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Encyclopedia > Linux
Linux

Tux, the penguin, mascot of Linux
OS family Unix-like
Kernel type Monolithic kernel
License GNU General Public License and others
Working state Current

Linux (commonly pronounced IPA: /ˈlɪnəks/ in English; variants exist[1]) is a Unix-like computer operating system. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free software and open source development: typically all underlying source code can be freely modified, used, and redistributed by anyone.[2] The Linux kernel is a Unix-like operating system kernel. ... Linux, or GNU/Linux, refers to any Unix-like computer operating system which uses the Linux kernel. ... Image File history File links Tux. ... Tux, as originally drawn by Larry Ewing Tux (also known as Tux the Penguin) is the official mascot of the Linux kernel. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... GPL redirects here. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ...


The name "Linux" comes from the Linux kernel, started in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. The system's utilities and libraries usually come from the GNU operating system, announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. The GNU contribution is the basis for the alternative name GNU/Linux.[3] The Linux kernel is a Unix-like operating system kernel. ... Linus Benedict Torvalds   (born December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, Finland) is a Finnish software engineer best known for initiating the development of the Linux kernel. ... System software is a generic term referring to any computer software whose purpose is to help run the computer system. ... Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ... GNU is a free software operating system. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[1] is an American software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... The GNU/Linux naming controversy is a dispute between members of the free and open source software community relating to the normative branding of the computer operating systems commonly referred to as Linux. ...


Predominantly known for its use in servers, Linux is supported by corporations such as Dell, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Novell, Oracle Corporation, Red Hat, and Sun Microsystems. It is used as an operating system for a wide variety of computer hardware, including desktop computers, supercomputers,[4] video game systems, such as the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3, several arcade games, and embedded devices such as mobile phones and routers. In information technology, a server is an application or device that performs services for connected clients as part of a client-server architecture. ... This article is about the corporation Dell, Inc. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... For the road bicycle racing team previously known as Novell, see Rabobank (cycling). ... Oracle Corporation (NASDAQ: ORCL) is one of the major companies developing database management systems (DBMS), tools for database development, middle-tier software, enterprise resource planning software (ERP), customer relationship management software (CRM) and supply chain management (SCM) software. ... For other uses, see Red Hat (disambiguation). ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... For other uses, see Hardware (disambiguation). ... Bold text Desktop computer with several common peripherals (Monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers, microphone and a printer) A desktop computer is a gay electronic machine computer which convert raw data into meaningful information, made for use on a desk in an office or home and is distinguished from portable computers such... A supercomputer is a device for turning compute-bound problems into I/O-bound problems. ... PS2 redirects here. ... The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system, which is completely encapsulated by the device it controls. ... This article describes the computer networking device. ...

Contents

History

See also: History of Linux

The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in the 1960s and first released in 1970. Its wide availability and portability meant that it was widely adopted, copied and modified by academic institutions and businesses, with its design being influential on authors of other systems. This timeline shows the development of the Linux kernel. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... In computer science, porting is the process of adapting software so that an executable program can be created for a computing environment that is different from the one for which it was originally designed (e. ...

The GNU Project, started in 1984, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system"[5] made entirely of free software. In 1985, Richard Stallman created the Free Software Foundation and developed the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL). Many of the programs required in an OS (such as libraries, compilers, text editors, a Unix shell, and a windowing system) were completed by the early 1990s, although low level elements such as device drivers, daemons, and the kernel were stalled and incomplete.[6] Linus Torvalds has said that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time (1991), he would not have decided to write his own.[7] An image of Richard Matthew Stallman taken from the cover of the OReilly book Free as in Freedom by Sam Williams, published on March 1, 2002 Related images Image:Free as in Freedom. ... An image of Richard Matthew Stallman taken from the cover of the OReilly book Free as in Freedom by Sam Williams, published on March 1, 2002 Related images Image:Free as in Freedom. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[1] is an American software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... The GNU logo, drawn by Etienne Suvasa The GNU Project was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. ... The GNU logo, drawn by Etienne Suvasa The GNU Project was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[1] is an American software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... GPL redirects here. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... Notepad is the standard text editor for Microsoft Windows A text editor is a piece of computer software for editing plain text. ... Screenshot of a sample Bash session, taken on Gentoo Linux. ... A device driver, or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a computer hardware device. ... In Unix and other computer multitasking operating systems, a daemon is a computer program that runs in the background, rather than under the direct control of a user; they are usually instantiated as processes. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ...


MINIX

MINIX, a Unix-like system intended for academic use, was released by Andrew S. Tanenbaum in 1987. The source code for MINIX 1.0 was printed in his book Operating Systems: Design and Implementation. While easily available, modification and redistribution were restricted (though that is not the case today). The code was presumeably covered by the copyrights of the textbook, published by Prentice Hall. In addition, MINIX's 16-bit design was not well adapted to the 32-bit design of the increasingly cheap and popular Intel 386 architecture for personal computers. MINIX is a free/open source, Unix-like operating system (OS) based on a microkernel architecture. ... Andrew S. Tanenbaum Dr. Andrew Stuart Andy Tanenbaum (sometimes called ast)[1] (born 1944) is a professor of computer science at the Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam in the Netherlands. ... Pearson can mean Pearson PLC the media conglomerate. ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... The Intel 80386 is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 1994 and later. ...

In 1991, Torvalds began to work on a non-commercial replacement for MINIX while he was attending the University of Helsinki.[8] This eventually became the Linux kernel. Download high resolution version (600x920, 94 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (600x920, 94 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Linus Benedict Torvalds   (born December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, Finland) is a Finnish software engineer best known for initiating the development of the Linux kernel. ... The Linux kernel is a Unix-like operating system kernel. ... University of Helsinki is not to be confused with Helsinki University of Technology. ... The Linux kernel is a Unix-like operating system kernel. ...


In 1992, Tanenbaum posted an article on Usenet claiming Linux was obsolete. In the article, he criticized the operating system as being monolithic in design and being tied closely to the x86 architecture and thus not portable, as he described "a fundamental error."[9] Tanenbaum suggested that those who wanted a modern operating system should look into one based on the microkernel model. The posting elicited the response of Torvalds, which resulted in a well known debate over the microkernel and monolithic kernel designs.[9] Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... Graphical overview of a microkernel A microkernel is a minimal computer operating system kernel providing only basic operating system services (system calls), while other services (commonly provided by kernels) are provided by user-space programs called servers. ... The Tanenbaum-Torvalds debate is a famous debate started in 1992 by Andrew S. Tanenbaum with Linus Torvalds regarding Linux and kernel architecture in general on Usenet discussion group comp. ...


Linux was dependent on the MINIX user space at first. With code from the GNU system freely available, it was advantageous if this could be used with the fledgling OS. Code licensed under the GNU GPL can be used in other projects, so long as they also are released under the same or a compatible license. In order to make the Linux kernel compatible with the components from the GNU Project, Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license (which prohibited commercial redistribution) to the GNU GPL.[10] Linux and GNU developers worked to integrate GNU components with Linux to make a fully functional and free operating system.[6] An operating system usually segregates the available system memory into kernel space and user space. ...


Commercial and popular uptake

Today Linux is used in numerous domains, from embedded systems[11] to supercomputers,[12] and has secured a place in server installations with the popular LAMP application stack.[13] Torvalds continues to direct the development of the kernel. Stallman heads the Free Software Foundation, which in turn supports the GNU components. Finally, individuals and corporations develop third-party non-GNU components. These third-party components comprise a vast body of work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries. Linux vendors and communities combine and distribute the kernel, GNU components, and non-GNU components, with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions. A router, an example of an embedded system. ... For other uses, see Supercomputer (disambiguation). ... In information technology, a server is an application or device that performs services for connected clients as part of a client-server architecture. ... The acronym LAMP refers to a solution stack of software, usually free software / open-source software, used to run dynamic Web sites or servers. ... Ubuntu, a popular Linux Distribution A Linux distribution (also called GNU/Linux distribution and often simply distribution or distro) is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like computer operating systems. ...


