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Encyclopedia > Lipid anchored protein

In lipid anchored proteins, a covalently attached fatty acid such as palmitate or myristate serves to anchor them to the cytoplasmic face of the cell membrane. Examples include G proteins and certain kinases. It is believed that the fatty acid chain inserts and assumes a place in the bilayer structure of the membrane alongside the similar fatty-acid tails of the surrounding lipid molecules. Potential points of attachment include the terminal amino group of the protein backbone and the side chain of cysteine residues.


Prenylation is the attachment of lipid chains to proteins to facilitate their interaction with the cell membrane. Some important prenylation chains are geranylgeraniol, farnesol and dolichol, all products of the HMG-CoA reductase metabolic pathway.


Other anchors include the GPI anchor (see there).


  Results from FactBites:
 
Igal Szleifer Research Group - Biophysics of Lipids (417 words)
Spontaneous liposome formation and stability in mitures of lipids with pegolated lipids: The goal in this project is to understand the conditions necessary for the formation and stability of spherical liposomes formed by mixtures of lipids with lipids conjugated with PEG (poly ethylene glycol).
We have found that the addition of hydrophobic-hydrophilic block copolymers to a dilute lipid monolayer results in the clustering of the lipid that tend to be organized in well-ordered domains.
We predict liquid-liquid coexistence due to differences in lipid and cholesterol packing that may be related to the presence of rafts in biological membranes.
* Lipid - (Biology): Definition (769 words)
Lipids are a class of hydrocarbon-containing organic compounds essential for the structure and function of living cells.
Proteins may be modified in a wide variety of ways, including phosphorylation (addition or a phosphate group), adenylation (addition of an adenine group), glycosylation (addition of a sugar group), acylation (addition of a lipid group),...
Anchor Sequence: A hydrophobic amino acid sequence which fixes a segment of a newly synthesized, translocating protein within the lipid bilayer membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum.
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