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Encyclopedia > Lion
Lion
Male
Male
Female (Lioness)
Female (Lioness)
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Felidae
Genus: Panthera
Species: P. leo
Binomial name
Panthera leo
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Distribution of lions in Africa
Distribution of lions in Africa
Synonyms
Felis leo
Linnaeus, 1758

The lion (Panthera leo) is a member of the family Felidae and one of four big cats in the genus Panthera. With exceptionally large males exceeding 250 kg (550 lb) in weight,[2] it is the second-largest living cat after the tiger. Wild lions currently exist in sub-Saharan Africa and in Asia with a critically endangered remnant population in northwest India, having disappeared from North Africa, the Middle East and western Asia in historic times. Until the late Pleistocene (about 10,000 years ago), the lion was the most widespread large land mammal beside humans. They were found in most of Africa, much of Eurasia from western Europe to India and, in the Americas, from the Yukon to Peru. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 307 KB) Photographers comment: [sic] some lionesses down below growling and pacing but they were in the shade so I didnt get very good pictures of them. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 500 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1000 pixel, file size: 967 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... “Feline” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Panthera (disambiguation). ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Image File history File links Lion_distribution. ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... “Feline” redirects here. ... This article is about large cat species. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Panthera (disambiguation). ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... An endangered species is a species whose population is so small that it is in danger of becoming extinct. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... This article is about the Canadian territory. ...


Should they survive the rigors of cubhood, lionesses in secure habitat such as Kruger National Park may frequently reach an age of 12-14 years whereas lions seldom live for longer than 8 years.[3] In captivity both male and female lions can live for over 20 years. They typically inhabit savanna and grassland, although they may take to bush and forest. Lions are unusually social compared to other cats. A pride of lions consists of related females and offspring and a small number of adult males. Groups of female lions typically hunt together, preying mostly on large ungulates. The lion is an apex and keystone predator, although they will resort to scavenging if the opportunity arises. While lions, in general, do not selectively hunt humans, some have been known to become man-eaters and seek human prey. Kruger National Park is the largest game reserve in South Africa. ... This article is about grassland. ... The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... A social animal is a loosely defined term for an organism that is highly interactive with other members of its species to the point of having a recognizable and distinct society. ... Orders & Clades Order Perissodactyla Eparctocyona Order Arctostylonia (extinct) Order Mesonychia (extinct) Cetartiodactyla Order Cetacea Order Artiodactyla Bulbulodentata (extinct) Family Hyopsodontidae Meridiungulata (extinct) Order Litopterna Notoungulata (extinct) Order Toxodontia Order Typotheria Ungulates (meaning roughly being hoofed or hoofed animal) are several groups of mammals most of which use the tips of... Apex predators (also alpha predators, superpredators, or top-level predators) are predators that, as adults, are not normally preyed upon in the wild in significant parts of their ranges. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The lion is a vulnerable species, having seen a possibly irreversible population decline of 30 to 50% over the past two decades in its African range;[1] populations are untenable outside designated reserves and national parks. Although the cause of the decline is not well understood, habitat loss and conflicts with humans are currently the greatest causes of concern. Lions have been kept in menageries since Roman times and have been a key species sought after and exhibited in zoos the world over since the late eighteenth century. Zoos are cooperating worldwide in breeding programs for the endangered Asiatic subspecies. This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Menagerie is the term for a historical form of keeping wild and exotic animals in human captivity and therefore a predecessor of the modern zoological garden. ... The Roman Era is a period in Western history, when ancient Rome was the center of power of the world around the Mediterranean Sea, where Latin was the lingua franca. ... For other uses, see Zoo (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Panthera leo persica Meyer, 1826 Current distribution of the Asiatic Lion in the wild Synonyms Leo leo goojratensis (India) Leo leo persicus (Persia) The Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica; also known as Indian Lion) is a subspecies of the lion found only in India. ...


Visually, the male is highly distinctive and is easily recognized by its mane. The head of the male lion is one of the most widely recognized animal symbols in human culture. It has been depicted extensively in literature, in sculptures, in paintings, on national flags, and in contemporary films and literature. Look up mane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Sculptor redirects here. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ...


The lioness has been recognized, however, as the pinnacle of hunting prowess from the earliest of human writings and graphic representations. The lionesses are the hunters for their pride and capture their prey with precise and complex teamwork. Each lioness develops specific skills for her role in the hunting techniques used by her pride and, generally, assumes that role during most hunts. Members of human cultures living among lions in natural habitats have understood this characteristic and often have chosen the lioness to represent their most ferocious war deities and warriors, often naming their male rulers as her "son". Examples drawn from the earliest of written records include the Egyptian pantheon deities of Sekhmet, Bast, Menhit, and Tefnut, and these deities may have had precursors in Nubia and Lybia. Other Egyptian deities are quite complex and assume aspects that may include one as a lioness headed human or a lioness in specific roles. Depictions of lions hunting in groups have existed from the Upper Paleolithic period, with carvings and paintings from the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves. War Gods redirects here. ... Warriors may refer to Warriors (book series) is a series of fantasy novels written by Kate Cary and Cherith Baldry, under the pen name Erin Hunter. ... --68. ... For other uses, see Sekhmet (disambiguation). ... ukyih;;;;;;;;;;uiiiih;hhh;oiuj7p ... In Egyptian mythology, Menhit (she who massacres; also Menchit) was a lion-goddess of war. ... In Egyptian mythology, Tefnut is a goddess of water and fertility, indeed her name means moist waters (i. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... This article is about Libya, the country in North Africa. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... Cave painting at Lascaux. ... The Chauvet Cave or Chauvet-Pont-dArc Cave is a cave located near Vallon-Pont-dArc, in the Ardèche département, in southern France. ...

Contents

Naming and etymology

The lion's name, similar in many Romance languages, derives from the Latin leo[4]; cf. the Ancient Greek λέων (leon)[5]. The Hebrew word lavi (לָבִיא) may also be related,[6] as well as the Ancient Egyptian rw.[7] It was one of the many species originally described, as Felis leo, by Linnaeus in his eighteenth century work, Systema Naturae.[8][dead link] The generic component of its scientific designation, Panthera leo, is often presumed to derive from Greek pan- ("all") and ther ("beast"), but this may be a folk etymology. Although it came into English through the classical languages, panthera is probably of East Asian origin, meaning "the yellowish animal," or "whitish-yellow".[9] For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Taxonomy and evolution

Skull of a modern lion at Kruger National Park
Skull of a modern lion at Kruger National Park

The oldest lion-like fossil is known from Laetoli in Tanzania and is perhaps 3.5 million years old; some scientists have identified the material as Panthera leo. These records are not well-substantiated, and all that can be said is that they pertain to a Panthera-like felid. The oldest confirmed records of Panthera leo in Africa are about 2 million years younger.[10] The closest relatives of the lion are the other Panthera species: the tiger, the jaguar and the leopard. Morphological and genetic studies reveal that the tiger was the first of these recent species to diverge. About 1.9 million years ago the Jaguar branched off the remaining group, which contained ancestors of the leopard and lion. The Lion and leopard subsequently separated about 1 to 1.25 million years ago from each other.[11] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 744 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1523 × 1228 pixel, file size: 567 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 744 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1523 × 1228 pixel, file size: 567 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Kruger National Park is the largest game reserve in South Africa. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Laetoli is a site in Tanzania, dated to the Plio-Pleistocene and famous for its hominid footprints, preserved in volcanic ash (Site G). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Panthera (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... keels is bent and she has a big nose which she picks every day. ... This article is about the big cat. ... This article is about the big cat. ...


Panthera leo itself evolved in Africa between 1 million and 800,000 years ago before spreading throughout the Holarctic region.[12] It appeared in Europe for the first time 700,000 years ago with the subspecies Panthera leo fossilis at Isernia in Italy. From this lion derived the later Cave lion (Panthera leo spelaea), which appeared about 300,000 years ago. During the upper Pleistocene the lion spread to North and South America, and developed into Panthera leo atrox, the American lion.[13] Lions died out in northern Eurasia and America at the end of the last glaciation, about 10,000 years ago;[14] this may have been secondary to the extinction of Pleistocene megafauna.[15] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Holarctic is a term used by zoologists to define the ecozone covering much of Eurasia and North America, which have often been connected by the Bering land bridge. ... Trinomial name Panthera Leo Fossilis (Reichenau, 1906) Panthera Leo Fossilis, sometimes known as Early Middle Pleistocene primitive cave lion is an extinct feline of the Early and Middle Pleistocene. ... Isernia (Latin: Aesernia or, in Pliny and later writers, Eserninus, or in the Antonine Itinerary, Serni; Greek: ) is a town and comune in the southern Italian region of Molise, and the capital of Isernia province. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo spelaea Goldfuss, 1810 The cave lion, also known as the European or Eurasian cave lion, is an extinct feline known from fossils and a wide variety of prehistoric art. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... The term American lion has sometimes been used to mean the cougar Trinomial name Panthera leo atrox (Leidy, 1853) The American lion (Panthera leo atrox) also known as the North American lion or American cave lion, is an extinct feline known from fossils. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... The Pleistocene epoch of geologic history saw the extinction of a number of species, most notably that of the Pleistocene megafauna. ... It has been suggested that New World Pleistocene extinctions be merged into this article or section. ...


Subspecies

Southwest African lion (Panthera leo bleyenberghi)
Southwest African lion (Panthera leo bleyenberghi)

Traditionally 12 recent subspecies of lion were recognized, the largest of which has been recognised as the Barbary lion.[16] The major differences between these subspecies are location, mane appearance, size and distribution. Because these characteristics are very insignificant and show a high individual variability, most of these forms were debatable and probably invalid; additionally, they were often based upon zoo material of unknown origin that may have had "striking, but abnormal" morphological characteristics.[17] Today only eight subspecies are usually accepted,[18][14] but one of these (the Cape lion formerly described as Panthera leo melanochaita) is probably invalid.[18] Even the remaining seven subspecies might be too much; mitochondrial variation in recent African lions is modest, which suggests that all sub-Saharan lions could be considered a single subspecies, possibly divided in two main clades: one to the west of the Great Rift Valley and the other to the east. Lions from Tsavo in Eastern Kenya are much closer genetically to lions in Transvaal (South Africa), than to those in the Aberdare Range in Western Kenya.[19][20] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 423 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (575 × 814 pixel, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 423 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (575 × 814 pixel, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The Barbary Lion Panthera leo leo is a subspecies of lion. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... Tsavo is a small town in Kenya located at the crossing of the Uganda Railway over the Tsavo River, close to where it meets the Athi River. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... The Aberdare Range (formerly, the Sattima Range, Kikuyu: Nyandarua) is a 160 km long range of uplands in west central Kenya, north of the capital Nairobi, that forms a section of the eastern rim of the Great Rift Valley as it runs roughly north-south through East Africa. ...


Recent

Eight recent subspecies are recognized today:

  • P. l. persica, known as the Asiatic- or South Asian, Persian or Indian lion, was once widespread from Turkey, across the Middle East, to Pakistan, India and even Bangladesh. However, large prides and daylight activity made it easier to poach than tigers or leopards; now around 300 exist in and near the Gir Forest of India.[21]
  • P. l. leo, known as the Barbary lion, is extinct in the wild due to excessive hunting, although captive individuals may still exist. This was the largest of the lion subspecies, at approximately 3–3.5 metres (10–11.5 ft) long and weighing over 150 kilograms (330 lb). They ranged from Morocco to Egypt. The last wild Barbary lion was killed in Morocco in 1922.[22]
  • P. l. senegalensis, known as the West African lion, is found in Western Africa, from Senegal to Nigeria.
  • P. l. azandica, known as the North East Congo lion, is found in the North-eastern parts of the Congo.
  • P. l. nubica, known as the East African- or Massai lion, is found in East Africa, from Ethiopia and Kenya to Tanzania and Mozambique.
  • P. l. bleyenberghi, known as the Southwest African- or Katanga lion. It is found in South-western Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Angola, Katanga (Zaire), Zambia and Zimbabwe.
  • P. l. krugeri, known as the Southeast African- or Transvaal lion, is found in the Transvaal region of South eastern Africa, including Kruger National Park.
  • P. l. melanochaita, known as the Cape lion, became extinct in the wild around 1860. Results of mitochondrial DNA research do not support the status as a distinct subspecies. It seems probable that the Cape lion was only the southernmost population of the extant southern African lion.[18]

Trinomial name Panthera leo persica Meyer, 1826 Current distribution of the Asiatic Lion in the wild Synonyms Leo leo goojratensis (India) Leo leo persicus (Persia) The Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica; also known as Indian Lion) is a subspecies of the lion found only in India. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Gir National Forest is located near the southernmost point of the peninsula The Gir Forest National Park is located in the Junagadh district of Gujarat, India on 1412 kilometers2 of land. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The Barbary Lion Panthera leo leo is a subspecies of lion. ... Capital Lubumbashi Created June 1960 Dissolved January 1963 Demonym Katangan Currency Katanga franc Katanga is the southern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, regional capital Lubumbashi (formerly Elizabethville). ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... Kruger National Park is the largest game reserve in South Africa. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo melanochaitus Ch. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ...