Pronunciation

In 1992, Torvalds explained how he pronounces the word Linux:

'li' is pronounced with a short [ee] sound: compare prInt, mInImal etc. 'nux' is also short, non-diphthong, like in pUt. It's partly due to minix: linux was just my working name for the thing, and as I wrote it to replace minix on my system, the result is what it is... linus' minix became linux.

Linus Torvalds, comp.os.linux newsgroup[14]

Torvalds has made available an audio sample which indicates his own pronunciation, in English and Swedish.[15][16] However, an interview from the 2001 documentary Revolution OS indicates that his preferred pronunciation has slightly changed.[17] This article is about the year. ... Promotional poster for two disc edition of Revolution OS Revolution OS is a documentary which traces the history of GNU, Linux, Free Software and the Open Source movement. ...


Many English speakers tend to pronounce the name as [ˈlɪnʊks] or [ˈlɪnəks].


Design

Linux is a modular Unix-like operating system. It derives much of its basic design from principles established in Unix during the 1970s and 1980s. Linux uses a monolithic kernel, the Linux kernel, which handles process control, networking, and peripheral and file system access. Device drivers are integrated directly with the kernel. Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... The Linux kernel is a Unix-like operating system kernel. ... For an account of the words periphery and peripheral as they are used in biology, sociology, politics, computer hardware, and other fields, see the periphery disambiguation page. ... For library and office filing systems, see Library classification. ... A device driver, often called a driver for short, is a computer program that enables another program (typically, an operating system) to interact with a hardware device. ...


Much of Linux's higher-level functionality is provided by separate projects which interface with the kernel. The GNU userland is an important part of most Linux systems, providing the shell and Unix tools which carry out many basic operating system tasks. On top of these tools form a Linux system with a graphical user interface that can be used, usually running in the X Window System. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In computing, a shell is a piece of software that provides an interface for users (command line interpreter). ... This is a list of UNIX utilities as specified by IEEE Std 1003. ... GUI redirects here. ... “X11” redirects here. ...


User interface

See also: User interface

Linux can be controlled by one or more of a text-based command line interface (CLI), graphical user interface (GUI) (usually the default for desktop), or through controls on the device itself (common on embedded machines). The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... GUI redirects here. ...


On desktop machines, KDE, GNOME and Xfce are the most popular user interfaces,[18] though a variety of other user interfaces exist. Most popular user interfaces run on top of the X Window System (X), which provides network transparency, enabling a graphical application running on one machine to be displayed and controlled from another. For the NYSE stock ticker symbol KDE, see 4Kids Entertainment. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... Xfce ([1]) is a free software desktop environment for Unix and other Unix-like platforms, such as Linux, Solaris and BSD. It aims to be fast and lightweight, while still being visually appealing and easy to use. ... “X11” redirects here. ... In a centralized database system, the only available resource that needs to be shielded from the user is the data, (that is, the storage system). ...


Other GUIs include X window managers such as FVWM, Enlightenment and Window Maker. The window manager provides a means to control the placement and appearance of individual application windows, and interacts with the X window system. An X window manager is software that controls the placement and appearance of windows under the X Window System, a windowing system mainly used on Unix-like systems. ... FVWM with internationalization features and some additional modules. ... Enlightenment, also known simply as E, is a free software/open source window manager for the X Window System which can be used alone or in conjunction with a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE. It has a rich feature set, including extensive support for themes and advanced graphics... Window Maker is a window manager for the X Window System, which allows graphical applications to be run on Unix-like operating-systems. ...


A Linux system usually provides a CLI of some sort through a shell, which is the traditional way of interacting with a Unix system. A Linux distribution specialized for servers may use the CLI as its only interface. A “headless system” run without even a monitor can be controlled by the command line via a protocol such as SSH or telnet. CLI is an acronym (or, strictly speaking, an initialism) for Command line interface Call Level Interface Common language interface (Commonly believed, but not official for Common Language Infrastructure) Common Language Infrastructure CLear Interrupts Composite Leading Indicator Caller Line Identification (telephony) Celebrity Love Island Critical Language Institute This page concerning a... In computing, a shell is a piece of software that provides an interface for users (command line interpreter). ... SSH redirects here. ... For the packet switched network, see Telenet. ...


Most low-level Linux components, including the GNU Userland, use the CLI exclusively. The CLI is particularly suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks, and provides very simple inter-process communication. A graphical terminal emulator program is often used to access the CLI from a Linux desktop. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Inter-Process Communication (IPC) is a set of techniques for the exchange of data between two or more threads in one or more processes. ... Apple Terminal. ...


Development

Main article: Linux distribution
A summarised history of Unix-like operating systems showing Linux's origins. Note that despite similar architectural designs and concepts being shared as part of the POSIX standard, Linux does not share any non-free source code with the original Unix or Minix.
A summarised history of Unix-like operating systems showing Linux's origins. Note that despite similar architectural designs and concepts being shared as part of the POSIX standard, Linux does not share any non-free source code with the original Unix or Minix.

The primary difference between Linux and many other popular contemporary operating systems is that the Linux kernel and other components are free and open source software. Linux is not the only such operating system, although it is the best-known and most widely used. Some free and open source software licences are based on the principle of copyleft, a kind of reciprocity: any work derived from a copyleft piece of software must also be copyleft itself. The most common free software license, the GNU GPL, is a form of copyleft, and is used for the Linux kernel and many of the components from the GNU project. Ubuntu, a popular Linux Distribution A Linux distribution (also called GNU/Linux distribution and often simply distribution or distro) is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like computer operating systems. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... MINIX is a free/open source, Unix-like operating system (OS) based on a microkernel architecture. ... The Linux kernel is a Unix-like operating system kernel. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... ... Free software is software which grants recipients the freedom to modify and redistribute the software. ... An open-source license is a copyright license for computer software that makes the source code available under terms that allow for modification and royalty-free redistribution. ... The reversed c in a full circle is the copyleft symbol. ... GPL redirects here. ... The GNU logo, drawn by Etienne Suvasa The GNU Project was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. ...


Linux systems adhere to POSIX,[19] SUS,[20] ISO and ANSI standards where possible. To date, however, only the Linux-FT distribution has been POSIX.1 certified.[21] POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... The Single UNIX Specification (SUS) is the collective name of a family of standards for computer operating systems to qualify for the name Unix. The SUS is developed and maintained by the Austin Group, based on earlier work by the IEEE and The Open Group. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... The American National Standards Institute or ANSI (pronounced an-see) is a nonprofit organization that oversees the development of standards for products, services, processes and systems in the United States. ...


Free software projects, although developed in a collaborative fashion, are often produced independently of each other. However, given that the software licenses explicitly permit redistribution, this provides a basis for larger scale projects that collect the software produced by stand-alone projects and make it available all at once in the form of a Linux distribution. For wartime collaboration, see Collaborationism. ... Ubuntu, a popular Linux Distribution A Linux distribution (also called GNU/Linux distribution and often simply distribution or distro) is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like computer operating systems. ...


