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Encyclopedia > Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling in 1954
Linus Pauling in 1954
Born February 28, 1901(1901-02-28)
Lake Oswego, Oregon, USA
Died August 19, 1994 (aged 93)
Big Sur, California, USA
Residence United States
Nationality United States
Fields Quantum chemistry
Biochemistry
Institutions Caltech, UCSD, Stanford
Alma mater Oregon State University
Caltech
Doctoral advisor Roscoe G. Dickinson
Doctoral students Jerry Donohue
Martin Karplus
Matthew Meselson
Known for Elucidating the nature of chemical bonds and the structures of molecules.
Advocating nuclear disarmament.
Notable awards Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1954)
Nobel Peace Prize (1962)
Religious stance Raised Lutheran, Unitarian Universalist, atheist as an adult

Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901August 19, 1994) was an American scientist, peace activist, author and educator of German ancestry. He is considered one of the most influential chemists of the 20th century and ranks among the most important scientists in history. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1051x1536, 160 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag Seal Location Location in Oregon Coordinates , Government County Clackamas County Founded 1847 Mayor Judie Hammerstad Geographical characteristics Area     City 26. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... View inland (east) from Route 1 Daily June fog in Big Sur. ... Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kÄ“me, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational research university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... The University of California, San Diego (popularly known as UCSD, or sometimes UC San Diego) is a highly selective, research-oriented[1] public university located in La Jolla, a seaside resort community of San Diego, California. ... Stanford redirects here. ... Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... Oregon State University (OSU) is a four-year research and degree-granting public university, located in Corvallis, Oregon (USA). ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational research university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... Roscoe Gilkey Dickinson (1894-1945) is notable for being the PhD advisor of the twice Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Martin Karplus (born March 15, 1930, Vienna, Austria) is an Austrian-born U.S. chemist. ... Dr. Matthew Stanley Meselson (born 1930) is an American geneticist and molecular biologist whose research was important in showing how DNA replicates, recombines and is repaired in cells. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... Geometry of the water molecule Molecules have fixed equilibrium geometries--bond lengths and angles--that are dictated by the laws of quantum mechanics. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006 Nuclear disarmament is the proposed dismantling of nuclear weapons, particularly those of the United States and the Soviet Union (later Russia) targeted on each other. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to the present day. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... Atheist redirects here. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... This article is about the profession. ... A peace activist is a political activist who strives for peace, and against war. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


Pauling was one of the first scientists to work in the fields of quantum chemistry, molecular biology and orthomolecular medicine. He is also a member of a small group of individuals who have been awarded more than one Nobel Prize, one of only two people to receive them in different fields (the other was Marie Curie) and the only person in that group to have been awarded each of his prizes without having to share it with another recipient.[1] Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Orthomolecular medicine and optimum nutrition are controversial medical and health approaches[1] that posit that many diseases and abnormalities result from various chemical imbalances or deficiencies and can be prevented, treated, or sometimes cured by achieving optimal levels of naturally occurring chemical substances, such as vitamins, dietary minerals, enzymes, antioxidants... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... This article is about the chemist and physicist. ...


Pauling was born and raised in Oregon. He attended Oregon Agricultural College and graduated in 1922 with a degree in chemical engineering. Pauling then went to the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), where he received his Ph. D in physical chemistry and mathematical physics in 1925. Two years later, he accepted a position at Caltech as an assistant professor in theoretical chemistry. In 1932, Pauling published a landmark paper, detailing his theory of orbital hybridization and analyzed the tetravalency of carbon. That year, he also established the concept of electronegativity and developed a scale that would help predict the nature of chemical bonding. Pauling continued this work, but also began publishing papers on the structure of the atomic nucleus. In 1954, Pauling was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. As a biochemist, Pauling conducted research with X-ray crystallography and modeling in crystal and protein structures. This type of approach was used by English scientists to discover the double helix structure of the DNA molecule. Oregon State University (OSU) is a four-year research and degree-granting public university, located in Corvallis, Oregon (USA). ... Chemical engineers design, construct and operate plants Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational research university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ... Mathematical physics is the scientific discipline concerned with the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories. ... Four sp3 orbitals. ... In chemistry, a tetravalence is the state of an atom with four electrons available for covalent chemical bonding in its valence (outermost electron shell). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... Proteins are an important class of biological macromolecules present in all biological organisms, made up of such elements as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. ... The Double-Helix are an alien race in the Wing Commander science fiction series. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