Prehistoric

Several additional subspecies of lion existed in prehistoric times:

  • P. l. atrox, known as the American lion or American cave lion, was abundant in the Americas from Alaska to Peru in the Pleistocene Epoch until about 10,000 years ago. This form as well as the cave lion are sometimes considered to represent separate species, but recent phylogenetic studies suggest that they are in fact subspecies of the lion (Panthera leo).[14] One of the largest lion subspecies to have existed, its body length is estimated to have been 1.6–2.5 m (5–8 ft).[23]
  • P. l. fossilis, known as the Early Middle Pleistocene European cave lion, flourished about 500,000 years ago; fossils have been recovered from Germany and Italy.
Cave lions, Chamber of Felines, Lascaux caves
Cave lions, Chamber of Felines, Lascaux caves
  • P. l. spelaea, known as the European cave lion, Eurasian cave lion or Upper Pleistocene European cave lion, occurred in Eurasia 300,000 to 10,000 years ago.[14] This species is known from Paleolithic cave paintings (such as the one displayed to the right), ivory carvings, and clay busts, [24] indicating it had protruding ears, tufted tails, perhaps faint tiger-like stripes, and that at least some males had a ruff or primitive mane around their necks.[25] With this example being a hunting scene it is likely that it depicts females hunting for the pride using the same strategy as their contemporary relatives and males may not be part of the subject.

The term American lion has sometimes been used to mean the cougar Trinomial name Panthera leo atrox (Leidy, 1853) The American lion (Panthera leo atrox) also known as the North American lion or American cave lion, is an extinct feline known from fossils. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Panthera Leo Fossilis (Reichenau, 1906) Panthera Leo Fossilis, sometimes known as Early Middle Pleistocene primitive cave lion is an extinct feline of the Early and Middle Pleistocene. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo spelaea Goldfuss, 1810 The cave lion, also known as the European or Eurasian cave lion, is an extinct feline known from fossils and a wide variety of prehistoric art. ... Cave painting at Lascaux. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo spelaea Goldfuss, 1810 The cave lion, also known as the European or Eurasian cave lion, is an extinct feline known from fossils and a wide variety of prehistoric art. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... Cave, or rock, paintings are paintings painted on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to pre_historic times. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo vereshchagini (Baryshnikov & Boeskorov, 2001) Panthera leo vereshchagini, also known as the East Siberian and Beringian cave lion, was a small fossil lion that inhabited Yakutia (Russia), Alaska (USA), and the Yukon Territory (Canada). ... The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Саха́ (Яку́тия); Yakut: Саха Республиката) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Motto: none Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Jack Cable Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Area 482,443 km² (9th)  - Land 474,391 km²  - Water 8,052 km² (1. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ...

Dubious

  • P. l. sinhaleyus, known as the Sri Lanka lion, appears to have become extinct around 39,000 years ago. It is only known from two teeth found in deposits at Kuruwita. Based on these teeth, P. Deraniyagala erected this subspecies in 1939.[27]
  • P. l. europaea, known as the European lion, was probably identical with Panthera leo persica or Panthera leo spelea; its status as a subspecies is unconfirmed. It became extinct around 100 AD due to persecution and over-exploitation. It inhabited the Balkans, the Italian Peninsula, southern France and the Iberian Peninsula. It was a very popular object of hunting among Romans, Greeks and Macedonians.
  • P. l. youngi or Panthera youngi , known as the North-Eastern Pleistocene China cave lion, flourished 350,000 years ago.[28] Its relationship to the extant lion subspecies is obscure, and it probably represents a distinct species.
  • P. l. maculatus, known as the Marozi or Spotted lion, is sometimes believed to be a distinct subspecies, but may be an adult lion that has retained its juvenile spotted pattern. If it was a subspecies in its own right, rather than a small number of aberrantly colored individuals, it has been extinct since 1931. A less likely identity is a natural leopard/lion hybrid commonly known as a leopon.[29]

Trinomial name Panthera leo sinhaleyus Deraniyagala, 1939 Synonyms Leo leo sinhaleyus The Sri Lanka lion or Ceylon lion Panthera leo sinhaleyus was a prehistoric subspecies of lion, endemic to Sri Lanka. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo europaea The European lion (Panthera leo europaea) could be an extinct subspecies of lion that inhabited southern Europe until historic times. ... Balkan redirects here. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Binomial name Panthera youngi Panthera youngi is known from Choukoutien, northeastern China, lived about 350,000 years ago, and is apparently an ancestor of both the Eurasian cave lion Panthera leo spelaea and the American lion Panthera leo atrox. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo maculatus (Pocock, 1937) A Marozi or Spotted Lion (Panthera leo maculatus) is claimed to be a rare, natural hybrid of a leopard and lion or perhaps an adult lion which retained its childhood spots. ... There are a number of hybrids of Panthera genus. ... A leopon is the result of breeding a male leopard with a female lion, or lioness. ...

Hybrids

A liger is the offspring of a male lion and female tiger.
Further information: Panthera hybrid, liger and tigon

Lions have been known to breed with tigers (most often the Siberian and Bengal subspecies) to create hybrids called ligers and tigons.[30] They have also been crossed with leopards to produce leopons,[31] and jaguars to produce jaglions. The marozi is reputedly a spotted lion or a naturally occurring leopon, while the Congolese spotted lion is a complex lion/jaguar/leopard hybrid called a lijagulep. Such hybrids were once commonly bred in zoos, but this is now discouraged due to the emphasis on conserving species and subspecies. Hybrids are still bred in private menageries and in zoos in China. Image File history File links Bertramliger. ... Image File history File links Bertramliger. ... For other uses, see Liger (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... There are a number of hybrids of Panthera genus. ... For other uses, see Liger (disambiguation). ... Tigron redirects here. ... Biological reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris altaica Temminck, 1884 Distribution of the Siberian tiger (in red) The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is a rare subspecies of tiger (). Also known as the Amur, Manchurian, Korean, Altaic, or North China tiger, it is confined completely to the Amur region in the Far East... Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal tiger, or Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris or Panthera tigris bengalensis), is a subspecies of tiger primarily found in Bangladesh, India, and also Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and southern Tibet. ... For other uses, see Liger (disambiguation). ... Tigron redirects here. ... This page is about the animal. ... A leopon is the result of breeding a male leopard with a female lion, or lioness. ... keels is bent and she has a big nose which she picks every day. ... There are a number of hybrids of Panthera species. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo maculatus (Pocock, 1937) A Marozi or Spotted Lion (Panthera leo maculatus) is claimed to be a rare, natural hybrid of a leopard and lion or perhaps an adult lion which retained its childhood spots. ... A Congolese Spotted Lion or more correctly lijagulep is the hybrid of a female leopard/jaguar cross (a jagulep or lepjag) with a male lion. ... A Congolese Spotted Lion or more correctly lijagulep is the hybrid of a female leopard/jaguar cross (a jagulep or lepjag) with a male lion. ...


The liger is a cross between a male lion and a tigress.[32] Because the lion sire passes on a growth-promoting gene, but the corresponding growth-inhibiting gene from the female lion is absent, ligers grow far larger than either parent. They share physical and behavioural qualities of both parent species (spots and stripes on a sandy background). Male ligers are sterile, but female ligers are often fertile. Males have about a 50% chance of having a mane, but if they grow one their manes will be modest: around 50% of a pure lion mane. Ligers are typically between 3.0 and 3.7 m (10 to 12 feet) in length, and can be between 360 and 450 kg (800 to 1,000 pounds) or more.[32] The less common tigon is a cross between the lioness and the male tiger.[33]


Physical characteristics

During confrontations with others, the mane makes the lion look bigger than he really is.
During confrontations with others, the mane makes the lion look bigger than he really is.

The lion is the second largest feline after the tiger. With powerful legs, a strong jaw, and 8 cm (3.1 in) long canine teeth, the lion can bring down and kill large prey.[34] Lion coloration varies from light buff to yellowish, reddish or dark ochraceous brown. The underparts are generally lighter and the tail tuft is black. Lion cubs are born with brown rosettes (spots) on their body, rather like those of a leopard. Although these fade as lions reach adulthood, faint spots can still often be seen on the legs and underparts, particularly on lionesses. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Human jaw front view Human jaw left view Human jaw top view The jaw is either of the two opposable structures forming, or near the entrance to, the mouth. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ...


Lions are the only members of the cat family to display obvious sexual dimorphism - that is, males and females look distinctly different, as a consequence of the specialized roles that each play in the pride. For instance, the lioness, as the hunter, lacks the male's heavy mane, which would impede her ability to camouflage when stalking the prey. The color of the male's mane varies from blond to black, generally becoming darker as the lion grows older.


Weights for adult lions generally lie between 150–241 kg (330–530 lb) for males, and 123–182 kg (270–400 lb) for females.[35][unreliable source?] Nowell and Jackson report average weights of 181 kg for males and 126 kg for females; one male shot near Mount Kenya was weighed at 272 kg (600 lb).[22] Head and body length is 170–250 cm (5 ft 7 in–8 ft 2 in) in males and 140–175 cm (4 ft 7 in–5 ft 9 in) in females; shoulder height is about 123 cm (4 ft) in males and 100 cm (3 ft 3 in) in females. The tail length is 70–100 cm (2 ft 3 in–3 ft 3 in).[2] The longest known male lion was a black-maned one shot near Mucsso, southern Angola in October 1973; the heaviest known lion was a man-eater shot just outside Hectorspruit in eastern Transvaal, South Africa and weighed 313 kg (690 lb).[36] Lions in captivity tend to be larger than lions in the wild - the heaviest lion on record is a male at Colchester Zoo in England named Simba in 1970, who weighed in at 375 kg (826 lb).[37][unreliable source?] Mount Kenya has a low profile typical of a shield volcano. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ...


In both males and females, the tail ends in a hairy tuft. In some lions, the tuft conceals a hard "spine" or "spur", approximately 5 mm long, formed of the final sections of tail bone fused together. The lion is the only felid to have a tufted tail - the function of the tuft and spine are unknown. Absent at birth, the tuft develops around 5½ months of age and readily identifiable at 7 months.[38]


Mane

Thermographic image of a lion, showing the insulating mane
Thermographic image of a lion, showing the insulating mane

The mane of the male lion, unique amongst cats, is one of the most distinctive characteristics of the species. It makes the lion appear larger, providing an excellent intimidation display; this aids the lion during confrontations with other lions and with the species' chief competitor in Africa, the spotted hyena.[39] The presence, absence, color, and size of the mane is associated with genetic precondition, sexual maturity, climate and testosterone production; the rule of thumb is the darker and fuller the mane, the healthier the lion.[40] Research in Tanzania also suggests mane length signals fighting success in male-male relationships. Darker-maned individuals may have longer reproductive lives and higher offspring survival, although they suffer in the hottest months of the year.[41] In prides including a coalition of two or three males, it is possible that lionesses solicit mating more actively with heavily maned lions.[40] Image File history File links Wiki_lion. ... Image File history File links Wiki_lion. ... This article is about the infrared imaging technique. ... Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) Spotted Hyena range The Spotted Hyena, or Laughing Hyena, (Crocuta crocuta) is a mammal of the order Carnivora. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ...


Scientists once believed that the distinct status of some subspecies could be justified by morphology, including the size of the mane. Morphology was used to identify subspecies such as the Barbary lion and Cape lion. Research has suggested, however, that environmental factors influence the color and size of a lion's mane, such as the ambient temperature.[41] The cooler ambient temperature in European and North American zoos, for example, can result in a heavier mane. Thus the mane is an inappropriate marker for identifying subspecies.[18][42] However the males of the Asiatic subspecies are characterized by sparser manes than average African lions.[43] The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The Barbary Lion Panthera leo leo is a subspecies of lion. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo melanochaitus Ch. ... Room temperature, in laboratory reports, is taken to be roughly 21–23 degrees Celsius (68–72 degrees Fahrenheit), or 294–296 kelvins. ... For other uses, see Zoo (disambiguation). ...

A maneless male lion, who also has little body hair - from Tsavo East National Park, Kenya
A maneless male lion, who also has little body hair - from Tsavo East National Park, Kenya

Maneless male lions have been reported in Senegal and Tsavo East National Park in Kenya, and the original male white lion from Timbavati also was maneless. Castrated lions have minimal manes. The lack of a mane is sometimes found in inbred lion populations; inbreeding also results in poor fertility.[44] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 471 pixelsFull resolution (1360 × 800 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 471 pixelsFull resolution (1360 × 800 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Bachuma Gate entrance to Tsavo National Park Tsavo East National Park is one of the oldest and largest parks in Kenya at 11,747 square kilometers. ... Castration (also referred as: gelding, neutering, orchiectomy, orchidectomy, and oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testes or a female loses the functions of the ovaries. ...

Lioness showing the ruff that sometimes leads to misidentification as a male
Lioness showing the ruff that sometimes leads to misidentification as a male

Many lionesses have a ruff that may be apparent in certain poses. Sometimes it is indicated in sculptures and drawings, especially ancient artwork, and is misinterpreted as a male mane. It differs from a mane, however, in being at the jaw line below the ears, of much less hair length, and frequently not noticeable, whereas a mane extends above the ears, often obscuring their outline entirely.


Cave paintings of extinct European cave lions exclusively show animals with no mane, or just the hint of a mane, suggesting to some that they were more or less maneless;[25] however, females hunting for a pride are the likely subjects of the drawings—since they are shown in a group related to hunting—so these images do not enable a reliable judgment about whether the males had manes. The drawings do suggest that the extinct species used the same social organization and hunting strategies as contemporary lions. Cave, or rock, paintings are paintings painted on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to pre_historic times. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo spelaea Goldfuss, 1810 The cave lion, also known as the European or Eurasian cave lion, is an extinct feline known from fossils and a wide variety of prehistoric art. ...