A Linux distribution, commonly called a “distro”, is a project that manages a remote collection of Linux-based software, and facilitates installation of a Linux operating system. Distributions are maintained by individuals, loose-knit teams, volunteer organizations, and commercial entities. They include system software and application software in the form of packages, and distribution-specific software for initial system installation and configuration as well as later package upgrades and installs. A distribution is responsible for the default configuration of installed Linux systems, system security, and more generally integration of the different software packages into a coherent whole. Ubuntu, a popular Linux Distribution A Linux distribution (also called GNU/Linux distribution and often simply distribution or distro) is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like computer operating systems. ... Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform. ...


Community

A command line session using bash
A command line session using bash

Linux is largely driven by its developer and user communities. Some vendors develop and fund their distributions on a volunteer basis, Debian being a well-known example. Others maintain a community version of their commercial distributions, as Red Hat does with Fedora. Download high resolution version (709x691, 20 KB)Screenshot of a sample session of bash on Linux. ... Download high resolution version (709x691, 20 KB)Screenshot of a sample session of bash on Linux. ... This article is about the Unix shell. ... Debian is a free operating system. ... For other uses, see Red Hat (disambiguation). ... Fedora (previously called Fedora Core) is an RPM-based, general purpose Linux distribution, developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat. ...


In many cities and regions, local associations known as Linux Users Groups (LUGs) seek to promote Linux and by extension free software. They hold meetings and provide free demonstrations, training, technical support, and operating system installation to new users. There are also many Internet communities that seek to provide support to Linux users and developers. Most distributions and open source projects have IRC chatrooms or newsgroups. Online forums are another means for support, with notable examples being LinuxQuestions.org and the Gentoo forums. Linux distributions host mailing lists; commonly there will be a specific topic such as usage or development for a given list. A Linux User Group (LUG) is a private, generally non-profit or not-for-profit organization that provides support and/or education for Linux users, particularly for inexperienced users. ... Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of instant communication over the Internet. ... A newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users at different locations. ... An Internet forum, also known as a message board or discussion board, is a web application that provides for online discussions, and is the modern descendant of the bulletin board systems and existing Usenet news systems that were widespread in the 1980s and 1990s. ... LinuxQuestions. ... The Gentoo Linux operating system (pronounced ) is a Linux distribution named after the Gentoo penguin. ... A mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients. ...


There are several technology websites with a Linux focus. Linux Weekly News is a weekly digest of Linux-related news; the Linux Journal is an online magazine of Linux articles published monthly; Slashdot is a technology-related news website with many stories on Linux and open source software; Groklaw has written in depth about Linux-related legal proceedings and there are many articles relevant to the Linux kernel and its relationship with GNU on the GNU project's website. Print magazines on Linux often include cover disks including software or even complete Linux distributions.[22][23] LWN.net is a computing news site with an emphasis on Free/Libre Open Source Software and software for Unix-like operating systems. ... Linux Journal is a monthly magazine published by SpecializedSystemsConsultants (SSC) of Seattle, first published in March 1994. ... Slashdot, often abbreviated as /.[1], is a science, science fiction, and technology-related news website owned by SourceForge, Inc. ... Groklaw is a blog that was started May 16, 2003 by paralegal Pamela Jones (posting as PJ) at Radio UserLand. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a computer operating system composed entirely of free software. ... The GNU logo, drawn by Etienne Suvasa The GNU Project was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Cover disks (also commonly called by the single word coverdisks) were floppy disks with pre-installed content sold with issues of home computer magazines. ...


Although Linux is generally available free of charge, several large corporations have established business models that involve selling, supporting, and contributing to Linux and free software. These include Dell, IBM, HP, Sun Microsystems, Novell, and Red Hat. The free software licenses on which Linux is based explicitly accommodate and encourage commercialization; the relationship between Linux as a whole and individual vendors may be seen as symbiotic. One common business model of commercial suppliers is charging for support, especially for business users. A number of companies also offer a specialized business version of their distribution, which adds proprietary support packages and tools to administer higher numbers of installations or to simplify administrative tasks. Another business model is to give away the software in order to sell hardware. This article is about the corporation Dell, Inc. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... For the road bicycle racing team previously known as Novell, see Rabobank (cycling). ... For other uses, see Red Hat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ...


Programming on Linux

Most Linux distributions support dozens of programming languages. The most common collection of utilities for building both Linux applications and operating system programs is found within the GNU toolchain, which includes the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) and the GNU build system. Amongst others, GCC provides compilers for Ada, C, C++, Java, and Fortran. The Linux kernel itself is written to be compiled with GCC. Proprietary compilers for Linux include the Intel C++ Compiler and IBM XL C/C++ Compiler. A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... The GNU toolchain is a blanket term given to the programming tools produced by the GNU project. ... The GNU Compiler Collection (usually shortened to GCC) is a set of programming language compilers produced by the GNU Project. ... The GNU build system is a suite of tools produced by the GNU project that assist in making packages portable to many UNIX-like systems. ... Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... C++ (pronounced ) is a general-purpose programming language. ... Java language redirects here. ... Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... Intel C++ Compiler (also known as icc or icl) describes a group of C/C++ compilers from Intel. ...


Most distributions also include support for Perl, Ruby, Python and other dynamic languages. Examples of languages that are less common, but still well-supported, are C# via the Mono project, and Scheme. A number of Java Virtual Machines and development kits run on Linux, including the original Sun Microsystems JVM (HotSpot), and IBM's J2SE RE, as well as many open-source projects like Kaffe. The two main frameworks for developing graphical applications are those of GNOME and KDE. These projects are based on the GTK+ and Qt widget toolkits, respectively, which can also be used independently of the larger framework. Both support a wide variety of languages. There are a number of Integrated development environments available including Anjuta, Code::Blocks, Eclipse, KDevelop, Lazarus, MonoDevelop, NetBeans, and Omnis Studio while the long-established editors Vim and Emacs remain popular.[24] Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Perl Programming Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ... Ruby is a reflective, object-oriented programming language. ... Python is an interpreted programming language created by Guido van Rossum in 1990. ... Dynamic programming language is a term used broadly in computer science to describe a class of high level programming languages that execute at runtime many common behaviors that other languages might perform during compilation, if at all. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Mono is a project led by Novell (formerly by Ximian) to create an Ecma standard compliant . ... Scheme is a multi-paradigm programming language and a dialect of Lisp which supports functional and procedural programming. ... A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a set of computer software programs and data structures which implements a specific virtual machine model. ... Look up hot spot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kaffe is a clean room design of a Java Virtual Machine. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... For the NYSE stock ticker symbol KDE, see 4Kids Entertainment. ... GTK+, or the GIMP Toolkit, is one of the two most popular widget toolkits for the X Window System for creating graphical user interfaces. ... For other uses, see Qt. ... In computer programming, widget toolkits (or GUI toolkits) are sets of basic building units for graphical user interfaces. ... An integrated development environment (IDE), also known as integrated design environment and integrated debugging environment, is a programming environment that has been packaged as an application program,that assists computer programmers in developing software. ... Anjuta is an integrated development environment for C and C++ on GNU/Linux. ... Eclipse is an open source platform-independent software framework for delivering what the project calls rich-client applications, as opposed to thin client browser-based applications. ... KDevelop is a free software integrated development environment for the KDE desktop environment for Unix-like computer operating systems. ... This article concerns the software IDE named Lazarus. ... MonoDevelop is a popular, open source integrated development environment for the Linux platform, primarily targeted for the development of software that uses both the Mono and Microsoft . ... NetBeans refers to both a platform for the development of Java desktop applications, and an integrated development environment (IDE) developed using the NetBeans Platform. ... Omnis Studio is a Rapid Application Development (RAD) tool that allows programmers and application developers to create Enterprise level and Web-based applications for Windows, Linux, Solaris, and Mac OS X personal computers across all business sectors. ... Vim, which stands for Vi IMproved, is an open source, multiplatform text editor extended from vi. ... This article is about the text editor. ...