During the Second World War, Pauling worked on military research and development. However, when the war ended he became particularly concerned about the further development and possible use of atomic weapons and with the destruction inflicted on the world by war in general. Ava Helen Pauling, Linus's wife, was a pacifist and in time he came to share her views.[2] Pauling soon began to express his concerns with the effects of nuclear fallout and in 1962, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his campaign against above ground nuclear testing. His beliefs were not without controversy at the time and he was criticized by some for his actions. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ...


Pauling was also successful as an author and educator. His first book, The Nature of the Chemical Bond (1939), is considered influential even to this day, as is his introductory textbook, General Chemistry (1949). Later in life, he became an advocate for greatly increased consumption of vitamin C and other nutrients. He generalized his ideas to define orthomolecular medicine, which is still regarded as unorthodox by conventional medicine. He popularized his concepts, analyses, research and insights in several successful but controversial books, such as How to Live Longer and Feel Better in 1986. He died of prostate cancer on August 19th, 1994. [3] Three textbooks. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Orthomolecular medicine and optimum nutrition are controversial medical and health approaches[1] that posit that many diseases and abnormalities result from various chemical imbalances or deficiencies and can be prevented, treated, or sometimes cured by achieving optimal levels of naturally occurring chemical substances, such as vitamins, dietary minerals, enzymes, antioxidants... Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ...

Contents

Early life

Herman Henry William Pauling c. 1900.
Herman Henry William Pauling c. 1900.