White lions

White lions owe their coloring to a recessive gene; they are rare forms of the subspecies Panthera leo krugeri
White lions owe their coloring to a recessive gene; they are rare forms of the subspecies Panthera leo krugeri

The white lion is not a distinct subspecies, but a special morph with a genetic condition, leucism,[17] that causes paler colouration akin to that of the white tiger; the condition is similar to melanism, which causes black panthers. White Transvaal lion (Panthera leo krugeri) individuals occasionally have been encountered in and around Kruger National Park and the adjacent Timbavati Private Game Reserve in eastern South Africa, but are more commonly found in captivity, where breeders deliberately select them. The unusual cream color of their coats is due to a recessive gene.[45] Reportedly, they have been bred in camps in South Africa for use as trophies for canned hunts.[46] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 867 KB) [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lion White lion ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 867 KB) [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lion White lion ... This article is about the band, for the big cats see White lion. ... This article is about the band, for the big cats see White lion. ... In biology, polymorphism can be defined as the occurrence in the same habitat of two or more forms of a trait in such frequencies that the rarer cannot be maintained by recurrent mutation alone. ... Leucism is characterized by reduced pigmentation, resulting in an individual with white or brighter patches of fur, plumage or skin than in the typical representative of the species. ... For other uses, see White tiger (disambiguation). ... The Black Panther is the prototypical example of melanism. ... A melanistic leopard, or black panther The black panther is the common name for a black specimen (a melanistic variant) of any of several species of cats. ... Kruger National Park is the largest game reserve in South Africa. ... Leopard, Tanda Tula camp, Timbavati Game Reserve, 2006 The Timbavati Game Reserve lies to the north of the Sabi Sand Game Reserve on the western edge of Kruger National Park and is one of South Africas prime wildlife viewing areas. ... Animal husbandry Animals that live under human care are in captivity. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Dominance relationship. ... A canned hunt is essentially a trophy hunt where the customer is guaranteed a kill by the simple expedient of the hosts pre-capturing the animal, and releasing it into an area where the hunter can take a shot at it, such as in a fenced-in area. ...


Confirmation of the existence of white lions only came in the late twentieth century. For hundreds of years prior, the white lion had been thought to be a figment of legend circulating in South Africa, the white pelage of the animal said to represent the goodness in all creatures. Sightings were first reported in the early 1900s, and continued, infrequently, for almost fifty years until, in 1975, a litter of white lion cubs was found at Timbavati Game Reserve.[47] In mammals, pelage is the hair, fur, or wool that covers the animal. ...


Biology and behavior

Lions spend much of their time resting and are inactive for about 20 hours per day.[48] Although lions can be active at any time, their activity generally peaks after dusk with a period of socializing, grooming and defecating. Intermittent bursts of activity follow through the night hours to dawn, when hunting most often takes place. They spend an average of two hours a day walking and 50 minutes eating.[49]


Hunting and diet

While a lioness such as this has very sharp teeth, prey is usually killed by strangulation
While a lioness such as this has very sharp teeth, prey is usually killed by strangulation

Lionesses are powerful animals who usually hunt in co-ordinated groups and stalk their chosen prey. They can reach speeds of 59 km/h (40 mph),[50] although only for short bursts[51] so they have to be close to their prey before starting the attack. They take advantage of factors that reduce visibility; many kills take place near some form of cover or at night.[52] They sneak up to the victim until they reach a distance of approximately 30 metres (98 feet) or less. Typically, several female lions work together and encircle the herd from different points. Once they have closed with a herd, they usually target the closest prey. The attack is short and powerful; they attempt to catch the victim with a fast rush and final leap. The prey usually is killed by strangulation.[53] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 1536 pixel, file size: 943 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 1536 pixel, file size: 943 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


The prey consists mainly of large mammals, with a preference for wildebeest, impalas, zebras, buffalo, and warthogs in Africa and nilgai, wild boar and several deer species in India. Many other species are hunted, based on availability. Mainly this will include ungulates weighing between 50 and 300 kg (110–660 lb) such as kudu, hartebeest, gemsbok, and eland.[2] Occasionally, they take relatively small species such as Thomson's gazelle or springbok. Lions living near the Namib coast feed extensively on seals.[54] Lions hunting in groups are capable of taking down most animals, even healthy adults, but they rarely attack very large prey such as buffalo bulls or fully grown male giraffes due to the danger of injury.[55] Predator and Prey redirect here. ... Species Connochaetes gnou Connochaetes taurinus The wildebeest (plural, wildebeest or wildebeests), also called the gnu (pronounced or ), is an antelope of the genus Connochaetes. ... For other uses, see Impala (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zebra (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Syncerus caffer (Sparrman, 1779) Subspecies The African Buffalo or Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a bovid from the family of the Bovidae. ... Binomial name (Pallas, 1766) This article is about the animal. ... Binomial name Boselaphus tragocamelus Pall. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pig. ... Orders & Clades Order Perissodactyla Eparctocyona Order Arctostylonia (extinct) Order Mesonychia (extinct) Cetartiodactyla Order Cetacea Order Artiodactyla Bulbulodentata (extinct) Family Hyopsodontidae Meridiungulata (extinct) Order Litopterna Notoungulata (extinct) Order Toxodontia Order Typotheria Ungulates (meaning roughly being hoofed or hoofed animal) are several groups of mammals most of which use the tips of... Male Greater Kudu Female Greater Kudu The Kudu are two species of antelope: Lesser Kudu, Tragelaphus imberbis Greater Kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros Kudu: has a symbolic role in Hindu and Buddhist architecture. ... Binomial name Alcelaphus buselaphus Pallas, 1766 The Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) is a grassland antelope found in West Africa, East Africa and Southern Africa. ... Binomial name Oryx gazella (Linnaeus, 1758) The gemsbok or gemsbuck (Oryx gazella) is a large African oryx antelope. ... Eland might refer to: Common Eland or Taurotragus oryx a savannah and plain antelope found in East and Southern Africa. ... Binomial name Günther, 1884 Male Thompsons gazelle. ... Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Range map For other meanings of Springbok, see Springbok The Springbok (Afrikaans and Dutch: spring = jump; bok = antelope, deer, or goat) (Antidorcas marsupialis) is a small brown and white gazelle that stands about 75 cm high. ... Dune 7, the highest sand dune in the world, in the Namib Desert, Namibia. ... // Look up seal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Extensive statistics collected over various studies show that lions normally feed on mammals in the range 190-550 kg (420–1210 lb), which excludes most adult hippopotamuses, rhinoceroses, elephants and smaller gazelles, impala and other agile antelopes. However giraffes, and buffalos are often taken in certain regions. Occasionally hippopotamus is also taken, but adult rhinoceroses are generally avoided. Even though smaller than 190 kg (420 lb), warthogs are often taken depending on availability.[56] In some areas, they specialise in hunting atypical prey species; this is the case at the Savuti river, where they prey on elephants.[57] Park guides in the area reported that the lions, driven by extreme hunger, started taking down baby elephants, and then moved on to adolescents and, occasionally, fully grown adults during the night when elephants' vision is poor.[58] In Kruger National Park, giraffes are regularly hunted.[59] Lions also attack domestic livestock; in India cattle contribute significantly to their diet.[43] They are capable of killing other predators such as leopards, cheetahs, hyenas, and wild dogs, as well as scavenging animals either dead from natural causes or killed by other predators.[60] A lion may gorge itself and eat up to 30 kg (66 lb) in one sitting;[61] if it is unable to consume all the kill it will rest for a few hours before consuming more. On a hot day, the pride may retreat to shade leaving a male or two to stand guard.[62] An adult lioness requires an average of about 5 kg (11 lb) of meat per day, a male about 7 kg (15.4 lb).[63] Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758[2] Range map[1] The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), from the Greek ἱπποπόταμος (hippopotamos, hippos meaning horse and potamos meaning river), often shortened to hippo, is a large, mostly plant-eating African mammal, one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae (the other being the Pygmy... For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Impala (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... Binomial name Syncerus caffer (Sparrman, 1779) Subspecies The African Buffalo or Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a bovid from the family of the Bovidae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758[2] Range map[1] The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), from the Greek ἱπποπόταμος (hippopotamos, hippos meaning horse and potamos meaning river), often shortened to hippo, is a large, mostly plant-eating African mammal, one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae (the other being the Pygmy... For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ... Chobe National Park, situated at the Northwest of Botswana, is one of the largest games concentration in all the Africa continent and one of the worlds last remaining sizeable wilderness area. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... This article is about the big cat. ... This article is about the animal. ... This article is about the species of animal. ... Binomial name (Temminck, 1820) African Wild Dog range The African Wild Dog, Lycaon pictus, also known as the African Hunting Dog, Cape Hunting Dog, Painted Dog, or Painted Wolf, is a carnivorous mammal of the Canidae family. ...

The hunters of a pride sharing a zebra where the kill occurred
The hunters of a pride sharing a zebra where the kill occurred

Because lionesses hunt in open spaces where they are easily seen by their prey, cooperative hunting increases the likelihood of a successful hunt; this is especially true with larger species. Teamwork also enables them to defend their kills more easily against other large predators such as hyenas, which may be attracted by vultures from kilometers away in open savannas. Lionesses do most of the hunting. In typical hunts, each lioness has a favored position in the group, either stalking prey on the "wing" then attacking, or moving a smaller distance in the centre of the group and capturing prey in flight from other lionesses.[64] Orders Falconiformes (Fam. ...


Males attached to prides do not usually participate in hunting, except in the case of larger quarry such as giraffe and buffalo. Bachelor male lions without a pride of their own are forced to hunt. Male lions have also been observed and recorded hunting in groups.[citation needed]


Young lions first display stalking behaviour around three months of age, although they do not participate in hunting until they are almost a year old. They begin to hunt effectively when nearing the age of two.[65] Depending upon how quickly they mature, males are excluded from the pride at age two or three.


Reproduction

Most lionesses will have reproduced by the time they are four years of age.[66] Lions do not mate at any specific time of year, and the females are polyestrous.[67] As with other cats, the male lion's penis has spines which point backwards. Upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which may cause ovulation.[68] A lioness may mate with more than one male when she is in heat;[69] during a mating bout, which could last several days, the couple copulates twenty to forty times a day and are likely to forgo eating. Lions reproduce very well in captivity. IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ... The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; originally derived from Latin oestrus) comprises the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females. ...

During a mating bout, a couple may copulate twenty to forty times a day for several days; the ruff of the female is clearly visible
During a mating bout, a couple may copulate twenty to forty times a day for several days; the ruff of the female is clearly visible

The average gestation period is around 110 days,[67] the female giving birth to a litter of one to four cubs. Lionesses in a pride often synchronize their reproductive cycles so that they cooperate in the raising and suckling of the young, who suckle indiscriminately from any or all of the nursing females in the pride. The synchronization of births also has an advantage in that the cubs end up being roughly the same size, and thus have an equal chance of survival. If one lioness gives birth to a litter of cubs a couple of months after another lioness, for instance, then the younger cubs, being much smaller than their older brethren, are usually dominated by larger cubs at mealtimes - consequently, death by starvation is more common amongst the younger cubs. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 527 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1485 × 1689 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 527 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1485 × 1689 pixel, file size: 2. ...


Cubs usually are born and initially kept hidden from view in thickets or sheltered areas. They are blind at birth - their eyes do not open until roughly a week after birth. They weigh 1.2–2.1 kg (2.6–4.6 lb) at birth and are almost helpless, beginning to crawl a day or two after birth and walking around three weeks of age.[70] Weaning occurs after six to seven months. In the wild, competition for food is fierce, and as many as 80% of the cubs will die before the age of two.[71]


When one or more new males oust the previous male(s) associated with a pride, the conqueror(s) often kill any existing young cubs, [72] perhaps, because females do not become fertile and receptive until their cubs mature or die. Male lions reach maturity at about 3 years of age and, at 4–5 years of age, are capable of challenging and displacing the adult male(s) associated with another pride. They begin to age and weaken between 10 and 15 years of age at the latest,[73] if they have not already been critically injured whilst defending the pride (once ousted from a pride by rival males, male lions rarely manage a second take-over). This leaves a short window for their own offspring to be born and mature. If they are able to procreate as soon as they take over a pride, potentially, they may have more offspring reaching maturity before they also are displaced. A lioness often will attempt to defend her cubs fiercely from a usurping male, but such actions are rarely successful. He usually kills all of the existing cubs who are less than two years old. The lioness is much lighter and has less strength than the male, however, success is more likely when a group of three or four mothers within the pride join forces against one male.[72]


One scientific study reports that both males and females may interact homosexually.[74][75] Male lions pair-bond for a number of days and initiate homosexual activity with affectionate nuzzling and caressing, leading to mounting and thrusting. A study found that about 8% of mountings have been observed to occur with other males. Female pairings are held to be fairly common in captivity, but have not been observed in the wild. Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species. ...


Health

Though adult lions have no natural predators, evidence suggests that the majority die violently from humans or other lions.[76] This is particularly true of male lions, who, as the main defenders of the pride, are more likely to come into aggressive contact with rival males. In fact, even though a male lion may reach an age of 15 or 16 years if he manages to avoid being ousted by other males, the majority of adult males do not live to be more than 10 years old. This is why the average lifespan of a male lion tends to be significantly less than that of a lioness in the wild. However, members of both sexes can be injured or even killed by other lions when two prides with overlapping territories come into conflict.


