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Encyclopedia > Lipoprotein(a)

Lipoprotein(a) (also called LP(a) and Lp-a) is a lipoprotein subclass. Lp-a is a risk factor for coronary heart disease and other vascular diseases. A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Metabolism

Lipoprotein(a) is assembled in the blood from low density lipoprotein (LDL) molecules and glycoprotein molecules called apolipoprotein-a (apo-a). Plasma apo-a is secreted by the liver. The mechanism and sites of Lp(a) catabolism are unknown. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) belongs to the lipoprotein particle family. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Populations

Lp-a is genetically linked with concentrations varying over one thousandfold, from < 0.2 to > 200 mg/dL. African populations have Lp-a concentrations severalfold higher than Caucasians and Asian populations.


Function

Lipoprotein(a) recruits inflammatory cells through interaction with Mac-1 integrin.


Pathology

Lipoprotein's structure is simillar to plasminogen and tPA (tissue Activator Plasminogen) and it competes with plasminogen for its binding site, leading to reduced fibrynolysis. Also because Lp(a) stimulates secretion of PAI-1 it leads to thrombogenesis.


Lipoprotein(a) and Disease

High Lp(a) in blood is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease (CBD), atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and stroke. Lp-a concentrations may be affected by disease states, but are only moderately affected by diet, exercise, and other environmental factors. Lipid-reducing drugs have no effect on Lp(a) concentration. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cerebrovascular disease is damage to the blood vessels in the brain, resulting in a stroke. ... Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. ...


High Lp(a) predicts risk of early atherosclerosis similar to high LDL, but in advanced atherosclerosis, Lp(a) is an independent risk factor not dependent on LDL. Lp(a) then indicates a coagulant risk of plaque thrombosis. Apo(a) contains domains that are very similar to plasminogen (PLG). Lp(a) accumulates in the vessel wall and inhibits binding of PLG to the cell surface, reducing plasmin generation which increases clotting. This inhibition of PLG by Lp(a) also promotes proliferation of smooth muscle cells. These unique features of Lp(a) suggest Lp(a) causes generation of clots and atherosclerosis.[1]


Cardiology diagnostic tests

Lipoprotein(a) - Lp(a)

Desirable: < 14 mg/dL
Borderline risk: 14 - 30 mg/dL
High risk: 31 - 50 mg/dL
Very high risk: > 50 mg/dL

See also

A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) is a lipoprotein subclass. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) belongs to the lipoprotein particle family. ... In medicine, combined hyperlipidemia (or -aemia) is a commonly occurring form of hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) characterised by increased LDL and triglyceride concentrations, often accompanied by decreased HDL. On lipoprotein electrophoresis (a test now rarely performed) is shows as a hyperlipoproteinemia type IIB. The elevated triglyceride levels (>5 mmol/l...

References

  • Beyond Cholesterol, Julius Torelli MD, 2005 ISBN 0-312-34863-0 page 91.
  • Hidden Causes of Heart Attack and Stroke, Christian Wilde, 2003 ISBN 0-9724959-0-8 pages 182-183.
  • Noel M. Caplice et al, "Lipoprotein (a) binds and inactivates tissue factor pathway inhibitor", Blood, 15 November 2001, Vol. 98, No. 10, pp. 2980-2987.
  1. ^ Caplice et al.

External links

  • Lipoprotein(a) summary by Utermann
  • Lipoprotein(a) as a Risk Factor for Preclinical Atherosclerosis, by Schreiner, et al. (pdf)
  • Lipoprorein(a) linked to thrombosis, by Caplice et al.
  • Lipoprotein(a) in atherosclerotic plaques recruits inflammatory cells, by Sotiriou, et al.

 
 

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