Pauling was born in Oswego, Oregon[4] (now known as Lake Oswego) as the first born child to Herman Henry William Pauling (1876–1910) and Lucy Isabelle "Belle" Darling (1881–1926). He was named "Linus Carl", in honor of Lucy's father, Linus, and Herman's father, Carl.[5] Herman and Lucy — then 23 and 18 years old, respectively — had met at a dinner party in Condon. Six months later, the two got married.[6] Herman Pauling descended from South-German farmers, who had immigrated to a German settlement in Concordia, Missouri. Carl Pauling moved his family to California before settling in Oswego. There, he worked as an ironmonger at a foundry.[7] After completing grammar school, Herman Pauling served as an apprentice to druggist. Upon completion of his services, he became a wholesale drug salesman. Pauling's mother, Lucy, of Irish descent, was the daughter of Linus Wilson Darling, who had served as a teacher, farmer, surveyor, postmaster and lawyer at different points of his life. Linus Darling was orphaned at age 11 and apprenticed under a baker before becoming a schoolteacher. He fell in love with a young woman named Alice from Turner, Oregon, whom he eventually married.[8] On July 17, 1888, Alice gave birth to the couple's fifth child, but he was stillborn. Less than a month later, she died, leaving Darling to take care of their four young daughters.[9] Flag Seal Location Location in Oregon Coordinates , Government County Clackamas County Founded 1847 Mayor Judie Hammerstad Geographical characteristics Area     City 26. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Condon is a city located in Gilliam County, Oregon. ... Concordia is a city in Lafayette County, Missouri, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Today, the term Ironmonger refers to a retailer (or wholesaler) of iron goods. ... A foundry is a factory which produces castings of metal, both ferrous and non-ferrous. ... A dispensing chemist, in British english, or druggist in American English is a pharmacist allowed to fulfil prescriptions. ... For university teachers, see professor. ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ... If you are looking for different meanings of this word, see Postmaster (disambiguation) A postmaster is a term used in post offices to denote the head or master of the office. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... A baker prepares fresh rolls A baker is someone who primarily bakes and sells bread. ... Turner is a city in Marion County, Oregon, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Linus Pauling spent his first year living in a one-room apartment with his parents in Portland. In 1902, after his sister Pauline was born, Pauling's parents decided to move out of the city.[10] They were crowded in their apartment, but couldn't afford more spacious living quarters in Portland. Lucy stayed with her husband's parents in Oswego, while Herman searched for new housing. Herman brought the family to Salem, where he took up a job as a traveling salesman for the Skidmore Drug Company. Within a year of Lucile's birth in 1904, Herman Pauling moved his family to Oswego, where he opened his own drugstore.[10] The business climate in Oswego was poor, so he moved his family to Condon in 1905.[11] In 1909, Pauling's grandfather, Linus, divorced his second wife and and married a young schoolteacher, almost the same age as his daughter Lucy. A few months later, he died of a heart attack, brought on by complications from nephritis.[12] Meanwhile, Herman Pauling was suffering from poor health and had regular sharp pains in his abdomen. Lucy's sister, Abbie, saw that Herman was dying and immediately called the family physician. The doctor gave Herman a sedative to reduce the pain, but it only offered temporary relief.[13] His health worsened in the coming months and finally died of a perforated ulcer on June 11, 1910, leaving Lucy to care for Linus, Lucile and Pauline.[14] Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Type Commission  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ... Nickname: Location in Marion and Polk Counties, state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Marion, Polk Founded 1842 Government  - Mayor Janet Taylor Area  - City  46. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... Nephritis is inflammation of the kidney. ... For the human abdomen, see human abdomen. ... Endoscopic images of a duodenal ulcer. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Linus was a voracious reader as a child, and at one point his father wrote a letter to The Oregonian inviting suggestions of additional books to occupy his time.[15] A friend, Lloyd A. Jeffress, had a small chemistry laboratory in his bedroom when Pauling was in grammar school. Pauling was so amazed by the experiments that he planned to become a chemist.[16] In high school, Pauling continued to experiment in chemistry, borrowing much of the equipment and materials from an abandoned steel plant. Pauling was not allowed to take a required American history course that would have allowed him to graduate a year early, so he did not qualify for his high school diploma when he left to attend college.[17] His high school, Washington High School in Portland, awarded him the diploma 45 years later, after he had won two Nobel Prizes.[18][19] October 2, 2004 edition. ... A grammar school is a school that may, depending on regional usage as exemplified below, provide either secondary education or, a much less common usage, primary education (also known as elementary). Grammar schools trace their origins back to medieval Europe, as schools in which university preparatory subjects, such as Latin...


Higher education

Pauling's graduation photo from Oregon State University in 1922.
Pauling's graduation photo from Oregon State University in 1922.

In 1917, Pauling entered Oregon Agricultural College (now known as Oregon State University) in Corvallis. Pauling was active in campus life, and founded the school's chapter of the Delta Upsilon fraternity.[20] Because of financial needs, he had to work full-time while attending a full schedule of classes. After his second year, he planned to take a job in Portland to help support his mother, but the college offered him a position teaching quantitative analysis, a course he had just finished taking himself.[21] He worked forty hours a week in the laboratory and classroom and earned $100 a month. This allowed him to continue his studies at the college. Download high resolution version (1024x1516, 84 KB)Linus Paulings graduation portrait from Oregon Agricultural College. ... Download high resolution version (1024x1516, 84 KB)Linus Paulings graduation portrait from Oregon Agricultural College. ... Oregon State University (OSU) is a four-year research and degree-granting public university, located in Corvallis, Oregon (USA). ... Corvallis (IPA: ) is a city located in central western Oregon, USA. It is the county seat of Benton CountyGR6 and the principal city of the Corvallis, Oregon Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Benton County. ... Delta Upsilon (ΔY) is one of the oldest international, all-male, college, Greek-letter social fraternities and is the first non-secret fraternity ever founded. ... test for anions carbonate-add dilute acid,result:effervescence, carbon dioxide produced ...