Various species of tick commonly infest the ears, neck and groin regions of most lions.[77][78] Adult forms of several species of the tapeworm genus Taenia have been isolated from intestines, the lions having ingested larval forms from antelope meat.[79] Lions in the Ngorongoro Crater were afflicted by an outbreak of stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) in 1962; this resulted in lions becoming covered in bloody bare patches and emaciated. Lions sought unsuccessfully to evade the biting flies by climbing trees or crawling into hyena burrows; many perished or emigrated as the population dropped from 70 to 15 individuals.[80] A more recent outbreak in 2001 killed six lions.[81] Lions, especially in captivity, are vulnerable to the Canine distemper virus (CDV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline infectious peritonitis (FIP).[17] CDV is spread through domestic dogs and other carnivores; a 1994 outbreak in Serengeti National Park resulted in many lions developing neurological symptoms such as seizures. During the outbreak, several lions died from pneumonia and encephalitis.[82] FIV, which is similar to HIV while not known to adversely affect lions, is worrisome enough in its effect in domestic cats that the Species Survival Plan recommends systematic testing in captive lions. It occurs with high to endemic frequency in several wild lion populations, but is mostly absent from Asiatic and Namibian lions.[17] Families Ixodidae - Hard ticks Argasidae - Soft ticks Nuttalliellidae - ????? ticks Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodoidea Tick is the common name for the small arachnids that, along with other mites, constitute the order Acarina. ... Species Species Taenia crassiceps Species Taenia pisiformis Species Taenia saginata Species Taenia solium Taenia is a genus of tapeworm that includes some important parasites of livestock. ... Ngorongoro crater is the worlds largest unbroken volcanic caldera, sited towards the northwest of Arusha in Tanzania, and is connected to the Serengeti savannah to its immediate south. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Stomoxys calcitrans is commonly called the stable fly or dog fly. ... 11:06, 9 October 2007 (UTC)124. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), commonly known as Helen AIDS is a lentivirus that affects domesticated housecats worldwide. ... FIP-infected kidney showing inflammatory response Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal, incurable disease that affects cats. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... The Serengeti National Park ( ) is a large national park in Serengeti area, Tanzania, Africa. ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...


Group organization

A pride on the move near Governors Camp, in the Massai Mara, Kenya
A pride on the move near Governors Camp, in the Massai Mara, Kenya

Lions are predatory carnivores who manifest two types of social organization. Some are residents, living in groups, called prides.[83] The pride usually consists of approximately five or six related females, their cubs of both sexes, and one or two males known as a coalition who mate with the adult females (although extremely large prides, consisting of up to 30 individuals, have been observed). The coalition of males associated with a pride are usually two, but may increase to four and decrease again over time. Male cubs are excluded from their maternal pride when they are reaching maturity. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 3565 KB) Author: Rick marin 18:11, 23 November 2006 (UTC) Source: personal photograph taken myself Location: Near Govenors Camp, in the Massai Mara, Kenya I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 3565 KB) Author: Rick marin 18:11, 23 November 2006 (UTC) Source: personal photograph taken myself Location: Near Govenors Camp, in the Massai Mara, Kenya I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ...


The second organizational behaviour is labeled nomads, who range widely and move about sporadically, either singularly or in pairs.[83] Pairs are more frequent among related males who have been excluded from their birth pride. Note that a lion may switch lifestyles; nomads may become residents and vice versa. Males have to go through this lifestyle and some never are able to join another pride. A female who becomes a nomad has much greater difficulty joining a new pride, as the females in a pride are related and reject most attempts by an unrelated female to join their family group.


The area a pride occupies is called a pride area, whereas that by a nomad is a range.[83] The males associated with a pride tend to stay on the fringes, patrolling their territory. Why sociality—the most pronounced in any cat species—has developed in lionesses is the subject of much debate. Increased hunting success appears an obvious reason, but this is less than sure upon examination: coordinated hunting does allow for more successful predation, but also ensures that non-hunting "cheaters" reduce per capita caloric intake. Other benefits include possible kin selection (better to share food with a related lion than with a stranger), protection of the young, maintenance of territory, and individual insurance against injury and hunger.[22] In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. ... In evolutionary biology, kin selection refers to changes in gene frequency across generations that are driven at least in part by interactions between related individuals, and this forms much of the conceptual basis of the theory of social evolution. ...

Lioness in a burst of speed while hunting in the Serengeti
Lioness in a burst of speed while hunting in the Serengeti

Lionesses do the majority of the hunting for their pride, being smaller, swifter and more agile than the males, and unencumbered by the heavy and conspicuous mane, which causes overheating during exertion. They act as a co-ordinated group in order to successfully stalk and bring down the prey. However, males have a tendency to dominate the kill once the lionesses have succeeded (they are actually more likely to share the kill with the cubs than with the lionesses), and rarely share food they have killed by themselves. Smaller prey is eaten at the location of the hunt, thereby being shared among the hunters; when the kill is larger it often is dragged to the pride area. There is more sharing with larger kills[84], although pride members still often behave aggressively towards each other as they each try to consume as much food as they can.


Both males and females defend the pride against intruders. Some individual lions consistently lead the defense against intruders, while others lag behind.[85] These "laggards" are not punished by leaders. Possibly laggards provide other services to the group so that leaders forgive them.[86] An alternative hypothesis is that there is some reward associated with being a leader who fends off intruders.[87] The male or males often defend the pride from outside males who attempt to take over the pride. Females form a stable social unit in a pride and do not tolerate outside females; [88] membership only changes with the births and deaths of lionesses,[89] though some females do leave and become nomadic.[90] Subadult males on the other hand, leave the pride when they reach maturity at around 2–3 years of age.[90]


Communication

Head rubbing and licking are common social behaviors within a pride, this cub's mother gives it an affectionate nudge
Head rubbing and licking are common social behaviors within a pride, this cub's mother gives it an affectionate nudge

When resting, lion socialization occurs through a number of behaviors, and the animal's expressive movements are highly developed. The most common peaceful tactile gestures are head rubbing and social licking,[91] which have been compared with grooming in primates.[92] Head rubbing—nuzzling one's forehead, face and neck against another lion—appears to be a form of greeting,[93] as it is seen often after an animal has been apart from others, or after a fight or confrontation. Males tend to rub other males, while cubs and females rub females.[94] Social licking often occurs in tandem with head rubbing; it is generally mutual and the recipient appears to express pleasure. The head and neck are the most common parts of the body licked, which may have arisen out of utility, as a lion cannot lick these areas individually.[95] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 583 pixelsFull resolution (3205 × 2336 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 583 pixelsFull resolution (3205 × 2336 pixel, file size: 4. ...


Lions have an array of facial expressions and body postures that serve as visual gestures.[96] Their repertoire of vocalizations is also large; variations in intensity and pitch, rather than discrete signals, appear central to communication. Lion sounds include snarling, purring, hissing, coughing, miaowing, woofing and roaring. Lions tend to roar in a very characteristic manner, starting with a few deep, long roars that trail off into a series of shorter ones. They most often roar at night; the sound, which can be heard from a distance of 8 kilometres (5.0 mi), is used to advertise the animal's presence.[97] Lions have the loudest roar of any big cat.


Interspecific predatory relationships

The relationship between lions and spotted hyenas in areas where they coexist is unique in its complexity and intensity. Lions and spotted hyenas are both apex predators which feed on the same prey, and are therefore in direct competition with one other. As such, they will often fight over and steal each others' kills. Though hyenas are popularly assumed to be opportunistic scavengers profiting from the lion's hunting abilities, it is quite often the case that the reverse is true. In Tanzania's Ngorongoro Crater, the spotted hyena population greatly exceeds that of the resident lions, which obtain a large proportion of their food by stealing hyena prey. The feud between the two species however encompasses more than just battles over food. In animals, it is usually the case that territorial boundaries of another species are disregarded. Hyenas and lions are an exception to this; they set boundaries against each other as they would against members of their own species. Male lions in particular are extremely aggressive toward hyenas, and have been observed to hunt and kill hyenas without eating them. Conversely, hyenas are major predators of lion cubs, and will harass lionesses over kills.[98][99] However, healthy adult males, even single ones, are generally avoided at all costs. Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) Spotted Hyena range The Spotted Hyena, or Laughing Hyena, (Crocuta crocuta) is a mammal of the order Carnivora. ... Apex predators (also alpha predators, superpredators, or top-level predators) are predators that, as adults, are not normally preyed upon in the wild in significant parts of their ranges. ...


Lions tend to dominate smaller felines such as cheetahs and leopards in areas where they are sympatric. They will steal their kills and will kill their cubs and even adults when given the chance. The cheetah has a 50% chance of losing its kill to lions or other predators.[100] Lions are major killers of cheetah cubs, up to 90% of which are lost in their first weeks of life due to attacks by other predators. Cheetahs avoid competition by hunting at different times of the day and hide their cubs in thick brush. Leopards also use such tactics, but have the advantage of being able to subsist much better on small prey than either lions or cheetahs. Also, unlike cheetahs, leopards can climb trees and use them to keep their cubs and kills away from lions. However, lionesses will occasionally be successful in climbing to retrieve leopard kills.[101] Similarly, lions dominate African wild dogs, not only taking their kills but also preying on both young and adult dogs (although the latter are rarely caught).[102] This article is about the animal. ... This article is about the big cat. ... Binomial name (Temminck, 1820) African Wild Dog range The African Wild Dog, Lycaon pictus, also known as the African Hunting Dog, Cape Hunting Dog, Painted Dog, or Painted Wolf, is a carnivorous mammal of the Canidae family. ...


The Nile crocodile is the only competing predator besides spotted hyenas and humans that can threaten the lion. Depending on the size of the crocodile and the lion, either can lose kills or carrion to the other. Lions have been known to kill crocodiles venturing onto land,[103] while the reverse is true for lions entering crocodile-infested waterways. Binomial name (Laurenti, 1768) The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is one of the 4 species of crocodiles found in Africa, and the second largest species of crocodile. ...


Distribution and habitat

The Gir Forest in the State of Gujarat, India is the last natural range of the 300-odd wild Asiatic lions. Plans are afoot to re-introduce some to Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in the neighboring State of Madhya Pradesh in India.
The Gir Forest in the State of Gujarat, India is the last natural range of the 300-odd wild Asiatic lions. Plans are afoot to re-introduce some to Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in the neighboring State of Madhya Pradesh in India.

In Africa, lions can be found in savanna grasslands with scattered Acacia trees which serve as shade;[104] their habitat in India is a mixture of dry savanna forest and very dry deciduous scrub forest.[105] In relatively recent times the habitat of lions spanned the southern parts of Eurasia, ranging from Greece to India, and most of Africa except the central rainforest-zone and the Sahara desert. Herodotus reported that lions had been common in Greece around 480 BC; they attacked the baggage camels of the Persian king Xerxes on his march through the country. Aristotle considered them rare by 300 BC and by 100 AD extirpated.[106] A population of the Asiatic lion survived until the tenth century in the Caucasus, their last European outpost.[107] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x749, 67 KB) Summary National parks and Sanctuary - Gujarat State (India) with district boundries and city marks - Self Made - w:User:Miljoshi - Jan 2006 - w:Gir Forest National Park - w:Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary Note: co-ordinates are estimated, and may... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x749, 67 KB) Summary National parks and Sanctuary - Gujarat State (India) with district boundries and city marks - Self Made - w:User:Miljoshi - Jan 2006 - w:Gir Forest National Park - w:Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary Note: co-ordinates are estimated, and may... Trinomial name Panthera leo persica Meyer, 1826 Current distribution of the Asiatic Lion in the wild Synonyms Leo leo goojratensis (India) Leo leo persicus (Persia) The Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica; also known as Indian Lion) is a subspecies of the lion found only in India. ... Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary or Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary is located between latitudes of 25°30’- 25°53’E & longitude of 77°07’-77°26’N, in the Sheopur district of north western Madhya Pradesh, a state in central India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... For other uses, see Acacia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For the novel, see Rainforest (novel). ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Xerxes I of Persia (sometimes known as Xerxes the Great, in old Persian, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠[2]) was a king of Persia (reigned 486–465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Panthera leo persica Meyer, 1826 Current distribution of the Asiatic Lion in the wild Synonyms Leo leo goojratensis (India) Leo leo persicus (Persia) The Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica; also known as Indian Lion) is a subspecies of the lion found only in India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The species was eradicated from Palestine by the Middle Ages and from most of the rest of Asia after the arrival of readily available firearms in the eighteenth century. Between the late nineteenth and early twentieth century they became extinct in North Africa and the Middle East. By the late nineteenth century the lion had disappeared from Turkey and most of northern India,[17][108] while the last sighting of a live Asiatic lion in Iran was in 1941 (between Shiraz and Jahrom, Fars province), though the corpse of a lioness was found on the banks of Karun river, Khuzestan province in 1944. There are no subsequent reliable reports from Iran.[61] The subspecies now survives only in and around the Gir Forest of northwestern India.[21] About 300 lions live in a 1,412 km² (558 square miles) sanctuary in the state of Gujarat, which covers most of the forest. Their numbers are slowly increasing.[109] A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Shiraz (disambiguation). ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Karun River passing the Iranian city of Ahvaz The Karun (also Karoun) is Irans most effluent, and the only navigable, river. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... The Gir National Forest is located near the southernmost point of the peninsula The Gir Forest National Park is located in the Junagadh district of Gujarat, India on 1412 kilometers2 of land. ... This article is for the Indian state. ...


Until the late Pleistocene (about 10,000 years ago), the lion was the most widespread land mammal aside from man. They were found in most of Africa, much of Eurasia from western Europe to India and the Bering land bridge, and in the Americas from Yukon to Peru. Parts of this range were occupied by subspecies that are extinct today. The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Nautical chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1,000 miles (1,600 km) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at... This article is about the Canadian territory. ...