Uses

As well as those designed for general purpose use on desktops and servers, distributions may be specialized for different purposes including: computer architecture support, embedded systems, stability, security, localization to a specific region or language, targeting of specific user groups, support for real-time applications, or commitment to a given desktop environment. Furthermore, some distributions deliberately include only free software. Currently, over three hundred distributions are actively developed, with about a dozen distributions being most popular for general-purpose use.[25] A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ... Embedded Linux is a Linux based embedded operating system used in cell phones, personal digital assistants, media player handsets and other consumer electronics devices. ... Realtime redirects here. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ...


Linux is a widely ported operating system. While the Linux kernel was originally designed only for Intel 80386 microprocessors, it now runs on a more diverse range of computer architectures than any other operating system: in the hand-held ARM-based iPAQ and the mainframe IBM System z9, in devices ranging from mobile phones and wristwatches [26] to supercomputers.[27] Specialized distributions exist for less mainstream architectures. The ELKS kernel fork can run on Intel 8086 or Intel 80286 16-bit microprocessors, while the µClinux kernel fork may run on systems without a memory management unit. The kernel also runs on architectures that were only ever intended to use a manufacturer-created operating system, such as Macintosh computers, PDAs, video game consoles, portable music players, and mobile phones. In computer science, porting is the process of adapting software so that an executable program can be created for a computing environment that is different from the one for which it was originally designed (e. ... 386 DX redirects here. ... A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). ... A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ... The ARM architecture (previously, the Advanced RISC Machine, and prior to that Acorn RISC Machine) is a 32-bit RISC processor architecture developed by ARM Limited that is widely used in a number of embedded designs. ... iPAQ presently refers to a Pocket PC and personal digital assistant first unveiled by Compaq in April 2000; the name was borrowed from Compaqs earlier iPAQ Desktop Personal Computers. ... For other uses, see Mainframe. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... IBM System z9 System z9 is the newest and most powerful line of IBM mainframes. ... This page is about timekeeping devices. ... For other uses, see Supercomputer (disambiguation). ... Categories: Fraternal and Service Organizations ... In software engineering, a project fork or branch happens when a developer (or a group of them) takes a copy of source code from one software package and starts to independently develop a new package. ... The 8086[1] is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ... AMD 80286 at 12 MHz. ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... µClinux (which stands for MicroControllerLinux and is pronounced as you-see-Linux) is a Linux distro operating system for microcontrollers (µCs, embedded systems) without a memory management unit (MMU). ... This 68451 MMU could be used with the Motorola 68010 MMU, short for memory management unit or sometimes called paged memory management unit as PMMU, is a class of computer hardware components responsible for handling memory accesses requested by the CPU. Among the functions of such devices are the translation... For other uses, see Macintosh (disambiguation) and Mac. ... User with Treo (PDA with smartphone functionality) Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers, but have become much more versatile over the years. ... Game console redirects here. ... Apple iPod nano (third-generation), a best-selling flash-based player An embedded hard drive-based player (Creative ZEN Vision:M) An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) More commonly referred to as an MP3 player, a digital audio player (DAP) is a portable consumer electronics device that stores, organizes and...


Desktop

A KDE 4 desktop.
A KDE 4 desktop.
A GNOME 2.20 desktop.
A GNOME 2.20 desktop.
Main article: Desktop Linux

Although there is a lack of Linux ports for some Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows programs in domains such as desktop publishing[28] and professional audio,[29][30][31] applications equivalent to those available for Mac and Windows are available for Linux.[32] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 1050 pixels, file size: 766 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 1050 pixels, file size: 766 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... KDE 4 is the next series of releases of the K Desktop Environment software. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... Desktop Linux, also Linux on the desktop (LOTD) is the application of the GNU/Linux operating system on a desktop computer. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Windows redirects here. ... Adobe InDesign CS2, one of many popular desktop publishing applications. ... Professional audio, also pro audio, can be used a term to refer to both a type of audio equipment as well as a type of audio engineering application. ...


Most Linux distributions provide a program for browsing a list of thousands of free software applications that have already been tested and configured for a specific distribution. Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ...


Many free software titles that are popular on Windows, such as Pidgin, Mozilla Firefox, Openoffice.org, and GIMP, are available for Linux. A growing amount of proprietary desktop software is also supported under Linux,[33] examples being Adobe Flash Player, Acrobat Reader, Matlab, Nero Burning ROM, Opera, Google Picasa, RealPlayer, and Skype. In the field of animation and visual effects, most high end software, such as AutoDesk Maya, Softimage XSI and Apple Shake, is available for Linux, Windows and/or Mac OS X. CrossOver is a proprietary solution based on the open source Wine project that supports running older Windows versions of Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop versions through CS2. Microsoft Office 2007 and Adobe Photoshop CS3 are known not to work.[34][35] Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... Pidgin (formerly named Gaim) is a multi-platform instant messaging client. ... Firefox redirects here. ... OpenOffice. ... For other uses, see Gimp (disambiguation). ... The Adobe Flash Player is a widely distributed multimedia and application player created and distributed by Macromedia (a division of Adobe Systems). ... Adobe Acrobat is a family of application software by Adobe Systems. ... Not to be confused with Matlab Upazila in Chandpur District, Bangladesh. ... Nero Burning ROM is a popular optical disc authoring program for Microsoft Windows and Linux by Nero AG, formerly Ahead Software. ... Opera is a web browser and Internet suite developed by the Norwegian Opera Software company. ... Picasa is a computer application for organizing and editing digital photos. ... RealPlayer, briefly known also as RealOne Player, is a cross-platform media player by RealNetworks that plays a number of multimedia formats including MP3, MPEG-4, QuickTime, Windows Media and multiple versions of proprietary RealAudio and RealVideo formats. ... Skype (IPA: ) is a software program that allows users to make calls over the Internet to other Skype users free of charge and to landlines and cell phones for a fee. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shake is an image compositing package used in the post-production industry. ... CrossOver (before version 6. ... Wine is a software application which aims to allow Unix-like computer operating systems on the x86 architecture to execute programs that were originally written for Microsoft Windows. ... Microsoft Office is an office suite from Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X operating systems. ... Photoshop redirects here. ... Microsoft Office 2007 (officially called 2007 Microsoft Office system) is the most recent version of Microsofts productivity suite. ...


Besides the free Windows compatibility layer Wine, most distributions offer Dual boot and X86 virtualization for running both Linux and Windows on the same computer. Wine is a software application which aims to allow Unix-like computer operating systems on the x86 architecture to execute programs that were originally written for Microsoft Windows. ... Dual booting or dual-booting is the act of installing multiple operating systems on a computer, and choosing which one when it boots. ... x86 virtualization is the method by which x86-based guest operating systems are run under another host x86 operating system, with little or no modification of the guest OS. The x86 processor architecture did not originally meet the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements. ...


Linux's open nature allows distributed teams to localize Linux distributions for use in locales where localizing proprietary systems would not be cost-effective. For example the Sinhalese language version of the Knoppix distribution was available for a long time before Microsoft Windows XP was translated to Sinhalese. In this case the Lanka Linux User Group played a major part in developing the localized system by combining the knowledge of university professors, linguists, and local developers. Internationalization and localization are means of adapting products such as publications or software for non-native environments, especially other nations and cultures. ... Sinhalese or Sinhala (සිංහල, ISO 15919: , pronounced ], earlier referred to as Singhalese) is the mother tongue of the Sinhalese, the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... Knoppix, or KNOPPIX, is a complete Linux distribution on a CD. This includes a working computer operating system and a powerful suite of graphical user software which can be used as a live CD. It is a Debian-based Linux distribution, developed by Linux consultant Klaus Knopper. ... A typical Windows XP desktop. ... The following is a list of linguists, those who study linguistics. ...


