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Encyclopedia > Lipase
A computer-generated image of a type of pancreatic lipase (PLRP2) from the guinea pig. PDB 1GPL.

A lipase is a water-soluble enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bonds in water–insoluble, lipid substrates[1]. Image of Guinea Pig Pancreatic Lipase Related Protein 2 (modeled using Cn3D using NCBI MMDB data) This is a screenshot of copyrighted computer software. ... Image of Guinea Pig Pancreatic Lipase Related Protein 2 (modeled using Cn3D using NCBI MMDB data) This is a screenshot of copyrighted computer software. ... The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for 3-D structural data of proteins and nucleic acids. ... Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... In chemistry and biology, catalysis (in Greek meaning to annul) is the acceleration of the rate of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself unchanged chemically by the overall reaction. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound reacts with water. ... General formula of a carboxylate ester. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... A polyunsaturated triglyceride. ...


Lipases are ubiquitous throughout living organisms, and genes encoding lipases are even present in certain viruses. [2][3] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the...

Contents

Function

Most lipases act at a specific position on the glycerol backbone of a lipid substrate (A1, A2 or A3). Glycerol, also well known as glycerin and glycerine, and less commonly as propane-1,2,3-triol, 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. ...


In the example of human pancreatic lipase (HPL)[4], which is the main enzyme responsible for breaking down fats in the human digestive system, a lipase acts to convert triglyceride substrates found in oils from food to monoglycerides and free fatty acids. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Fats is the plural for fat, a generic term for a class of lipids in biochemistry. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Example of an unsaturated fat triglyceride. ... Glycerides are esters of glycerol and fatty acids. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ...


Myriad other lipase activities exist in nature, especially when the phospholipases[5] and sphingomyelinases[6] are considered. A phospholipase is an enzyme that converts phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic substances. ... Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase (or sphingomyelinase) is a phosphodiesterase enzyme which acts upon sphingomyelin. ...


Structure

While a diverse array of genetically distinct lipase enzymes are found in nature, and represent distinct types of protein folds and catalytic mechanisms, most are built on an alpha/beta hydrolase fold [7][8][9] (see image[10]) and employ a chymotrypsin-like hydrolysis mechanism involving a serine nucleophile, an acid residue (usually aspartic acid), and a histidine[11][12]. For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to genetics. ... Protein folding is the process by which a protein assumes its characteristic functional shape or tertiary structure, also known as the native state. ... In biochemistry, a hydrolase is an enzyme that can break a chemical bond by hydrolysis. ... Chymotrypsin (bovine γ chymotrypsin: PDB 1AB9, EC 3. ... Serine (IPA ), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. ... In chemistry, a nucleophile (literally nucleus lover) is a reagent which is attracted to centres of positive charge. ... Acidity redirects here. ... Aspartic acid (Asp, D), also known as aspartate, the name of its anion, is one of the 20 natural proteinogenic amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins. ... Histidine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids present in proteins. ...


Location of action

Some lipases work within the interior spaces of living cells to degrade lipids. Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hook from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ...

  • In the example of lysosomal lipase, the enzyme is confined within an organelle called the lysosome.
  • Other lipase enzymes, such as pancreatic lipases, are found in the spaces outside of cells and have roles in the metabolism, absorption and transport of lipids throughout the body.

As biological membranes are integral to living cells and are largely composed of phospholipids, lipases play important roles in cell biology. Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Organelles. ... The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ that serves two functions: exocrine - it produces pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes endocrine - it produces several important hormones Anatomy The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ located posterior to the stomach on the posterior abdominal wall. ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating tissue which acts as a barrier within or around a cell. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ...


Furthermore, lipases are involved in diverse biological processes ranging from routine metabolism of dietary triglycerides to cell signaling[13] and inflammation[14]. In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... Triglyceride (blue: fatty acid; red: glycerol backbone) Triglycerides are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids. ... Cell signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ...


Types in humans

The main lipases in the digestive system are human pancreatic lipase (HPL) and pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2), which are secreted by the pancreas. Humans also have several other related enzymes, including hepatic lipase (HL), endothelial lipase, and lipoprotein lipase. Not all of these lipases function in the gut (see table). For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The pancreas is an organ in the digestive and endocrine system (of vertebrates[2]). It is both exocrine (secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). ... Lipoprotein lipase (EC 3. ...