Population and conservation status

Lion cubs playing in the Serengeti
Lion cubs playing in the Serengeti
Main article: Lion hunting

Most lions now live in eastern and southern Africa, and their numbers there are rapidly decreasing, with an estimated 30–50% decline over the last two decades.[1] Currently, estimates of the African lion population range between 16,500 and 47,000 living in the wild in 2002–2004,[110][111] down from early 1990s estimates that ranged as high as 100,000 and perhaps 400,000 in 1950. The cause of the decline is not well-understood, and may not be reversible.[1] Currently, habitat loss and conflicts with humans are considered the most significant threats to the species.[112][113] The remaining populations are often geographically isolated from each other, which can lead to inbreeding, and consequently, a lack of genetic diversity. Therefore the lion is considered a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, while the Asiatic subspecies is critically endangered. The lion population in the region of West Africa is isolated from lion populations of Central Africa, with little or no exchange of breeding individuals. The number of mature individuals in West Africa is estimated by two separate recent surveys at 850–1,160 (2002/2004). There is disagreement over the size of the largest individual population in West Africa: the estimates range from 100 to 400 lions in Burkina Faso's Arly-Singou ecosystem.[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 571 pixelsFull resolution (3104 × 2217 pixel, file size: 6. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 571 pixelsFull resolution (3104 × 2217 pixel, file size: 6. ... A zebra and wildebeests during migration The Serengeti ecosystem is located in north-western Tanzania and extends to south-western Kenya between latitudes 1 and 3 S and longitudes 34 and 36 E. It spans some 30,000 km. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... An endangered species is a species whose population is so small that it is in danger of becoming extinct. ... The Arly-Singou ecosystem is host to the largest population of lions in West Africa. ...

An Asiatic lioness Panthera leo persica, named Moti, was born in Helsinki Zoo (Finland) in October 1994; she arrived at Bristol Zoo (England) in January 1996. The Gir Forest in India is the natural home of the Asiatic lion but she was born in captivity.
An Asiatic lioness Panthera leo persica, named Moti, was born in Helsinki Zoo (Finland) in October 1994; she arrived at Bristol Zoo (England) in January 1996. The Gir Forest in India is the natural home of the Asiatic lion but she was born in captivity.

Conservation of both African and Asian lions has required the setup and maintenance of national parks and game reserves; among the best known are Etosha National Park in Namibia, Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and Kruger National Park in eastern South Africa. Outside these areas, the issues arising from lions' interaction with livestock and people usually results in the elimination of the former.[114] In India, the last refuge of the Asiatic lion is the 1,412 km² (558 square miles) Gir Forest National Park in western India which had about 359 lions (as of April 2006). As in Africa, numerous human habitations are close by with the resultant problems between lions, livestock, locals and wildlife officials.[115] The Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project plans to establish a second independent population of Asiatic lions at the Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.[116] It is important to start a second population to serve as a gene pool for the last surviving Asiatic lions and to help develop and maintain genetic diversity enabling the species to survive. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1996x1456, 341 KB) Asiatic Lioness (Panthera leo persica), name MOTI, born Helsinki Zoo (Finland) in October 1994, arrived Bristol Zoo (England) in January 1996 Taken by Adrian Pingstone at Bristol Zoo, England, in January 2005 and released to the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1996x1456, 341 KB) Asiatic Lioness (Panthera leo persica), name MOTI, born Helsinki Zoo (Finland) in October 1994, arrived Bristol Zoo (England) in January 1996 Taken by Adrian Pingstone at Bristol Zoo, England, in January 2005 and released to the public domain. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo persica Meyer, 1826 Current distribution of the Asiatic Lion in the wild Synonyms Leo leo goojratensis (India) Leo leo persicus (Persia) The Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica; also known as Indian Lion) is a subspecies of the lion found only in India. ... The Gir National Forest is located near the southernmost point of the peninsula The Gir Forest National Park is located in the Junagadh district of Gujarat, India on 1412 kilometers2 of land. ... Etosha National Park in Namibia was first established in 1907, when Namibia was a German colony known as South West Africa. ... The Serengeti National Park ( ) is a large national park in Serengeti area, Tanzania, Africa. ... Kruger National Park is the largest game reserve in South Africa. ... The Gir Forest National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary (also known as Sasan-Gir and गिर वन) is the sole home of the pure Asiatic Lions (Panthera leo persica). ... The Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project is an effort to save the last Asiatic lions from extinction in the wild. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo persica Meyer, 1826 Synonyms Leo leo goojratensis (India) Leo leo persicus (Persia) The Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica) is a subspecies of lion. ... Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary or Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary (between latitudes of 25°30’- 25°53’E & longitude of 77°07’-77°26’N) lies in the Sheopur district of north western Madhya Pradesh, a state in central India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ...


The former popularity of the Barbary lion as a zoo animal has meant that scattered lions in captivity are likely to be descended from Barbary lion stock. This includes twelve lions at Port Lympne Wild Animal Park in Kent, England that are descended from animals owned by the King of Morocco.[117] Another eleven animals believed to be Barbary lions were found in Addis Ababa zoo, descendants of animals owned by Emperor Haile Selassie. WildLink International, in collaboration with Oxford University, launched their ambitious International Barbary Lion Project with the aim of identifying and breeding Barbary lions in captivity for eventual reintroduction into a national park in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.[42] Gorilla in the Garden of the Apes at Port Lympne Wild Animal Park View of animal enclosure and surroundings Port Lympne Wild Animal Park near the town of Ashford in Kent, England is set in 600 acres and incorporates the historic mansion and landscaped gardens designed by architect Sir Herbert... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This is a partial list of Kings of Morocco. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The Barbary Lion Panthera leo leo is a subspecies of lion. ... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ...


Following the discovery of the decline of lion population in Africa, several co-ordinated efforts involving lion conservation have been organised in an attempt to stem this decline. Lions are one species included in the Species Survival Plan, a coordinated attempt by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums to increase its chances of survival. The plan was originally started in 1982 for the Asiatic lion, but was suspended when it was found that most Asiatic lions in North American zoos were not genetically pure, having been hybridized with African lions. The African lion plan started in 1993, focusing especially on the South African subspecies, although there are difficulties in assessing the genetic diversity of captive lions, since most individuals are of unknown origin, making maintenance of genetic diversity a problem.[17] cheese ... The Species Survival Plan helps endangered animals find zoos to live in. ... The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (formerly the American Zoo and Aquarium Association), or AZA is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of zoos and aquariums in the areas of conservation, education, science, and recreation. ... Genetic pollution, genetic contamination or genetic swamping happens when original set of naturally evolved (wild) region specific genes / gene pool of wild animals and plants become hybridized with domesticated and feral varieties or with the genes of other nonnative wild species or subspecies from neighboring or far away regions. ...


Man-eaters

While lions do not usually hunt people, some (usually males) seem to seek out human prey; well-publicized cases include the Tsavo maneaters, where 28 railway workers building the Kenya-Uganda Railway were taken by lions over nine months during the construction of a bridge over the Tsavo River in Kenya in 1898, and the 1991 Mfuwe man-eater, which killed six people in the Laungwa River Valley in Zambia.[118] In both, the hunters who killed the lions wrote books detailing the animals' predatory behavior. The Mfuwe and Tsavo incidents bear similarities: the lions in both incidents were larger than normal, lacked manes, and seemed to suffer from tooth decay. The infirmity theory, including tooth decay, is not favored by all researchers.[citation needed] An analysis of teeth and jaws of man-eating lions in museum collections suggests that, while tooth decay may explain some incidents, prey depletion in human-dominated areas is a more likely cause of lion predation on humans.[119] In their analysis of Tsavo and man-eating generally, Kerbis Peterhans and Gnoske acknowledge that sick or injured animals may be more prone to man-eating, but that the behavior is "not unusual, nor necessarily 'aberrant'" where the opportunity exists; if inducements such as access to livestock or human corpses are present, lions will regularly prey upon human beings. The authors note that the relationship is well-attested amongst other pantherines and primates in the paleontological record.[120] The Tsavo Man-Eaters on display in the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Uganda Railway is a railway system linking the interiors of Uganda and Kenya to the Indian Ocean at Mombasa in Kenya. ... The Tsavo River runs east from the western end of the Tsavo National Park of Kenya, near the border of Tanzania, until it joins with the Athi River, forming the Galana River near the center of the park. ... Mfuwe is the main settlement of South Luangwa National Park in the Eastern Province of Zambia, serving the tourism industry and wildlife conservation in the Luangwa Valley. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ...

The lion's proclivity for man-eating has been systematically examined. American and Tanzanian scientists report that man-eating behavior in rural areas of Tanzania increased greatly from 1990 to 2005. At least 563 villagers were attacked and many eaten over this period—a number far exceeding the more famed "Tsavo" incidents of a century earlier. The incidents occurred near Selous National Park in Rufiji District and in Lindi Province near the Mozambican border. While the expansion of villagers into bush country is one concern, the authors argue that conservation policy must mitigate the danger because, in this case, conservation contributes directly to human deaths. Cases in Lindi have been documented where lions seize humans from the center of substantial villages.[121] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 553 pixelsFull resolution (3614 × 2496 pixel, file size: 919 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Black and white picture of Tsavo Man-Eaters as shown in the Field Museum of Natural History. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 553 pixelsFull resolution (3614 × 2496 pixel, file size: 919 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Black and white picture of Tsavo Man-Eaters as shown in the Field Museum of Natural History. ... The Tsavo Man-Eaters on display in the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Illinois. ... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex known as Museum Campus Chicago. ... The Selous Game Reserve is one of the largest fauna reserves of the world, located in the south of Tanzania. ... The Rufiji River lies entirely within the African nation of Tanzania. ... Map of the Lindi Region Lindi is one of Tanzanias 26 administrative regions. ...


Author Robert R. Frump wrote in The Man-eaters of Eden that Mozambican refugees regularly crossing Kruger National Park at night in South Africa are attacked and eaten by the lions; park officials have conceded that man-eating is a problem there. Frump believes thousands may have been killed in the decades after apartheid sealed the park and forced the refugees to cross the park at night. For nearly a century before the border was sealed, Mozambicans had regularly walked across the park in daytime with little harm.[122] A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


Packer estimates more than 200 Tanzanians are killed each year by lions, crocodiles, elephants, hippos and snakes, and that the numbers could be double that amount, with lions thought to kill at least 70 of those. Packer and Ikanda are among the few conservationists who believe western conservation efforts must take account of these matters not just because of ethical concerns about human life, but also for the long term success of conservation efforts and lion preservation.[121] For other uses, see Crocodile (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ...


A man-eating lion was killed by game scouts in Southern Tanzania in April 2004. It is believed to have killed and eaten at least 35 people in a series of incidents covering several villages in the Rufiji Delta coastal region.[123][124] Dr Rolf D. Baldus, the GTZ wildlife programme coordinator, commented that it was likely that the lion preyed on humans because it had a large abscess underneath a molar which was cracked in several places. He further commented that "This lion probably experienced a lot of pain, particularly when it was chewing."[125] GTZ is the German development cooperation agency and has been working with the Tanzanian government on wildlife conservation for nearly two decades. As in other cases this lion was large, lacked a mane, and had a tooth problem. For the death metal band, see Abscess (band). ... Molars are the rearmost and most complicated kind of tooth in most mammals. ...


The "All-Africa" record of man-eating generally is considered to be not Tsavo, but the lesser-known incidents in the late 1930s through the late 1940s in what was then Tanganyika (now Tanzania). George Rushby, game warden and professional hunter, eventually dispatched the pride, which over three generations is thought to have killed and eaten 1,500 to 2,000 in what is now Njombe district.[126] Flag of Deutsch-Ostafrika (1885-1919) Flag of Tanganyika (1919-1961) Flag of the Republic of Tanganyika 1962–64 Tanganyika is the name of an East African territory lying between the largest of the African great lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika, after which it was named. ... Njombe is one of the 7 districts of the Iringa Region of Tanzania. ...


In captivity

A Lion at Paignton Zoo
A Lion at Paignton Zoo

Widely seen in captivity,[127] lions are part of a group of exotic animals that are the core of zoo exhibits since the late eighteenth century; members of this group are invariably large vertebrates and include elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, large primates, and other big cats; zoos sought to gather as many of these species as possible.[128] Though many modern zoos are more selective about their exhibits,[129] there are over 1000 African and 100 Asiatic lions in zoos and wildlife parks around the world. They are considered an ambassador species and are kept for tourism, education and conservation purposes.[130] Lions can reach an age of over 20 years in captivity; Apollo, a resident lion of Honolulu Zoo in Honolulu, Hawaii, died at age 22 in August 2007. His two sisters, born in 1986, are still living.[131] A zoo-based lion breeding programme usually takes into account the separation of the various lion subspecies, while mitigating the inbreeding that is likely to occur when animals are divided by subspecies.[132] Paignton Zoo Paignton Zoo Environmental Park is situated on the outskirts of the town of Paignton in Devon, England. ... For other uses, see Zoo (disambiguation). ... The Honolulu Zoo is the only zoo in the United States to be established through royal grants. ... For the city and county of Honolulu, see City & County of Honolulu. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives. ...