The performance of Linux on the desktop has been a controversial topic, with at least one key Linux kernel developer, Con Kolivas, accusing the Linux community of favouring performance on servers. He quit Linux development because he was frustrated with this lack of focus on the desktop, and then gave a 'tell all' interview on the topic.[36]

See also: Linux gaming

Linux gaming refers to playing and developing games for Linux operating systems. ...

Servers and supercomputers

Historically, Linux has mainly been used as a server operating system, and has risen to prominence in that area; Netcraft reported in February 2008 that five of the ten most reliable internet hosting companies run Linux on their web servers.[37] This is due to its relative stability and long uptime, and the fact that desktop software with a graphical user interface for servers is often unneeded. Enterprise and non-enterprise Linux distributions may be found running on servers. Linux is the cornerstone of the LAMP server-software combination (Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python) which has achieved popularity among developers, and which is one of the more common platforms for website hosting. In information technology, a server is an application or device that performs services for connected clients as part of a client-server architecture. ... Netcraft is an Internet monitoring company based in Bath, England (recently having relocated from Bradford on Avon). ... The inside/front of a Dell PowerEdge web server The term Web server can mean one of two things: A computer program that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients, which are known as Web browsers, and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents, which usually are... The acronym LAMP refers to a solution stack of software, usually free software / open-source software, used to run dynamic Web sites or servers. ... The Apache HTTP Server, commonly referred to simply as Apache, is a web server notable for playing a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web. ... MySQL (pronounced (IPA) , my S-Q-L[1]) is a multithreaded, multi-user SQL database management system (DBMS)[2] which has, according to MySQL AB, more than 10 million installations. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Perl Programming Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ... For other uses, see PHP (disambiguation). ... Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language. ...


Linux is commonly used as an operating system for supercomputers. As of November 2007, out of the top 500 systems, 426 (85.2%) run Linux.[38] For other uses, see Supercomputer (disambiguation). ... November 2007 is the eleventh month of that year. ...


Embedded devices

See also: Embedded Linux and Linux devices

Due to its low cost and ability to be easily modified, an embedded Linux is often used in embedded systems. Embedded Linux is a Linux based embedded operating system used in cell phones, personal digital assistants, media player handsets and other consumer electronics devices. ... Because of the open source philosophy that linux brings to the software world, many people have ported the linux kernel to run on devices other than a computer. ... Embedded Linux is a Linux based embedded operating system used in cell phones, personal digital assistants, media player handsets and other consumer electronics devices. ... What is an Embedded System? Electronic devices that incorporate a computer(usually a microprocessor) within their implementation. ...

  • Mobile phones or PDAs running on Linux and built on open source platform became a trend from 2007, like the Nokia N810's Internet Tablet OS, Openmoko's Neo1973 and the on-going Google Android.

16.7% of smartphones sold worldwide during 2006 were using Linux[39] The Nokia N810 is a Internet appliance from Nokia, announced on 17 October 2007, the Nokia N810 and the Nokia N800 will be in production at the same time. ... OpenMoko is a project to create a smartphone platform using free software. ... The Neo1973 is the first smartphone to support the OpenMoko software platform, made by FIC. It is named for the first year of mobile telephone communication: the inventor of the mobile phone, Martin Cooper, made the first call in 1973. ... A Sony Ericsson Smartphone (Model P910i) with touch screen and QWERTY keyboard Look up smartphone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • The popular TiVo digital video recorder uses a customized version of Linux.[40]
  • Several network firewall and router standalone products, including several from Linksys, use Linux internally, using its advanced firewall and routing capabilities.

TiVo (pronounced tee-voh, IPA: ) is a popular brand of digital video recorder (DVR) in the United States (and coming to Canada in December 7, 2007) and is a consumer video device which allows users to capture television programming to internal hard disk storage for later viewing (time shifting), provides... Firewall may refer to: Firewall (construction), a physical barrier inside a building or vehicle, designed to limit the spread of fire, heat and structural collapse Firewall (networking), a logical barrier designed to prevent unauthorized or unwanted communications between sections of a computer network Firewall (film), a 2006 action film written... This article is about a computer networking device. ... A 802. ...

Market share and uptake

Main article: Linux adoption

Many quantitative studies of open source software focus on topics including market share and reliability, with numerous studies specifically examining Linux.[41] The Linux market is growing rapidly, and the revenue of servers, desktops, and packaged software running Linux is expected to exceed $35.7 billion by 2008.[42] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


IDC's report for Q1 2007 says that Linux now holds 12.7% of the overall server market.[43] This estimate was based on the number of Linux servers sold by various companies. IDC Analyze the Future-logo. ...


Desktop adoption of Linux is approximately 1%. In comparison, Microsoft operating systems hold more than 90%.[44][45][46][47][48][49][50] The following is a list of Microsoft operating systems. ...


Proponents and analysts attribute the relative success of Linux to its security, reliability,[51] low cost, and freedom from vendor lock-in.[52] In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in, customer lock-in, lock-in is where a customer is dependent on a vendor for products and services and cannot move to another vendor without substantial switching costs, real and/or perceived. ...


The frictional cost of switching operating systems and lack of support for certain hardware and application programs designed for Microsoft Windows have been two factors that have inhibited adoption. That is changing however with the rise of virtualization technology (e.g VMWare, VirtualBox as well as hardware support by intel and AMD), and recently Google has begun to fund Wine, which acts as a compatibility layer, allowing users to run some Windows programs directly under Linux. Windows redirects here. ... Wine is a software application which aims to allow Unix-like computer operating systems on the x86 architecture to execute programs that were originally written for Microsoft Windows. ...


The XO laptop project of One Laptop Per Child is creating a new and potentially much larger Linux community, planned to reach several hundred million schoolchildren and their families and communities in developing countries. Six countries have ordered a million or more units each for delivery in 2007 to distribute to schoolchildren at no charge. Google, Red Hat, and eBay are among the major supporters of the project.[53] The XO-1, previously known as the $100 Laptop or Childrens Machine, is an inexpensive laptop computer intended to be distributed to children in developing countries around the world [1], to provide them with access to knowledge. ... This article is about the corporation. ... For other uses, see Red Hat (disambiguation). ... This article is about the online auction center. ...

See also: Usage share of desktop operating systems

This is a list of collections of statistics showing the usage share of the most popular desktop and notebook operating systems. ...

Code size

A 2001 study of Red Hat Linux 7.1 found that this distribution contained 30 million source lines of code. Using the Constructive Cost Model, the study estimated that this distribution required about eight thousand man-years of development time. According to the study, if all this software had been developed by conventional proprietary means, it would have cost about 1.08 billion dollars (year 2000 U.S. dollars) to develop in the United States.[54] Red Hat Linux was a popular Linux distribution assembled by Red Hat until the early 2000s, when it was discontinued. ... Source lines of code (SLOC) is a software metric used to measure the amount of code in a software program. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ...


Most of the code (71%) was written in the C programming language, but many other languages were used, including C++, assembly language, Perl, Python, Fortran, and various shell scripting languages. Slightly over half of all lines of code were licensed under the GPL. The Linux kernel itself was 2.4 million lines of code, or 8% of the total.[54] C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... Programming redirects here. ... C++ (pronounced ) is a general-purpose programming language. ... See the terminology section, below, regarding inconsistent use of the terms assembly and assembler. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Perl Programming Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ... Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language. ... Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ... A shell script is a script written for the shell, or command line interpreter, of an operating system. ...