In his last two years at school, Pauling became aware of the work of Gilbert N. Lewis and Irving Langmuir on the electronic structure of atoms and their bonding to form molecules. He decided to focus his research on how the physical and chemical properties of substances are related to the structure of the atoms of which they are composed, becoming one of the founders of the new science of quantum chemistry. Lewis in the Berkeley Lab Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 23, 1875-March 23, 1946) was a famous American physical chemist. ... Irving Langmuir (January 31, 1881 in Brooklyn, New York - August 16, 1957 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts) was an American chemist and physicist. ... Electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule or other body. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... A physical property is any aspect of an object or substance that can be measured or perceived without changing its identity. ... The phrase chemical property is context-dependent, but generally refers to a materials quality which becomes evident during a chemical reaction; this is, which can only be established by changing a substances chemical identity. ... Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ...


In 1922, Pauling graduated from Oregon State University with a degree in chemical engineering and went on to graduate school at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, California, under the guidance of Roscoe G. Dickinson. His graduate research involved the use of X-ray diffraction to determine the structure of crystals. He published seven papers on the crystal structure of minerals while he was at Caltech. He received his Ph. D. in physical chemistry and mathematical physics, summa cum laude, in 1925. Chemical engineers design, construct and operate plants Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational research university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Roscoe Gilkey Dickinson (1894-1945) is notable for being the PhD advisor of the twice Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling. ... X-ray crystallography is a technique in crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of x-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ... Mathematical physics is the scientific discipline concerned with the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories. ... Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an academic degree was earned. ...


Personal life

During his senior year of college, Pauling taught a class called "Chemistry for Home Economic Majors".[22] In one of those classes, he met Ava Helen Miller from Beavercreek, whom he married on June 17, 1923. They had four children: Linus Carl Jr. (b. 1925); Peter Jeffress (1931-2003, a crystallographer and lecturer in chemistry); Edward Crellin (1937-1997, professor of biology at San Francisco State University and the University of California, Riverside), and Linda Helen, (b. 1932). Beaver Creek is a small unincorporated community in Clackamas County, Oregon. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... San Francisco State University (commonly referred to as San Francisco State, SF State, State and SFSU) is a public university located in the southwestern San Francisco, California, bordering Lake Merced and Lowell High School, near Fort Funston and Daly City, near the San Mateo County line. ... The University of California, Riverside, commonly known as UCR or UC Riverside, is a public, coeducational university and one of ten campuses of the University of California. ...


Pauling was raised as member of the Lutheran Church and later joined the Unitarian Universalist Church and declared publicly his atheist belief.[23] The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ...


Career

Pauling had first been exposed to the concepts of quantum theory and quantum mechanics while he was studying at Oregon State University. He later traveled to Europe on a Guggenheim Fellowship to study under German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld in Munich, Danish physicist Niels Bohr in Copenhagen, and Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in Zürich. All three were experts working in the new field of quantum mechanics and other branches of physics. Pauling became interested in seeing how quantum mechanics might be applied in his chosen field of interest, the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. In Europe, Pauling was also exposed to one of the first quantum mechanical analyses of bonding in the hydrogen molecule, done by Walter Heitler and Fritz London. Pauling devoted the two years of his European trip to this work and decided to make it the focus of his future research. He became one of the first scientists in the field of quantum chemistry and a pioneer in the application of quantum theory to the structure of molecules. He also joined Alpha Chi Sigma, the professional chemistry fraternity. Quantum field theory (QFT) is the quantum theory of fields. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Oregon State University (OSU) is a four-year research and degree-granting public university, located in Corvallis, Oregon (USA). ... Guggenheim Fellowships are awarded annually by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation to those who have demonstrated exceptional capacity for productive scholarship or exceptional creative ability in the arts. ... Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld (December 5, 1868 in Königsberg, East Prussia – April 26, 1951 in Munich, Germany) was a German physicist who introduced the fine-structure constant in 1919. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Niels Henrik David Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Schrödinger in 1933, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics Bust of Schrödinger, in the courtyard arcade of the main building, University of Vienna, Austria. ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Walter Heinrich Heitler (02. ... Fritz Wolfgang London (March 7, 1900–March 30, 1954) was a German-born American physicist for whom the London force is named. ... Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ... Alpha Chi Sigma (ΑΧΣ) is a professional fraternity specializing in the field of chemistry. ...