Lions were kept and bred by Assyrian kings as early as 850 BC,[106] and Alexander the Great was said to have been presented with tame lions by the Malhi of northern India.[133] Later in Roman times, lions were kept by emperors to take part in the gladiator arenas. Roman notables, including Sulla, Pompey, and Julius Caesar, often ordered the mass slaughter of hundreds of lions at a time.[134] In the East, lions were tamed by Indian princes, and Marco Polo reported that Kublai Khan kept lions inside.[135] The first European "zoos" spread amongst noble and royal families in the thirteenth century, and until the seventeenth century were called seraglios; at that time, they came to be called menageries, an extension of the cabinet of curiosities. They spread from France and Italy during the Renaissance to the rest of Europe.[136] In England, although the seraglio tradition was less developed, Lions were kept at the Tower of London in a seraglio established by King John in the thirteenth century,[137][138] probably stocked with animals from an earlier menagerie started in 1125 by Henry I at his palace in Woodstock, near Oxford; where lions had been reported stocked by William of Malmesbury.[139] For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Malhi is a Jatt surname from the northern Indian state of Punjab. ... The Roman Era is a period in Western history, when ancient Rome was the center of power of the world around the Mediterranean Sea, where Latin was the lingua franca. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... A seraglio is the sequestered living quarters used by wives and concubines in a Turkish household, from an Italian variant of Turkish saray, meaning palace, enclosed courts. In the context of the turquerie fashion, the seraglio became the subject of works of art, the most famous perhaps being Mozarts... Menagerie is the term for a historical form of keeping wild and exotic animals in human captivity and therefore a predecessor of the modern zoological garden. ... For the 2002 novel by Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child, see The Cabinet of Curiosities Musei Wormiani Historia, the frontispiece from the Museum Wormianum depicting Ole Worms cabinet of curiosities. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, on the north bank of the River Thames. ... John of England depicted in Cassells History of England (1902) John (French: Jean) (December 24, 1166/67–October 18/19, 1216) reigned as King of England from 1199 to 1216. ... Henry I (c. ... Map sources for Woodstock at grid reference SP4416 Woodstock is a small town in Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ...

Albrecht Dürer, Lions sketch. Circa 1520.
Albrecht Dürer, Lions sketch. Circa 1520.

Seraglios served as expressions of the nobility's power and wealth. Animals such as big cats and elephants, in particular, symbolized power, and would be pitted in fights against each other or domesticated animals. By extension, menageries and seraglios served as demonstrations of the dominance of man over nature. Consequently, the defeat of such natural "lords" by a cow in 1682 astonished the spectators, and the flight of an elephant before a rhinoceros drew jeers. Such fights would slowly fade out in the seventeenth century with the spread of the menagerie and their appropriation by the commoners. The tradition of keeping big cats as pets would last into the nineteenth century, at which time it was seen as highly eccentric.[140] Albrecht Dürer (pronounced ) (May 21, 1471 – April 6, 1528)[1] was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg, Germany. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea...


The presence of lions at the Tower of London was intermittent, being restocked when a monarch or his consort, such as Margaret of Anjou the wife of Henry VI, either sought or were given animals. Records indicate they were kept in poor conditions there in the seventeenth century, in contrast to more open conditions in Florence at the time.[141] The menagerie was open to the public by the eighteenth century; admission was a sum of three half-pence or the supply of a cat or dog for feeding to the lions.[142] A rival menagerie at the Exeter Exchange also exhibited lions until the early nineteenth century.[143] The Tower menagerie was closed down by William IV,[142] and animals transferred to the London Zoo which opened its gates to the public on 27 April 1828.[144] Margaret of Anjou (Marguerite dAnjou, March 23, 1429 – August 25, 1482) was the Queen consort of Henry VI of England from 1445 to 1471, and led the Lancastrian contingent, in the Wars of the Roses. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... The Exter Exchange (or Exeter Change) was a building on the north side of the Strand in London, with an arcade extending part-way across the carriageway. ... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of Hanover and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... The giant ZSL London Zoo aviary ZSL London Zoo is the worlds oldest scientific zoo. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Animal species disappear when they cannot peacefully orbit the center of gravity that is man.
Pierre-Amédée Pichot, 1891[145]

The wild animals trade flourished alongside improved colonial trade of the nineteenth century. Lions were considered fairly common and inexpensive. Although they would barter higher than tigers, they were less costly than larger, or more difficult to transport animals such as the giraffe and hippopotamus, and much less than pandas.[146] Like other animals, lions were seen as little more than a natural, boundless commodity that was mercilessly exploited with terrible losses in capture and transportation.[147] The widely reproduced imagery of the heroic hunter chasing lions would dominate a large part of the century.[148] Explorers and hunters exploited a popular Manichean division of animals into "good" and "evil" to add thrilling value to their adventures, casting themselves as heroic figures. This resulted in big cats, always suspected of being man-eaters, representing "both the fear of nature and the satisfaction of having overcome it."[149] Panda may refer to: // Giant Panda Panda (plant), a genus of the family Euphorbiaceae PANDAS or P.A.N.D.A.S. is Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptoccal infections Qinling Panda, a subspecies of the Giant Panda. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ...

Lion at Melbourne Zoo enjoying an elevated grassy area with some tree shelter
Lion at Melbourne Zoo enjoying an elevated grassy area with some tree shelter

Lions were kept in cramped and squalid conditions at London Zoo until a larger lion house with roomier cages was built in the 1870s.[150] Further changes took place in the early twentieth century, when Carl Hagenbeck designed enclosures more closely resembling a natural habitat, with concrete 'rocks', more open space and a moat instead of bars. He designed lion enclosures for both Melbourne Zoo and Sydney's Taronga Zoo, among others, in the early twentieth century. Though his designs were popular, the old bars and cage enclosures prevailed until the 1960s in many zoos.[151] In the later decades of the twentieth century, larger, more natural enclosures and the use of wire mesh or laminated glass instead of lowered dens allowed visitors to come closer than ever to the animals, with some attractions even placing the den on ground higher than visitors, such as the Cat Forest/Lion Overlook of Oklahoma City Zoological Park.[17] Lions are now housed in much larger naturalistic areas; modern recommended guidelines more closely approximate conditions in the wild with closer attention to the lions' needs, highlighting the need for dens in separate areas, elevated positions in both sun and shade where lions can sit and adequate ground cover and drainage as well as sufficient space to roam.[130] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 917 KB) Lion, Melbourne Zoo File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lion ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 917 KB) Lion, Melbourne Zoo File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lion ... Sumatran tiger at the Melbourne Zoo Seal exhibit The Royal Melbourne Zoological Gardens, commonly known as the Melbourne Zoo, contains more than 350 animal species from Australia and around the world. ... Carl Hagenbeck Carl Hagenbeck (1844-1913) was a merchant in wild animals and future entrepreneur of many European zoos. ... Sumatran tiger at the Melbourne Zoo Seal exhibit The Royal Melbourne Zoological Gardens, commonly known as the Melbourne Zoo, contains more than 350 animal species from Australia and around the world. ... Giraffes in front of Sydneys skyline. ... A mesh is similar to fabric or a web in that it has many connected or weaved pieces. ... Laminated glass is a type of safety glass that holds together when shattered. ... The Oklahoma City Zoological Park and Botanical Gardens is a zoo located in the Adventure District in Northeast Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ...


There have also been instances where a lion was kept by a private individual, such as the lioness Elsa, who was raised by George Adamson and his wife Joy Adamson and came to develop a strong bonds with them, particularly the latter. The lioness later achieved fame, her life being documented in a series of books and films. Virginia McKenna & Elsa (stand-in) Elsa the Lioness (c. ... George Adamson (1906- 20 August 1989), the Lion Man of Africa was one of the founding fathers of wildlife conservation and an author. ... Joy Adamson (January 20, 1910 – January 3, 1980) was a naturalist, best known as the author and main character of the book, Born Free, which described her experiences in saving the life of a lioness, Elsa. ...


Baiting and taming

Nineteenth century etching of a lion tamer in a cage of lions
Nineteenth century etching of a lion tamer in a cage of lions
Main articles: Lion-baiting and Lion taming

Lion-baiting is a blood sport involving the baiting of lions in combat with other animals, usually dogs. Records of it exist in ancient times through until the seventeenth century. It was finally banned in Vienna by 1800 and England in 1825.[152][153] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... 19th century etching of a lion tamer Lion taming is the practice of taming lions, either for protection, whereby the practice was probably created, or, more commonly, entertainment, particularly in the circus. ... For other uses, see Blood sport (disambiguation). ... Contemporary picture of Bull-baiting Bait or Baiting is the act to worry or torment a chained or confined animal by setting dogs upon it for sport. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...


Lion taming refers to the practice of taming lions for entertainment, either as part of an established circus or as an individual act, such as Siegfried & Roy. The term is also often used for the taming and display of other big cats such as tigers, leopards and cougars. The practice was pioneered in the first half of the nineteenth century by Frenchman Henri Martin and American Isaac Van Amburgh who both toured widely, and whose techniques were copied by a number of followers.[154] Van Amburgh performed before Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom in 1838 when he toured Great Britain. Martin composed a pantomime titled Les Lions de Mysore ("the lions of Mysore"), an idea that Amburgh quickly borrowed. These acts eclipsed equestrianism acts as the central display of circus shows, but truly entered public consciousness in the early twentieth century with cinema. In demonstrating the superiority of man over animal, lion taming served a purpose similar to animal fights of previous centuries.[154] The now iconic lion tamer's chair was possibly first used by American Clyde Beatty (1903–1965).[155] For other uses, see Circus (disambiguation). ... A sculpture of Siegfried & Roy with one of their beloved white lions near the Mirage hotel on the Las Vegas Strip Siegfried & Roy are two gay German-American entertainers who worked on the Las Vegas Strip, USA. Their long running show of magic and illusion was famous for working with... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... This article is about the big cat. ... For other uses, see Cougar (disambiguation), Puma (disambiguation), or Panther. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... For other uses, see Pantomime (disambiguation). ... For the Roman class, see Equestrian (Roman) A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Clyde Beatty (born June 10, 1903 in Bainbridge, Ohio, USA; died July 19, 1965) was a big game hunter who became famous as a lion tamer and animal trainer. ...


Cultural depictions

For more details on this topic, see Lions in popular culture.
The warrior goddess Sekhmet, shown with her sun disk and cobra crown
The warrior goddess Sekhmet, shown with her sun disk and cobra crown

The lion has been an icon for humanity for thousands of years, appearing in cultures across Europe, Asia, and Africa. Despite incidents of attacks on humans, lions have enjoyed a positive depiction in culture as strong but noble. A common depiction is their representation as "king of the jungle" or "king of the beasts"; hence, the lion has been a popular symbol of royalty and stateliness,[156] as well as a symbol of bravery; it is featured in several fables of the sixth century BC Greek storyteller Aesop.[157] Lion statue in front of Brunswick Cathedral (referring to Henry the Lion) Lions have been an important symbol for thousands of years and appear as a theme in cultures across Europe, Asia, and Africa. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1009 × 1516 pixel, file size: 683 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Antiquité égyptienne, la déesse Sekhmet (Égypte). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1009 × 1516 pixel, file size: 683 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Antiquité égyptienne, la déesse Sekhmet (Égypte). ... For other uses, see Sekhmet (disambiguation). ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Nofootnotes|date=February 2008}} Aesop, as conceived by Diego Velázquez Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ...


Representations of lions date back 32,000 years; the lion-headed ivory carving from Vogelherd cave in the Swabian Alb in southwestern Germany has been determined to be about 32,000 years old from the Aurignacian culture.[14] Two lions were depicted mating in the Chamber of Felines in 15,000-year-old Paleolithic cave paintings in the Lascaux caves. Cave lions are also depicted in the Chauvet Cave, discovered in 1994; this has been dated at 32,000 years of age,[24] though it may be of similar or younger age to Lascaux.[158] The restored statue The Lion man is a lion-headed ivory sculpture which is one of the oldest known sculptures in the world (the oldest human-animal sculpture). ... A view on the Swabian Alb, with its typical hills and a juniper meadow The Albtrauf, which forms the western border of the Swabian Alb The Swabian Jura (German: Schwäbische Alb) is a plateau in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, extending 220 km from southwest to northeast and 40 to... Aurignacian is the name of a culture of the Upper Palaeolithic present in Europe and south west Asia. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... Cave or Rock Paintings are paintings on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times. ... Cave painting at Lascaux. ... The Chauvet Cave or Chauvet-Pont-dArc Cave is a cave located near Vallon-Pont-dArc, in the Ardèche département, in southern France. ...


Ancient Egypt venerated the lioness (the fierce hunter) as their war deities and among those in the Egyptian pantheon are, Bast, Mafdet, Menhit, Pakhet, Sekhmet, Tefnut, and the Sphinx; [156] Among the Egyptian pantheon also are sons of these goddesses such as, Maahes, and, as attested by Egyptians as a Nubian deity, Dedun.[159][160] The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... --68. ... ukyih;;;;;;;;;;uiiiih;hhh;oiuj7p ... In Egyptian mythology, Mafdet (or Maftet) was an early panther-goddess, known as a destroyer of scorpions, snakes and other venomous animals. ... In Egyptian mythology, Menhit (she who massacres; also Menchit) was a lion-goddess of war. ... In Egyptian mythology, Pakhet (also spelled Pachet, Pekhet, Phastet, and Pasht, Egyptian ), a solar deity with a desert cats head. ... For other uses, see Sekhmet (disambiguation). ... In Egyptian mythology, Tefnut is a goddess of water and fertility, indeed her name means moist waters (i. ... For other uses, see Sphinx (disambiguation). ... In Egyptian mythology, Maahes (also spelled Mihos, Miysis, Maihes, and Mahes) was a lion-god. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... In Egyptian mythology, Dedun (or Dedwen) was a lion-god of wealth and prosperity, worshipped in Upper Egypt and Nubia. ...

The Lion Gate of Mycenae (detail) - two lionesses flank the central column that represents a goddess—c. 1300 BC renovation of an existing structure that was demolished to build the new
The Lion Gate of Mycenae (detail) - two lionesses flank the central column that represents a goddess—c. 1300 BC renovation of an existing structure that was demolished to build the new

Careful examination of the lion deities noted in many ancient cultures reveal that many are lioness also. Admiration for the co-operative hunting strategies of lionesses was evident in very ancient times. Most of the lion gates depict lionesses. The Nemean lion was symbolic in Ancient Greece and Rome, represented as the constellation and zodiac sign Leo, and described in mythology, where its skin was borne by the hero Heracles.[161] Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2092 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2092 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... The Nemean Lion (Latin: Leo Nemaeus) was a vicious monster in Greek mythology that lived in Nemea. ... Leo the lion Leo is the fifth astrological sign of the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Leo. ... Alcides redirects here. ...