In a later study, the same analysis was performed for Debian GNU/Linux version 4.0.[55] This distribution contained over 283 million source lines of code, and the study estimated that it would have cost 5.4 billion euros ($6.85 billion USD) to develop by conventional means. The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


Licensing, trademark, and naming

The Linux kernel and most GNU software are licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL). The GPL requires that anyone who distributes the Linux kernel must make the source code (and any modifications) available to the recipient under the same terms. In 1997, Linus Torvalds stated, “Making Linux GPL'd was definitely the best thing I ever did.”[56] Other key components of a Linux system may use other licenses; many libraries use the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), a more permissive variant of the GPL, and the X Window System uses the MIT License. A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... GPL redirects here. ... The GNU Lesser General Public License (formerly the GNU Library General Public License) or LGPL is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation. ... “X11” redirects here. ... The MIT License, also called the X License or the X11 License, originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a license for the use of certain types of computer software. ...


Torvalds has publicly stated that he would not move the Linux kernel (currently licensed under GPL version 2) to version 3 of the GPL, released in mid-2007, specifically citing some provisions in the new license which prohibit the use of the software in digital rights management.[57][58] Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ...


In the United States, the name Linux is a trademark registered to Linus Torvalds.[59] Initially, nobody registered it, but on August 15, 1994, William R. Della Croce, Jr. filed for the trademark Linux, and then demanded royalties from Linux distributors. In 1996, Torvalds and some affected organizations sued him to have the trademark assigned to Torvalds, and in 1997 the case was settled.[60] The licensing of the trademark has since been handled by the Linux Mark Institute. Torvalds has stated that he only trademarked the name to prevent someone else from using it, but was bound in 2005 by United States trademark law to take active measures to enforce the trademark. As a result, the LMI sent out a number of letters to distribution vendors requesting that a fee be paid for the use of the name, and a number of companies have complied.[61] “(TM)” redirects here. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Linux Mark Institute (LMI) is an organization which administers the Linux trademark on behalf of Linus Torvalds for computer softwarewhich includes the Linux kernel, computer hardware utilizing Linux-based software, and for services associated with the implementation and documentation of Linux-based products. ... Trademarks were traditionally protected in the United States only under State common law, growing out of the tort of unfair competition. ...

See also: SCO-Linux controversies

The SCO-Linux controversies are a series of legal and public disputes between the software company SCO Group (SCO) and various Linux vendors and users. ...

GNU/Linux

The Free Software Foundation views Linux distributions which use GNU software as GNU variants and they ask that such operating systems be referred to as GNU/Linux or a Linux-based GNU system.[62] However, the media and population at large refers to this family of operating systems simply as Linux. While some distributors make a point of using the aggregate form, most notably Debian with the Debian GNU/Linux distribution, the term's use outside of the enthusiast community is limited. The distinction between the Linux kernel and distributions based on it plus the GNU system is a source of confusion to many newcomers, and the naming remains controversial. The GNU/Linux naming controversy is a dispute between members of the free and open source software community relating to the normative branding of the computer operating systems commonly referred to as Linux. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... GNU variants are operating systems based on GNU but not using the Hurd. ... Debian is a free operating system. ... Debian, created by the Debian Project, is a widely used distribution of free software developed through the collaboration of volunteers from around the world. ...


See also

Linux Portal
Free software Portal

Image File history File links NewTux. ... Image File history File links Free_Software_Portal_Logo. ... The Linux Foundation (LF) is a nonprofit consortium dedicated to fostering the growth of Linux. ... This page provides general information about notable Linux distributions in the form of a categorized list. ... Technical variations include support for different hardware devices and systems or software package configurations. ... For a broader comparison of closed source and Open Source software, see Comparison of open source and closed source. ... For the specific comparison of the open source Linux operating system with the closed source Windows Operating system please see Comparison of Windows and Linux Open source (or free software) and closed source (or proprietary software) are two approaches to the control, exploitation and commercializing of computer software. ... The Cathedral and the Bazaar (abbreviated CatB) is an essay by Eric S. Raymond on software engineering methods, based on his observations of the Linux kernel development process and his experiences managing an open source project, fetchmail. ... With ever dropping prices of hardware devices, the market for networking devices and systems is undergoing a kind of change that can be loosely termed as ‘generalization’. Big established enterprises like Cisco, Novell, Sun Microsystems etc. ... The Linux Standard Base, or LSB, is a joint project by several GNU/Linux distributions under the organizational structure of The Free Standards Group to standardize the internal structure of Linux-based operating systems. ... Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, primarily used as a research vehicle. ... The Linux Documentation Project (TLDP) is an all-volunteer project that maintains a large collection of Linux (and Linux-related) documentation and publishes the collection online. ...