Name Gene Description Disorder
pancreatic lipase PNLIP In order to exhibit optimal enzyme activity in the gut lumen, HPL requires another protein, colipase, which is also secreted by the pancreas[15]. -
lysosomal lipase LIPA Also referred to as lysosomal acid lipase (LAL or LIPA) or acid cholesteryl ester hydrolase Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) and Wolman disease are both caused by mutations in the gene encoding lysosomal lipase.[16]
hepatic lipase LIPC Hepatic lipase acts on the remaining lipids carried on lipoproteins in the blood to regenerate LDL (low density lipoprotein). -
lipoprotein lipase LPL or "LIPD" Lipoprotein lipase functions in the blood to act on triacylglycerides carried on VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) so that cells can take up the freed fatty acids. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is caused by mutations in the gene encoding lipoprotein lipase.[17] [18]
hormone-sensitive lipase LIPE - -
gastric lipase LIPF - -
endothelial lipase LIPG - -
pancreatic lipase related protein 2 PNLIPRP2 or "PLRP2" - -
pancreatic lipase related protein 1 PNLIPRP1 or "PLRP1" Pancreatic lipase related protein 1 is very similar to PLRP2 and HPL by amino acid sequence (all three genes probably arose via gene duplication of a single ancestral pancreatic lipase gene). However, PLRP1 is devoid of detectable lipase activity and its function remains unknown, even though it is conserved in other mammals[19][20]. -

Other lipases include LIPH, LIPI, LIPJ, LIPK, LIPM, and LIPN. Pancreatic lipase is an enzyme (more specifically, a lipase) secreted from the pancreas that uses hydrolysis to break apart fat molecules. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Preventing the interaction of lipase by bile salts. ... Lysosomal lipase is a form of lipase associated with Wolman disease. ... Cholesteryl ester storage disease is an extremely rare disorder that results from storage of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in cells in the blood and lymph and lymphoid tissue. ... Wolman disease (also known as Wolman’s disease, Wolman’s syndrom, and acid lipase deficiency) is a rare severe lipid storage disease that is usually fatal by age 1. ... A polyunsaturated triglyceride. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a class of lipoprotein particles that varies in size (18-25 nm in diameter) and contents (while carrying fatty acid molecules in blood and around the body). ... Lipoprotein lipase (EC 3. ... Lipoprotein lipase (EC 3. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Triglyceride (blue: fatty acid; red: glycerol backbone) Triglycerides are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids. ... A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Lipoprotein lipase (EC 3. ... Hormone-sensitive lipase is a protein found in the cytosol and on the lipid droplet of adipocytes. ... Schematic of a region of a chromosome before and after a duplication event Gene duplication occurs when an error in homologous recombination, a retrotransposition event, or duplication of an entire chromosome leads to the duplication of a region of DNA containing a gene [1]. The significance of this process for... Subclasses Subclass Allotheria* Order Docodonta (extinct) Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Subclass Prototheria Order Monotremata Subclass Theria Infraclass Trituberculata (extinct) Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals are a class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of...


There also are a diverse array of phospholipases, but these are not always classified with the other lipases. A phospholipase is an enzyme that converts phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic substances. ...


Industrial Uses

Lipases from fungi and bacteria are used in various industrial applications, ranging from yogurt and cheese fermentation to laundry detergent. Furthermore, fungal lipases are being explored in alternative energy strategies to convert vegetable oil into fuel. [21][22] Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Future energy development face great challenges due to an increasing world population, demands for higher standards of living, demands for less pollution and a much discussed end to fossil fuels. ...