The emblem of Jerusalem is a lion standing in front of the Western Wall and flanked by olive branches.
The emblem of Jerusalem is a lion standing in front of the Western Wall and flanked by olive branches.

The lion is the biblical emblem of the tribe of Judah and later the Kingdom of Judah. It is contained within Jacob's blessing to his fourth son in the penultimate chapter of the Book of Genesis, "Judah is a lion's whelp; On prey, my son have you grown. He crouches, lies down like a lion, like the king of beasts—who dare rouse him?" (Genesis 49:9[162]). In the modern state of Israel, the lion remains the symbol of the capital city of Jerusalem, emblazoned on both the flag and coat of arms of the city. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Western Wall by night. ... Olive branch Olive branch is a colloquial term referring to a concession or a gesture of peace, as well as a peace symbol. ... The Tribe of Judah (Hebrew: יְהוּדָה, Praise; Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) is one of the Hebrew tribes, founded by Judah, son of Jacob(Israel). ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The municipal flag of Jerusalem The Flag of Jerusalem is based on the flag of Israel. ... Coat of arms of the Medieval Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, featuring the Jerusalem cross The coat of arms of Jerusalem is an emblem of the city as well as of its municipality. ...


The lion was a prominent symbol in both the Old Babylonian and Neo-Babylonian Empire periods. The classic Babylonian lion motif, found as a statue, carved or painted on walls, is often referred to as the striding lion of Babylon. It is in Babylon that the biblical Daniel is said to have been delivered from the lion's den.[163] Such symbolism was appropriated by Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq for their Lion of Babylon tank, with the technology adapted from a Russian model. Narasimha ("man-lion") is described as an incarnation (avatara) of Vishnu within the Puranic texts of Hinduism;[164] who takes the form of half-man/half-lion, having a human torso and lower body, but with a lion-like face and claws.[165] it is worshiped as "Lion God" thus Indian or Asiatic lions which were commonly found throughout most of India in ancient times are considered sacred by all Hindus in India. The term Old Babylonian is a period in Mesopotamian history that refers, roughly, to the period between the end of the Third Dynasty of Ur (c. ... Through the centuries of Assyrian domination, Babylonia enjoyed a prominent status, or revolting at the slightest indication that it did not. ... This article is about the Biblical figure called Daniel. ... The Lion of Babylon tank or Asad Babil (Arabic: اسد بابل) was an Iraqi-built version of the Soviet T-72 MBT (main battle tank), assembled in a factory established in the 1980s near Taji, north of Baghdad. ... (man-lion) (also spelt as Narasingh, Narasinga) (नरसिंह in Devanagari) is described as an incarnation (avatara) of Vishnu within the Puranic texts of Hinduism [1] who takes the form of half-man / half-lion, having a human torso and lower body, but with a lion-like face and claws. ... See Avatar (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo persica Meyer, 1826 Synonyms Leo leo goojratensis (India) Leo leo persicus (Persia) The Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica) is a subspecies of lion. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo persica Meyer, 1826 Current distribution of the Asiatic Lion in the wild Synonyms Leo leo goojratensis (India) Leo leo persicus (Persia) The Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica; also known as Indian Lion) is a subspecies of the lion found only in India. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ...


Singh is an ancient Indian vedic name meaning "lion" (Asiatic lion), dating back over 2000 years to ancient India. It was originally only used by Rajputs a Hindu Kshatriya or military caste in India. After the birth of the Khalsa brotherhood in 1699, the Sikhs also adopted the name "Singh" due to the wishes of Guru Gobind Singh. Along with millions of Hindu Rajputs today, it is also used by over 20 million Sikhs worldwide.[166][167] For the fictional global crime syndicate, see Singh Brotherhood. ... For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo persica Meyer, 1826 Current distribution of the Asiatic Lion in the wild Synonyms Leo leo goojratensis (India) Leo leo persicus (Persia) The Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica; also known as Indian Lion) is a subspecies of the lion found only in India. ... Ancient India may refer to: The Ancient India, which generally includes the ancient history of the whole Indian subcontinent (South Asia) Indus Valley Civilization — during the Bronze Age Vedic period — the period of Vedic Sanskrit, spanning the late Bronze Age and the earlier Iron Age Mahajanapadas — during the later Iron... A Rajput (possibly from Sanskrit rāja-putra, son of a king) is a member of a prominent caste who live throughout northern and central India, primarily in the northwestern state of Rajasthan. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Guru Gobind Singh (Punjabi: ) (22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708) He was born in Patna in India in 1666 and became the tenth Guru of the Sikhs on 11 November 1675, succeeding his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur who was killed by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ...


Found famously on numerous flags and coats of arms all across Asia and Europe, the Asiatic lions also stand firm on the National Emblem of India.[168]. The Flags (Far North Liquids and Associated Gas System) Pipeline is used to transport gas from the following Oil platforms: Cormorant A North Cormorant North West Hutton Ninian Central Ninian North & South Brent A, B, C and D Tern Magnus Thistle Murchison Statfjord Heather The pipeline is a 36 inch... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... The Emblem of India The Emblem of India is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. ...

"Bharat Mata" ("Mother India"), National personification of India, depicted with an Asiatic/Indian lion at her side
"Bharat Mata" ("Mother India"), National personification of India, depicted with an Asiatic/Indian lion at her side
Flag of Sri Lanka
Flag of Sri Lanka

Farther south on the Indian subcontinent, the Asiatic lion is symbolic for the Sinhalese,[169] Sri Lanka's ethnic majority; the term derived from the Indo-Aryan Sinhala, meaning the "lion people" or "people with lion blood", while a sword wielding lion is the central figure on the national flag of Sri Lanka.[170] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In Hinduism, Bharat Mata is a relatively modern mother goddess of fertility. ... Britannia arm-in-arm with Uncle Sam symbolizes the British-American alliance in World War I. Germania representing Germany, from 1848. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo persica Meyer, 1826 Current distribution of the Asiatic Lion in the wild Synonyms Leo leo goojratensis (India) Leo leo persicus (Persia) The Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica; also known as Indian Lion) is a subspecies of the lion found only in India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Languages Sinhala Religions Predominantly Theravada Buddhism. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 Flag of Ceylon from 1948-1951 Flag of Ceylon between 1951 and 1972 The Flag of Sri Lanka, also called the Lion Flag, consists of gold lion passant, holding a sword in its right fore paw, in front of a crimson background with four golden bo...


The Asiatic lion is a common motif in Chinese art. They were first used in art during the late Spring and Autumn Period (fifth or sixth century BC), and became much more popular during the Han Dynasty (206 BC–AD 220), when imperial guardian lions started to be placed in front of imperial palaces for protection. Because lions have never been native to China, early depictions were somewhat unrealistic; after the introduction of Buddhist art to China in the Tang Dynasty (after the sixth century AD), lions were usually depicted without wings, their bodies became thicker and shorter, and their manes became curly.[171] The lion dance is a form of traditional dance in Chinese culture in which performers mimic a lion's movements in a lion costume, often with musical accompaniment from cymbals, drums and gongs. They are performed at Chinese New Year, the August Moon Festival and other celebratory occasions for good luck.[172] Chinese Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), Shanghai Museum. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... A Qing pair within the Forbidden City. ... Footprint of the Buddha. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Japanese name Kanji: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Lion dance (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a form of traditional dance in Chinese culture, in which performers mimic a lions movements in a lion costume Asiatic lions[1] found in nearby India are the ones... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... For other traditions of celebrating lunar new year, see Lunar New Year. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Mid-Autumn Festival celebrations in Victoria Park, Hong Kong. ...


The island nation of Singapore (Singapura) derives its name from the Malay words singa (lion) and pura (city), which in turn is from the Tamil-Sanskrit சிங்க singa सिंह siṃha and पुर புர pura, which is cognate to the Greek πόλις, pólis.[173] According to the Malay Annals, this name was given by a fourteenth century Sumatran Malay prince named Sang Nila Utama, who, on alighting the island after a thunderstorm, spotted an auspicious beast on shore that his chief minister identified as a lion (Asiatic lion).[174] Recent studies of Singapore indicate that lions have never lived there, and the beast seen by Sang Nila Utama was more likely to have been a tiger. An island nation is a country that is wholly confined to an island or islands. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Sejarah Melayu or The Malay Annals is a historical Malay literary work that chronicles the establishment of the Malacca Sultanate and spans over 600 years of the Malay Peninsulas history. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Sang Nila Utama, also known as Sri Tri Buana, is a legendary prince who founded Singapore in the countrys ancient history. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ...


"Aslan" or "Arslan (Ottoman ارسلان arslān and اصلان aṣlān) is the Turkish and Mongolian word for "lion". It was used as a title by a number of Seljuk and Ottoman rulers, including Alp Arslan and Ali Pasha, and is a Turkic/Iranian name. For other uses, see Aslan (disambiguation). ... Arslan (Turkish for lion; Ottoman ارسلان arslān and اصلان aá¹£lān) was used as a title by Seljuk and Ottoman rulers. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... Engraving of Ali Pasha Ali Pashë Tepelena, commonly known as Ali Pasha, (1741 – January 24, 1822) was the military ruler (pasha) of a large area of the Ottoman Empires European territories. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ...

Lion rampant on the royal coat of arms of Scotland
Lion rampant on the royal coat of arms of Scotland

"Lion" was the nickname of medieval warrior rulers with a reputation for bravery, such as Richard I of England, known as Richard the Lionheart,[156], Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der Löwe), Duke of Saxony and Robert III of Flanders nicknamed "The Lion of Flanders"—a major Flemish national hero up to the present. Lions are frequently depicted on coats of arms, either as a device on shields themselves, or as supporters. (The lioness[175] is much more infrequent.) The formal language of heraldry, called blazon, employs French terms to describe the images precisely. Such descriptions specified whether lions or other creatures were "rampant" or "passant", that is whether they were rearing or crouching.[176] The lion is used as a symbol of sporting teams, from national soccer teams such as England, Scotland and Singapore to famous clubs such as the Detroit Lions[177] of the NFL, Chelsea[178] and Aston Villa of the English Premier League,[179] (and the Premiership itself) to a host of smaller clubs around the world. Villa sport a Scottish Lion Rampant on their crest, as do Rangers and Dundee United of the Scottish Premier League. The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland was the official coat of arms of the monarchs of Scotland, and were used as the official coat of arms of the Kingdom of Scotland until the Union of the Crowns in... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... Henry the Lion (statue on his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral). ... List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918 The original Duchy of Saxony was in Northern Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony and Westphalia. ... Robert III of Flanders (1249 – September 17, 1322), was Count of Flanders 1305–1322. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... The Coat of Arms of Prince Edward Island uses two foxes as supporters. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... This is an article about Heraldry. ... First international Scotland 0 - 0 England (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Biggest win Ireland 0 - 13 England (Belfast, Ireland; 18 February 1882) Biggest defeat Hungary 7 - 1 England (Budapest, Hungary; 23 May 1954) World Cup Appearances 12 (First in 1950) Best result Winners, 1966 European Championship Appearances 7 (First in... First international Scotland 0–0 England  (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Biggest win Scotland 11–0 Ireland  (Glasgow, Scotland; 23 February 1901) Biggest defeat  Uruguay 7–0 Scotland (Basel, Switzerland; 19 June 1954) World Cup Appearances 8 (First in 1954) Best result Round 1, all European Championship Appearances 2 (First... City Detroit, Michigan Team colors Honolulu Blue, Silver, and Black Head Coach Rod Marinelli Owner William Clay Ford, Sr. ... Chelsea Football Club (also known as The Blues or previously The Pensioners) are an English professional football club based in west London. ... Aston Villa redirects here. ... The FA Premier League (often referred to as the Barclays English Premier League for sponsorship reasons) comprises the top 20 football clubs in the league system of English football. ... The official 2005 Lions logo The British and Irish Lions (formerly British Isles and then the British Lions; commonly the Lions) is a Rugby Union side comprising a pick of the best players from the four Home nation unions in Great Britain and Ireland. ... Heraldry is the science and art of designing, displaying, describing and recording coats of arms. ... For other uses, see Rangers F.C. (disambiguation). ... Dundee United Football Club is a Scottish professional football club located in the city of Dundee. ... The Clydesdale Bank Scottish Premier League commonly known as the Scottish Premier League, Premier League or SPL is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top level of the Scottish football league system - above the Scottish Football League. ...

The lion is a popular symbol and mascot of high schools, colleges and universities throughout the United States. This statue is on the campus of the University of North Alabama.
The lion is a popular symbol and mascot of high schools, colleges and universities throughout the United States. This statue is on the campus of the University of North Alabama.