References

  1. ^ (23 April 1992). "Re: How to pronounce “Linux”?". (Google Groups). Retrieved on 2007-01-09. Torvalds has made available an audio sample which indicates his own pronunciation, in English (/ˈlɪnʊks/) ─ How to pronounce Linux?. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. ─ and Swedish (/ˈlɪːnɤks/) ─ Linus pronouncing Linux in English and Swedish. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
  2. ^ Linux Online ─ About the Linux Operating System. Linux.org. Retrieved on 2007-07-06.
  3. ^ Weeks, Alex (2004). "1.1", Linux System Administrator's Guide, version 0.9. Retrieved on 2007-01-18. 
  4. ^ Lyons, Daniel. Linux rules supercomputers. Retrieved on 2007-02-22.
  5. ^ About the GNU Project - Initial Announcement
  6. ^ a b Overview of the GNU System
  7. ^ Linus vs. Tanenbaum debate.
  8. ^ "What would you like to see most in minix?". comp.os.minix. (Web link). Retrieved on 2006-09-09.
  9. ^ a b Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution, Jauary, <http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/appa.html> 
  10. ^ Torvalds, Linus (1992-01-05). RELEASE NOTES FOR LINUX v0.12. Linux Kernel Archives. Retrieved on 2007-07-23. “The Linux copyright will change: I've had a couple of requests to make it compatible with the GNU copyleft, removing the “you may not distribute it for money” condition. I agree. I propose that the copyright be changed so that it confirms to GNU ─ pending approval of the persons who have helped write code. I assume this is going to be no problem for anybody: If you have grievances (“I wrote that code assuming the copyright would stay the same”) mail me. Otherwise The GNU copyleft takes effect as of the first of February. If you do not know the gist of the GNU copyright ─ read it.”
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  12. ^ Lyons, Daniel. Linux rules supercomputers. Retrieved on 2007-02-22.
  13. ^ Schrecker, Michael. Turn on Web Interactivity with LAMP. Retrieved on 2007-02-22.
  14. ^ (23 April 1992). "Re: How to pronounce "Linux"?". (Google Groups). Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  15. ^ Howto pronouce Linux?. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
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  18. ^ Debian popularity-contest program information.
  19. ^ POSIX.1 (FIPS 151-2) Certification.
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  22. ^ Linux Format. Linux Format DVD contents. Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
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  35. ^ Photoshop CS 3. CodeWeavers. CodeWeavers Inc. (2007-07-11). Retrieved on 2008-01-05.
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  37. ^ Tiscali Italia is the Most Reliable Hosting Company in February 2008. Netcraft (March 4, 2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
  38. ^ Operating system Family share for 11/2007 | TOP500 Supercomputing Sites
  39. ^ The Palm OS Clings To Life.
  40. ^ TiVo ─ GNU/Linux Source Code. Archived from the original on 2007-05-19. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.
  41. ^ Wheeler, David A. Why Open Source Software/Free Software (OSS/FS)? Look at the Numbers!. Retrieved on 2006-04-01.
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  43. ^ Linux-watch.com ─ IDC Q1 2007 report
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is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Linus Benedict Torvalds   (born December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, Finland) is a Finnish software engineer best known for initiating the development of the Linux kernel. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Linux Format was the UKs first Linux-specific magazine, and is currently the best-selling Linux title in the UK. It is also exported to many countries worldwide. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Linux Magazin (ISSN 1432-640X) is a German professional journal. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Linux kernel mailing list (LKML) is the main electronic mailing list for Linux kernel development[1][2], where majority of the announcements, discussions, debates, and flame wars over the kernel take place[3]. Many other mailing lists exist to discuss the different subsystems and ports of the Linux kernel... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Linux kernel mailing list (LKML) is the main electronic mailing list for Linux kernel development[1][2], where majority of the announcements, discussions, debates, and flame wars over the kernel take place[3]. Many other mailing lists exist to discuss the different subsystems and ports of the Linux kernel... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[1] is an American software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... A/UX (from Apple Unix) is Apple Computers implementation of the Unix operating system for some of their Macintosh computers. ... AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive) is the name given to a series of proprietary operating systems sold by IBM for several of its computer system platforms, based on UNIX System V. Before the product was ever marketed, the acronym AIX originally stood for Advanced IBM UNIX. The latest scalable AIX 5L... BSD redirects here. ... BKUNIX is an operating system for Soviet Elektronika BK personal computer. ... For other uses, see DEMOS (disambiguation). ... DragonFly BSD is a free Unix-like operating system created as a fork of FreeBSD 4. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a computer operating system composed entirely of free software. ... HP-UX (Hewlett Packard UniX) is Hewlett-Packards proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system, based on System V (initially System III). ... IRIX is a computer operating system developed by Silicon Graphics, Inc. ... The LynxOS RTOS is a Unix-like real-time operating system from LynuxWorks (formerly Lynx Real-Time Systems). Sometimes known as the Lynx Operating System, LynxOS features POSIX compliance and, more recently, Linux compatibility. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... MNOS (meaning MobilNaya Operatsionnaya Sistema (МобильНая Операционная Система, МНОС), or Portable Operating System) was a Unix-like operating system developed in the Soviet Union. ... NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... NEXTSTEP is the original object-oriented, multitasking operating system that NeXT Computer, Inc. ... OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, primarily used as a research vehicle. ... QNX (pronounced either Q-N-X or Q-nix) is a commercial POSIX-compliant Unix-like real-time operating system, aimed primarily at the embedded systems market. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... SCO OpenServer, previously SCO UNIX and SCO ODT, is a Unix-like computer operating system developed by Santa Cruz Operation (SCO) and now maintained by the SCO Group. ... SINIX (later renamed to Reliant UNIX) was a version of the Unix operating system from Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme. ... The Solaris Operating System, usually known simply as Solaris, is a free Unix-based operating system introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1992 as the successor to SunOS. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, as well for being the origin for many innovative features such as DTrace... SUPER-UX, sometimes spelled SuperUx, is the UNIX-like operating system that is used on the Cray/NEC SX architecture supercomputers. ... AT&T UNIX System V was one of the versions of the UNIX operating system. ... Tru64 UNIX is HPs (formerly Compaq; formerly DEC) 64-bit Unix operating system for the DEC Alpha AXP platform. ... VxWorks is a Unix-like real-time operating system made and sold by Wind River Systems of Alameda, California, USA. Like most RTOSes, VxWorks includes a multitasking kernel with pre-emptive scheduling and fast interrupt response, extensive inter-process communications and synchronization facilities, and a file system. ... Xenix was a version of the Unix operating system, licensed by Microsoft from AT&T in the late 1970s. ... Ubuntu, a popular Linux Distribution A Linux distribution (also called GNU/Linux distribution and often simply distribution or distro) is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like computer operating systems. ... CentOS is a freely available Linux distribution which is based on Red Hats commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) product. ... Debian is a free operating system. ... The Gentoo Linux operating system (pronounced ) is a Linux distribution named after the Gentoo penguin. ... Knoppix, or KNOPPIX, is a complete Linux distribution on a CD. This includes a working computer operating system and a powerful suite of graphical user software which can be used as a live CD. It is a Debian-based Linux distribution, developed by Linux consultant Klaus Knopper. ... Mandriva Linux (formerly Mandrakelinux or Mandrake Linux) is a Linux distribution created by Mandriva (formerly Mandrakesoft). ... openSUSE is a community project, sponsored by Novell, to develop and maintain a general purpose Linux distribution. ... Red Hat Enterprise Linux (often abbreviated to RHEL) is a Linux distribution produced by Red Hat and targeted toward the commercial market, including mainframes. ... Slackware was one of the earliest Linux distributions, and is the oldest, and most UNIX-like, distribution still being maintained[1]. It was created by Patrick Volkerding of Slackware Linux, Inc. ... This page provides general information about notable Linux distributions in the form of a categorized list. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... ... The Common Unix Printing System (CUPS) is a modular computer printing system for Unix-like operating systems that allows a computer to act as a powerful print server. ... The Free Software Definition is a definition published by Free Software Foundation (FSF) for what constitutes free software. ... The GNU logo, drawn by Etienne Suvasa The GNU Project was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. ... This is a list of open-source software packages: computer software licensed under an open-source license. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... “X11” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Free_Software_Portal_Logo. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This timeline shows the development of the Linux kernel. ... Mozilla Application Suite began as an open source base of the Netscape suite. ... The Mozilla Firefox project was created by Dave Hyatt and Blake Ross as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project. ... Originally launched as Minotaur shortly after Phoenix (the original name for Mozilla Firefox), the project failed to gain momentum. ... These tables compare the various free software / open source operating systems. ... BSD redirects here. ... Darwin is a free and open source, Unix-like operating system first released by Apple Inc. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a computer operating system composed entirely of free software. ... OpenSolaris is an open source project created by Sun Microsystems to build a developer community around Solaris Operating System technology. ... ReactOS is a project to develop an operating system that is binary-compatible with application software and device drivers for Microsoft Windows NT version 5. ... Open source software development is the process by which open source software (or similar software whose source is publicly available) is developed. ... The GNU Compiler Collection (usually shortened to GCC) is a set of programming language compilers produced by the GNU Project. ... Low Level Virtual Machine, generally known as LLVM, is a compiler infrastructure designed for compile-time, link-time, run-time, and idle-time optimization of programs written in arbitrary programming languages. ... For other uses, see PHP (disambiguation). ... Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Perl Programming Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ... Java language redirects here. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... In Unix computing, Blackbox is a window manager for the X Window System. ... EDE or Equinox Desktop Environment is a small desktop environment that is meant to be simple and fast. ... Enlightenment, also known simply as E, is a free software/open source window manager for the X Window System which can be used alone or in conjunction with a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE. It has a rich feature set, including extensive support for themes and advanced graphics... Étoilé is a GNUstep-based free software desktop environment built from the ground up on highly modular and light components with project and document orientation in mind, in order to allow users to create their own workflow by reshaping or recombining provided Services (aka Applications), Components, etc. ... In Unix computing, Fluxbox is an X window manager based on Blackbox. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... In Unix computing, IceWM is a window manager for the X Window System graphical infrastructure, written by Marko Maček. ... For the NYSE stock ticker symbol KDE, see 4Kids Entertainment. ... Openbox is a free window manager for the X Window System, licensed under the GNU General Public License. ... A screenshot of the ROX desktop. ... Window Maker is a window manager for the X Window System, which allows graphical applications to be run on Unix-like operating-systems. ... Xfce ([1]) is a free software desktop environment for Unix and other Unix-like platforms, such as Linux, Solaris and BSD. It aims to be fast and lightweight, while still being visually appealing and easy to use. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... The Free Software Foundation Europe (FSFE, or FSF Europe) was founded in 2001 as an official European sister organization of the U.S.-based Free Software Foundation (FSF) to take care of all aspects of free software in Europe. ... The Free Software Foundation India (FSF-India), founded in 2001, is a sister organisation to Free Software Foundation. ... Free Software Foundation Latin America (FSFLA) is the Latin American sister organisation of Free Software Foundation. ... The Linux Foundation (LF) is a nonprofit consortium dedicated to fostering the growth of Linux. ... The Mountain View office shared by the Mozilla Foundation and the Mozilla Corporation The Mozilla Foundation (abbreviated MF or MoFo) is a non-profit organization that exists to support and provide leadership for the open source Mozilla project. ... The Open Source Initiative is an organization dedicated to promoting open source software. ... A free software licence is a software licence which grants recipients rights to modify and redistribute the software which would otherwise be prohibited by copyright law. ... The Apache License (Apache Software License previous to version 2. ... The BSD daemon BSD licenses represent a family of permissive free software licenses. ... GPL redirects here. ... The GNU Lesser General Public License (formerly the GNU Library General Public License) or LGPL is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation. ... The MIT License, also called the X License or the X11 License, originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a license for the use of certain types of computer software. ... In computing, the Mozilla Public License (MPL) is an open source and free software license. ... Permissive free software licences are software licences for a copyrighted work that offer many of the same freedoms as releasing a work to the public domain. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ... Tivoization is the creation of a system that incorporates software under the terms of a copyleft software license, but uses hardware to prevent users from running modified versions of the software on that hardware. ... Opposition to software patents is widespread in the free software community. ... Logo of Trusted Computing Group, an initiative to implement Trusted Computing Trusted Computing (commonly abbreviated TC) is a technology developed and promoted by the Trusted Computing Group (TCG). ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... The SCO-Linux controversies are a series of legal and public disputes between the software company SCO Group (SCO) and various Linux vendors and users. ... In computing, a binary blob is an object file loaded into the kernel of a free or open source operating system without publicly available source code. ... From the early 90s onward, alternative terms for free software have come into common use, with much debate in the free software community. ... // The free software community is also called the open source community or the Linux community. ... The free software movement, also known as the free software philosophy, began in 1983 when Richard Stallman announced the GNU Project. ... For the specific comparison of the open source Linux operating system with the closed source Windows Operating system please see Comparison of Windows and Linux Open source (or free software) and closed source (or proprietary software) are two approaches to the control, exploitation and commercializing of computer software. ... Free and Open Source Software, also F/OSS or FOSS, is software which is liberally licensed to grant the right of users to study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code. ... Promotional poster for two disc edition of Revolution OS Revolution OS is a documentary which traces the history of GNU, Linux, Free Software and the Open Source movement. ... An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... Graphical overview of a microkernel A microkernel is a minimal computer operating system kernel providing only basic operating system services (system calls), while other services (commonly provided by kernels) are provided by user-space programs called servers. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... Graphical overview of a hybrid kernel Hybrid kernel is a kernel architecture based on combining aspects of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems. ... In computer engineering the kernel is the core of an operating system. ... In computing, loadable kernel modules, or LKM, are object files that contain code to extend the running kernel, or so-called base kernel, of an operating system. ... In computer science, a nanokernel or picokernel is a very minimalist operating system kernel. ... A device driver, or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a computer hardware device. ... An operating system usually segregates the available system memory into kernel space and user space. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Process management is the ensemble of activities of planning and monitoring the performance of a process, especially in the sense of business process, often confused with reengineering. ... In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed. ... In computing, multitasking is a method by which multiple tasks, also known as processes, share common processing resources such as a CPU. In the case of a computer with a single CPU, only one task is said to be running at any point in time, meaning that the CPU is... In computing, an interrupt is an asynchronous signal from hardware or software indicating the need for attention. ... Protected mode is an operational mode of x86-compatible CPUs of the 80286 series or later. ... In computer terms, supervisor mode is a hardware-mediated flag which can be changed by code running in system-level software. ... In computing, multitasking is a method by which multiple tasks, also known as processes, share common processing resources such as a CPU. In the case of a computer with a single CPU, only one task is said to be running at any point in time, meaning that the CPU is... For disk scheduling, see I/O scheduling. ... A context switch is the computing process of storing and restoring the state (context) of a CPU such that multiple processes can share a single CPU resource. ... In computing, cooperative multitasking (or non-preemptive multitasking) is a form of multitasking in which multiple tasks execute by voluntarily ceding control to other tasks at programmer-defined points within each task. ... Pre-emptive multitasking is a form of multitasking in which processes are not allowed to take an indefinitely long time to complete execution in the CPU. Each process, in turn, is granted a portion of CPU time (usually called a time slice, on the order of milliseconds). ... CPU modes (also called processor modes or privilege levels, and by other names) are operating modes for the central processing unit of some computers that place variable restrictions on the operations that can be performed by the CPU. Mode types At a minimum, any CPU with this type of architecture... Memory protection is a system that prevents one process from corrupting the memory of another process running on the same computer at the same time. ... Look up segmentation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about computer virtual memory. ... This 68451 MMU could be used with the Motorola 68010 MMU, short for memory management unit or sometimes called paged memory management unit as PMMU, is a class of computer hardware components responsible for handling memory accesses requested by the CPU. Among the functions of such devices are the translation... It has been suggested that Access violation be merged into this article or section. ... A General Protection Fault (GPF) in the Intel x86 and AMD x86-64 architectures is a fault (a type of an interrupt) which can encompass several cases, where protection mechanisms within the processor architecture are violated by any of the programs that is running, whether it be the kernel or... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga and AmigaOne personal computers. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a computer operating system composed entirely of free software. ... CP/M is an operating system originally created for Intel 8080/85 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. ... MP/M was the multi-user version of the CP/M operating system, created by Digital Research. ... OS/2 is a computer operating system, initially created by Microsoft and IBM, then later developed by IBM exclusively. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... Windows redirects here. ... This article relates to both the original Classic Mac OS as well as Mac OS X, Apples more recent operating system. ... In computing, Bootstrapping refers to a process where a simple system activates another more complicated system that serves the same purpose. ... API redirects here. ... A virtual file system (VFS) or virtual filesystem switch is an abstraction layer on top of a more concrete file system. ... A computer network is an interconnection of a group of computers. ... GUI redirects here. ... The history of computer operating systems recapitulates to a degree, the recent history of computing. ... A hardware abstraction layer (HAL) is an abstraction layer, implemented in software, between the physical hardware of a computer and the software that runs on that computer. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Linux Home Page at Linux Online (371 words)
Linux is a free Unix-type operating system originally created by Linus Torvalds with the assistance of developers around the world.
Developed under the GNU General Public License, the source code for Linux is freely available to everyone.
The popularity of the Linux distribution Ubuntu is growing day by day.
Linux and GNU - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF) (1552 words)
Linux is the kernel: the program in the system that allocates the machine's resources to the other programs that you run.
Linux is normally used in a combination with the GNU operating system: the whole system is basically GNU, with Linux functioning as its kernel.
One CD-ROM vendor found that in their “Linux distribution”, GNU software was the largest single contingent, around 28% of the total source code, and this included some of the essential major components without which there could be no system.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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