Additional images

References

  1. ^ Svendsen A (2000). "Lipase protein engineering". Biochim Biophys Acta 1543 (2): 223-228. PMID 11150608. 
  2. ^ Afonso C, Tulman E, Lu Z, Oma E, Kutish G, Rock D (1999). "The genome of Melanoplus sanguinipes entomopoxvirus". J Virol 73 (1): 533-52. PMID 9847359. 
  3. ^ Girod A, Wobus C, Zádori Z, Ried M, Leike K, Tijssen P, Kleinschmidt J, Hallek M (2002). "The VP1 capsid protein of adeno-associated virus type 2 is carrying a phospholipase A2 domain required for virus infectivity". J Gen Virol 83 (Pt 5): 973-8. PMID 11961250. 
  4. ^ Winkler FK, D'Arcy A, and W Hunziker (1990). "Structure of human pancreatic lipase". Nature 343 (6260): 771-774. PMID 2106079. 
  5. ^ Diaz, B.L., and J. P. Arm. (2003). "Phospholipase A(2).". Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2-3: 87-97. PMID 12895591. 
  6. ^ Goñi F, Alonso A (2002). "Sphingomyelinases: enzymology and membrane activity". FEBS Lett 531 (1): 38-46. PMID 12401200. 
  7. ^ Schrag J, Cygler M. "Lipases and alpha/beta hydrolase fold". Methods Enzymol 284: 85-107. PMID 9379946. 
  8. ^ Winkler FK, D'Arcy A, and W Hunziker (1990). "Structure of human pancreatic lipase". Nature 343 (6260): 771-774. PMID 2106079. 
  9. ^ Egmond, M. R., and C. J. van Bemmel (1997). "Impact of Structural Information on Understanding of Lipolytic Function". Methods Enzymol 284: 119-129. PMID 9379930. 
  10. ^ Withers-Martinez C, Carriere F, Verger R, Bourgeois D, and C Cambillau (1996). "A pancreatic lipase with a phospholipase A1 activity: crystal structure of a chimeric pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 from guinea pig". Structure 4 (11): 1363-74. PMID 8939760. 
  11. ^ Brady, L., A. M. Brzozowski, Z. S. Derewenda, E. Dodson, G. Dodson, S. Tolley, J. P. Turkenburg, L. Christiansen, B. Huge-Jensen, L. Norskov, and et al. (1990). "A serine protease triad forms the catalytic centre of a triacylglycerol lipase.". Nature 343 (6260): 767-70. PMID 2304552. 
  12. ^ Lowe ME (1992). "The catalytic site residues and interfacial binding of human pancreatic lipase". J Biol Chem 267 (24): 17069-73. PMID 1512245. 
  13. ^ Spiegel S, Foster D, and R Kolesnick (1996). "Signal transduction through lipid second messengers". Curr Opin Cell Biol 8 (2): 159-67. PMID 8791422. 
  14. ^ Tjoelker LW, Eberhardt C, Unger J, Trong HL, Zimmerman GA, McIntyre TM, Stafforini DM, Prescott SM, and PW Gray (1995). "Plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase is a secreted phospholipase A2 with a catalytic triad". J Biol Chem 270 (43): 25481-7. PMID 7592717. 
  15. ^ Lowe ME (2002). "The triglyceride lipases of the pancreas". J Lipid Res 43 (12): 2007-16. PMID 12454260. 
  16. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=278000
  17. ^ http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition=lipoproteinlipasedeficiencyfamilial
  18. ^ Gilbert B, Rouis M, Griglio S, de Lumley L, Laplaud P. "Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency: a new patient homozygote for the preponderant mutation Gly188Glu in the human LPL gene and review of reported mutations: 75 % are clustered in exons 5 and 6". Ann Genet 44 (1): 25-32. PMID 11334614. 
  19. ^ Crenon I, Foglizzo E, Kerfelec B, Verine A, Pignol D, Hermoso J, Bonicel J, Chapus C (1998). "Pancreatic lipase-related protein type I: a specialized lipase or an inactive enzyme". Protein Eng 11 (2): 135-42. PMID 9605548. 
  20. ^ De Caro J, Carriere F, Barboni P, Giller T, Verger R, De Caro A (1998). "Pancreatic lipase-related protein 1 (PLRP1) is present in the pancreatic juice of several species". Biochim Biophys Acta 1387 (1-2): 331-41. PMID 9748646. 
  21. ^ Gupta R, Gupta N, Rathi P (2004). "Bacterial lipases: an overview of production, purification and biochemical properties". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64 (6): 763-81. PMID 14966663. 
  22. ^ Ban K, Kaieda M, Matsumoto T, Kondo A, Fukuda H (2001). "Whole cell biocatalyst for biodiesel fuel production utilizing Rhizopus oryzae cells immobilized within biomass support particles". Biochem Eng J 8 (1): 39-43. PMID 11356369. 

External links

Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM, U of M or U-M) is a coeducational public research university in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM, U of M or U-M) is a coeducational public research university in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM, U of M or U-M) is a coeducational public research university in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM, U of M or U-M) is a coeducational public research university in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM, U of M or U-M) is a coeducational public research university in the U.S. state of Michigan. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lipase (0 words)
Lipase is an enzyme necessary for the absorption and digestion of nutrients in the intestines.
Lipase is produced primarily in the pancreas and is not found in food.
Lipase supplements are usually derived from animal enzymes, although plant sources of lipase and other digestive enzymes have become increasingly popular.
Lipase: The Test (0 words)
Lipase testing is also occasionally used in the diagnosis and follow-up of cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, and Crohn's disease.
A lipase test may be ordered when a patient has symptoms of a pancreatic disorder, such as severe abdominal pain, fever, loss of appetite, or nausea.
Moderately increased lipase values may occur in other conditions such as kidney disease (due to decreased clearance from the blood), salivary gland inflammation, a bowel obstruction, or peptic ulcer disease, although the lipase test is not usually used to monitor these conditions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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