Lions continue to feature in modern literature, from the messianic Aslan in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and following books from the Narnia series written by C. S. Lewis,[180] to the comedic Cowardly Lion in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.[181] The advent of moving pictures saw the continued presence of lion symbolism; one of the most iconic and widely recognised lions is Leo the Lion, the mascot for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) studios, which has been in use since the 1920s.[182] The 1960s saw the appearance of what is possibly the most famous lioness, the Kenyan animal Elsa in the movie Born Free,[183] based on the true-life international bestselling book of the same title.[184] The lion's role as King of the Beasts has been used in cartoons, from the 1950s manga which gave rise to the first Japanese colour TV animation series, Kimba the White Lion, Leonardo Lion of King Leonardo and his Short Subjects, both from the 1960s, up to the 1994 Disney animated feature film The Lion King,[185][186] which also featured the popular song "The Lion Sleeps Tonight" in its soundtrack. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 311 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Depiction of lion, lioness and cubs at the University of North Alabama, Florence, Alabama. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 311 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Depiction of lion, lioness and cubs at the University of North Alabama, Florence, Alabama. ... The University of North Alabama (abbreviated UNA) is a coeducational university located in Florence, Alabama, and the states oldest public university. ... For other uses, see Aslan (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novel. ... Narnia is a fantasy world created by C. S. Lewis as a location for his Chronicles of Narnia, a series of seven fantasy novels for children. ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... Cover of The Cowardly Lion of Oz (1929) by Ruth Plumly Thompson. ... The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a childrens novel written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W.W. Denslow. ... Leo the Lion (1957–present) in the MGM logo. ... For alternate meanings of MGM, see MGM (disambiguation). ... Virginia McKenna & Elsa (stand-in) Elsa the Lioness (c. ... Born Free is a book written by Joy Adamson in the 1960s about an orphaned Kenya. ... Serialized in Manga Shonen Original run – Volumes 3[1] TV anime: Kimba the White Lion Jungle Emperor Director Fred Ladd Eichi Yamamoto Studio Titan Productions Mushi Productions Network Fuji Television Syndication Original run 1966 October 6, 1965 – 1978 September 28, 1966 Episodes 52[2] Animated film: Jungle Emperor Leo: Feature... King Leonardo and his Short Subjects was an animated cartoon series released in 1960 by Total Television (which would later rename itself Leonardo Productions after the main character of this show). ... Old logo from 1985-2006 Walt Disney Pictures refers to several different entities associated with The Walt Disney Company: Walt Disney Pictures, the film banner, was established as a designation in 1983, prior to which Disney films since the death of Walt Disney were released under the name of the... This article is about Disneys 1994 film. ... The Lion Sleeps Tonight began as a 1939 African popular music hit Mbube that, in modified versions, also became a hit in the US and UK. // Mbube (Zulu for lion) was first recorded by its writer, Solomon Linda, and his group, The Evening Birds, in 1939. ...

Notes

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  7. ^ yourdictionary.com. Archived from the original on 2007-08-26.. As in other ancient scripts, in Ancient Egyptian only the consonants are written. No distinction was made between 'l' and 'r'.
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The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Henry George Liddell (1811‑1898)was a British historian and academic, editor at Charterhouse and Christ Church, Oxford, of which in 1855 he became Dean. ... Robert Scott (January 26, 1811 - December 2, 1877) was a 19th-century British academic philologist and a Fellow (later Master) of Balliol College, Oxford University. ... A Greek-English Lexicon is the standard lexicographical work of the ancient Greek language, begun in the nineteenth century and now in its ninth (revised) edition. ... 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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution is a prominent scientific journal, popular mostly among evolutionary biologists. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Karl P. N. Shuker (born 1959) is a British zoologist, specialising in cryptozoology. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... David Feldman is the author of the Imponderables series of books. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... The New Jewish Publication Society of America Version of the Jewish Bible (i. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Main campus of CityU The City University of Hong Kong (CityU) (Traditional Chinese: ) is one of the eight universities in Hong Kong. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... George Adamson (1906- 20 August 1989), the Lion Man of Africa was one of the founding fathers of wildlife conservation and an author. ... Joy Adamson (January 20, 1910 – January 3, 1980) was a naturalist, best known as the author and main character of the book, Born Free, which described her experiences in saving the life of a lioness, Elsa. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Baratay, Eric; Elisabeth Hardouin-Fugier (2002). Zoo : a history of zoological gardens in the West. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 1-861891-11-3. 
  • Blunt, Wilfred (1975). The Ark in the Park: The Zoo in the Nineteenth Century. London: Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-89331-3. 
  • de Courcy, Catherine (1995). The Zoo Story. Ringwood, Victoria: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-023919-7. 
  • Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A study of predator-prey relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-73639-3. 

Dr. George Schaller at a lecture in Beijing Zoo on Aug. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Lion
Wikispecies has information related to:
Lion
Cats Portal
Mammals Portal
  • Center for Animal Research and Education Providing Sanctuary for over 50 big cats
  • Lion: Wildlife summary from the African Wildlife Foundation
  • Lion Research Center – The official website of a research group at the U. of Minnesota that has conducted extensive field research on lions and has published over 50 peer-reviewed scientific articles on lions.
  • Lion Conservation Fund – A fund dedicated to the research and conservation of the lion
  • Nature Documentary: "The Vanishing Lions"
  • George Adamson Father of Lions The conservationist who raised and released to the wild the most famous lioness in the world, Elsa the Lioness of Born Free fame.
  • Panthera leo (lion) from "Animal Diversity Web"
  • Hypervideo showing buffalos and lions battling at a kill

Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1598, 257 KB) Common housecat File links The following pages link to this file: Cat ... Download high resolution version (1707x1482, 613 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Virginia McKenna & Elsa (stand-in) Elsa the Lioness (c. ... “Feline” redirects here. ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Genera Caracal Catopuma Felis Herpailurus Leopardus Leptailurus Lynx Oncifelis Oreailurus Otocolobus Prionailurus Profelis Puma Felinae is a subfamily of the Felidae, the family which contains all true cats. ... Felis is a genus of cats in the family Felidae. ... Binomial name Milne-Edwards, 1892 The Chinese Mountain Cat (Felis bieti), also known as the Chinese Desert Cat, is a small wild cat of western China. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Binomial name Felis chaus Schreber, 1777 The Jungle Cat (Felis chaus), also called the Swamp Lynx (although not closely related to the lynxes), is a small cat with a rather short tail (length 70 cm, plus 30 cm tail). ... Binomial name Otocolobus manul Pallas, 1776 The Pallas Cat (Otocolobus manul, or Felis manul) or Manul is a small wild cat of Central Asia. ... Binomial name Felis nigripes Burchell, 1824 The Black-footed Cat (Felis nigripes) is a small wild cat distributed over South Africa, Namibia, Botswana and marginally into Zimbabwe. ... Binomial name Felis silvestris Schreber, 1775 subspecies See text The Wildcat (Felis silvestris), sometimes Wild Cat or Wild-cat, is a small predator native to Europe, the western part of Asia, and Africa. ... Species Prionailurus bengalensis Prionailurus planiceps Prionailurus rubiginosus Prionailurus viverrinus Prionailurus is the genus of Asian small cats, one of the groupings of wild cats. ... Binomial name Felis bengalensis (Kerr, 1792) The Leopard Cat (Felis bengalensis) is a small wild cat of Southeast Asia. ... Trinomial name Prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis The Iriomote Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis, Felis bengalensis iriomotensis or Mayailurus iriomotensis; Japanese: 西表山猫 Iriomote-yamaneko), is a subspecies of leopard cat that lives exclusively on the Japanese island of Iriomote. ... Binomial name Prionailurus planiceps (Vigors, 1827) The Flat-headed Cat (Prionailurus planiceps, sometimes Felis planiceps or Ictailurus planiceps) is a small wild cat of Southeast Asia. ... Binomial name Prionailurus rubiginosus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1831) The Rusty-spotted Cat (Prionailurus rubiginosus, sometimes Felis rubiginosa) is a small wild cat of southern India and Sri Lanka. ... Binomial name Prionailurus viverrinus or Felis viverrina (Bennett, 1833) The Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus or Felis viverrina) is a medium-sized cat of Asia. ... For other uses, see Cougar (disambiguation), Puma (disambiguation), or Panther. ... For other uses, see Cougar (disambiguation), Puma (disambiguation), or Panther. ... Binomial name Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809) The Jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi) is a medium-sized Central and South American wild cat: length 30 inches (65 cm) with 20 inches (45 cm) of tail. ... This article is about the animal. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see Lynx (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Kerr, 1792 The Canadian Lynx (Lynx canadensis) is a North American mammal of the cat family, Felidae. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian lynx range The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized cat native to European and Siberian forests, where it is one of the predators. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Bobcat (disambiguation). ... Leopards are cool This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Binomial name Leopardus braccatus The Pantanal (Leopardus braccatus) is a small feline of Brazil and northern Argentina. ... Colocolo may refer to: Colocolo (tribal chief): Araucanian tribal chief Colo-Colo: A Chilean football team Monito del Monte: A South American marsupial This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Binomial name Oncifelis geoffroyi (dOrbigny & Gervais, 1844) The Geoffroys cat is probably the most common wild cat in South America. ... Binomial name Oncifelis guigna (Molina, 1782) Kodkod The Kodkod (Oncifelis guigna), also known as Guigna, is the smallest felid in the Americas and is found only in Chile and Argentina. ... Binomial name Oreailurus jacobita Cornalia, 1865 The Andean Cat is also known as the Andean Mountain Cat. ... Binomial name (Desmarest, 1816) The Pampas Cat (Leopardus pajeros) is a small feline from the Pampas area of Argentina and Chile. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Ocelot range The Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), also known as the Painted Leopard, McKenneys Wildcat or Manigordo (in Costa Rica), is a wild cat distributed over South and Central America and Mexico, but has been reported as far north as Texas and in Trinidad, in the... Binomial name Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) The Little Spotted Cat (Leopardus tigrinus, sometimes Oncifelis tigrinus or Felis tigrina) is also known as Oncilla, Tigrillo or Tiger Cat. ... Binomial name (Schinz, 1821) Margay range map Synonyms Felis wiedii The Margay (Leopardus wiedii) is a spotted cat native to Central and South America. ... For the commune in northern France, see Serval, Aisne. ... For the commune in northern France, see Serval, Aisne. ... Binomial name Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776) Type species Caracal melanotis Gray, 1843 (= Felis caracal Schreber, 1776) by monotypy Caracal range map Synonyms Felis caracal The Caracal (Caracal caracal), also called Persian Lynx or African Lynx, is a fiercely territorial medium-sized cat. ... Binomial name Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776) Type species Caracal melanotis Gray, 1843 (= Felis caracal Schreber, 1776) by monotypy Caracal range map Synonyms Felis caracal The Caracal (Caracal caracal), also called Persian Lynx or African Lynx, is a fiercely territorial medium-sized cat. ... Binomial name The African Golden Cat (Profelis aurata) is a medium-sized wild cat distributed over the rainforests of West and Central Africa. ... Binomial name The African Golden Cat (Profelis aurata) is a medium-sized wild cat distributed over the rainforests of West and Central Africa. ... A golden cat is a medium-sized wild cat belonging to either the genus Catopuma or Profelis. ... Binomial name Catopuma badia Gray, 1874 The Bay Cat (Catopuma badia, other genus names in use are Felis, Profelis or Badiofelis) is also known as Bornean Cat or Bornean Bay Cat, since it is endemic to the island of Borneo. ... Binomial name Catopuma temminckii (Vigors & Horsfield, 1827) The Asian Golden Cat (Catopuma temminckii, previously been placed in genera Profelis and Felis), also called the Asiatic Golden Cat and Temmincks Golden Cat, is a medium-sized wild cat (length 90 cm, plus 50 cm tail) weighing from 12 to 16... Binomial name Pardofelis marmorata Martin, 1837 The Marbled Cat (Pardofelis marmorata) is similar in size to the Domestic Cat, with a longer, more thickly furred tail, an indicator of an arboreal life-style, where the tail is used as a counterbalance. ... Binomial name Pardofelis marmorata Martin, 1837 The Marbled Cat (Pardofelis marmorata) is similar in size to the Domestic Cat, with a longer, more thickly furred tail, an indicator of an arboreal life-style, where the tail is used as a counterbalance. ... Genera Neofelis Panthera Uncia Pantherinae is a sub-family of the family Felidae which include the genera Panthera, Uncia and Neofelis. ... Binomial name Neofelis nebulosa (Griffith, 1821) The Clouded Leopard, Neofelis nebulosa is a medium-sized cat, 60 to 110 cm long and weighing between 11 and 20 kg. ... Binomial name (Griffith, 1821) Range map Synonyms Felis macrocelis Felis marmota The Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is a medium-sized cat, 55 to 110 cm (2 ft to 3 ft 6 in) long and weighing between 15 and 23 kg (33 to 50 lb). ... Binomial name Neofelis diardi (G. Cuvier, 1823) Range Synonyms Felis diardii Felis macrocelis Felis marmota Neofelis nebulosa diardi Neofelis diardi is a medium-sized wild cat found on Borneo, Sumatra and the Batu Islands in the Malay Archipelago and publicised under the name Bornean Clouded Leopard by the World Wide... For other uses, see Panthera (disambiguation). ... keels is bent and she has a big nose which she picks every day. ... This article is about the big cat. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Schreber, 1775) Range map Synonyms Uncia uncia The Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia), sometimes known as the ounce, is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central Asia from Afghanistan to Lake Baikal and eastern Tibet. ... Binomial name (Schreber, 1775) Range map Synonyms Uncia uncia The Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia), sometimes known as the ounce, is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central Asia from Afghanistan to Lake Baikal and eastern Tibet. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
San Diego Zoo's Animal Bytes: Lion (1179 words)
Lions are good climbers and often rest in trees, perhaps to catch a cool breeze or to get away from flies.
Lions are the only cats who live in large, social groups, called “prides.” A pride is made up of 3 to 30 lions.
Lions digest their food quickly, which allows them to return soon for a second helping after gorging themselves.
Lion (731 words)
The lion is to be found in parts of eastern and southern Africa and is commonly protected in reserves, although hunting is still common.
The Asiatic Lion (P.l.persica), once to be found throughout India, the Middle East and Southern Asia, is today, only to be found in the Gir Forest National Park in Gujarat, western India, where the population is estimated to be in the region of 290.
In general the lion is listed in CITES Appendix 2 although certain sub-species of the African lion are endangered and the Barbary lion and Cape lion have become extinct.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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