

US and Gulf of Mexico

A liquified natural gas (LNG) off-loading and processing facility called the Crown Landing LNG Terminal is proposed in Logan Township, New Jersey on a 175 acre site along the Delaware River. ... Gloucester County is a county located in the state of New Jersey. ... For the Delaware River in Kansas, see Delaware River (Kansas) The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. ... This article is about the corporation known as BP. For other uses, see BP (disambiguation). ...

Netherlands

  • LionGas Terminal, Rotterdam, Netherlands - LNG terminal to be located in the harbour and industrial area of the city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, which will be developed by 4Gas. All necessary regulatory approval has been granted. Construction is expected to start mid-2007 and operation to start in the second half of 2010. [22]

Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - City 319 km²  (123. ... Maasvlakte is part of Europoort, the harbour and industrial area of the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... For other uses of this term, see Industry (disambiguation) “Industrial” redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - City 319 km²  (123. ... N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie is a Dutch natural gas infrastructure and transportation company. ... Royal Vopak is a Dutch company, that stores and handles various oil and natural gas-related products. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - City 319 km²  (123. ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... For other uses of this term, see Industry (disambiguation) “Industrial” redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - City 319 km²  (123. ... Eemsmond is a municipality in the northeastern Netherlands. ... Eemsmond is a municipality in the northeastern Netherlands. ... The flag of Groningen Groningen is the northeast province of the Netherlands with a typical dialect (Gronings) with regional nuances. ... ConocoPhillips (NYSE: COP) is an international energy company with its headquarters located in Houston, Texas. ...

France

  • Fos Cavaou LNG Terminal - LNG terminal under construction in the south of France. Operation is expected to start operation mid-2007. [24]

UK

  • Dragon LNG, Milford Haven, UK is under construction in Milford Haven, UK. See for the project website. Companies behind the terminal are BG, Petronas of Indonesia and 4Gas. [26]

This article is about the town. ... Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, is an oil producer and distributor formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... This article is about the town. ... BG Group Plc (LSE: BG.) is an energy production and distribution company which is headquartered in Reading outside London, England. ... Petronas, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad, is a Malaysian owned oil and gas company that was founded on August 17, 1974. ...

Australia

Barrow Island from space, showing the Australian mainland on the bottom right (south-east) and the Montebello Islands to the north Barrow Island is a 202 km2 sub-tropical island 50 km northwest off the coast of Western Australia. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $100,900 (4th)  - Product per capita  $50,355/person (3rd) Population (December 2006)  - Population  2,050,900 (4th)  - Density  0. ...

Africa

Angola LNG is a liquefied natural gas plant located in Soyo, Angola. ... Soyo is a city located in the province of Zaire in the congo. ...

Asia Pacific

Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.pacificenvironment.org/article.php?list=type&type=21
  2. ^ http://www.lngwatch.com/race/truth.htm
  3. ^ a b c d Safe History of International LNG Operations, CH-IV Dec 2006
  4. ^ LNG World Shipping (2006-12-22). LNG World Shipping. (English). Retrieved on 2007-05-19.
  5. ^ FERC. Existing and Proposed LNG Terminals (English). Retrieved on 2007-05-19.
  6. ^ rigzone.com
  7. ^ epa.gov
  8. ^ suez.com
  9. ^ panhandleenergy.com
  10. ^ ferc.gov
  11. ^ rodnreel.com
  12. ^ goldenpasslng
  13. ^ rigzone.com
  14. ^ atlanticlng.com
  15. ^ epa.gov
  16. ^ ferc.gov
  17. ^ nationalgrid.com
  18. ^ nlng.com
  19. ^ marubeni.com
  20. ^ bpcrownlanding.com
  21. ^ gate.nl
  22. ^ liongas.nl
  23. ^ rigzone.com
  24. ^ gazdefrance.com
  25. ^ southhooklng.co.uk
  26. ^ dragonlng.co.uk
  27. ^ gorgon.com.au
  28. ^ mbendi.co.za
  29. ^ angolalng.com
  30. ^ sakhalinenergy.com

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Energy Portal

Image File history File links Crystal_128_energy. ... A natural gas processing plant Natural gas processing plants are used to purify the raw natural gas extracted from underground gas fields and brought up to the surface by gas wells. ... CNG can mean: Compressed natural gas Comfort Noise Generator used in Speech Codecs to insert artificial noise during silent intervals of speech. ... Typical North America vehicles carry this diamond shape symbol, meaning it is running on compressed natural gas fuel. ... LPG might be an initialism or abbreviation for: Liquified petroleum gas Laboratoire de Planetologie, Grenoble, France Literary Press Group of Canada Landwirtschaftliche Produktionsgenossenschaft (German, obsolete/historical) Long period grating This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... 45 kg LPG cylinders Spherical Gas Container typically found in Refineries. ... Natural gas, like many of the other commodities, can be stored for an indefinite period of time in natural gas storage facilities for later consumption. ...

External links


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m