In 1927, Pauling took a new position as an assistant professor at Caltech in theoretical chemistry. He launched his faculty career with a very productive five years, continuing with his X-ray crystal studies and also performing quantum mechanical calculations on atoms and molecules. He published approximately fifty papers in those five years, and created five rules now known as Pauling's Rules. By 1929, he was promoted to associate professor, and by 1930, to full professor. In 1931, the American Chemical Society awarded Pauling the Langmuir Prize for the most significant work in pure science by a person 30 years of age or younger.[24] The following year, Pauling published what he regarded as his most important paper, in which he first laid out the concept of hybridization of atomic orbitals and analyzed the tetravalency of the carbon atom.[25] California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (commonly known as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... Theoretical chemistry involves the use of physics to explain or predict chemical phenomena. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Paulings rules are a set of five rules developed by Linus Pauling for determining the molecular structures of complex crystals. ... The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. ... Irving Langmuir (January 31, 1881 in Brooklyn, New York - August 16, 1957 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts) was an American chemist and physicist. ... In chemistry, hybridisation is the mixing of atomic orbitals to form new orbitals suitable for bonding. ... In chemistry, a tetravalence is the state of an atom with four electrons available for covalent chemical bonding in its valence (outermost electron shell). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ...


At Caltech, Pauling struck up a close friendship with theoretical physicist Robert Oppenheimer, who was spending part of his research and teaching schedule away from U.C. Berkeley at Caltech every year. The two men planned to mount a joint attack on the nature of the chemical bond: apparently Oppenheimer would supply the mathematics and Pauling would interpret the results. However, their relationship soured when Pauling began to suspect that Oppenheimer was becoming too close to Pauling's wife, Ava Helen. Once, when Pauling was at work, Oppenheimer had come to their place and blurted out an invitation to Ava Helen to join him on a tryst in Mexico. Although she flatly refused, she reported the incident to Pauling. That, and her apparent nonchalance about the incident, disquieted him, and he immediately cut off his relationship with Oppenheimer, resulting in a coolness between them that would last their lives. Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ...


In the summer of 1930, Pauling made another European trip, during which he learned about the use of electrons in diffraction studies similar to the ones he had performed with X-rays. After returning, he built an electron diffraction instrument at Caltech with a student of his, L. O. Brockway, and used it to study the molecular structure of a large number of chemical substances. For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Geometry of the water molecule Molecular geometry or molecular structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule, inferred from the spectroscopic studies of the compound. ...


Pauling introduced the concept of electronegativity in 1932. Using the various properties of molecules, such as the energy required to break bonds and the dipole moments of molecules, he established a scale and an associated numerical value for most of the elements — the Pauling Electronegativity Scale — which is useful in predicting the nature of bonds between atoms in molecules. Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with torque. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ...


Nature of the chemical bond

In the 1930s he began publishing papers on the nature of the chemical bond, leading to his famous textbook on the subject published in 1939. It is based primarily on his work in this area that he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954 "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances". Pauling summarized his work on the chemical bond in The Nature of the Chemical Bond, one of the most influential chemistry books ever published.[26] In the 30 years after its first edition was published in 1939, the book was cited more than 16,000 times. Even today, many modern scientific papers and articles in important journals cite this work, more than half a century after first publication. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to the present day. ...


Part of Pauling's work on the nature of the chemical bond led to his introduction of the concept of orbital hybridization.[27] While it is normal to think of the electrons in an atom as being described by orbitals of types such as s and p, it turns out that in describing the bonding in molecules, it is better to construct functions that partake of some of the properties of each. Thus the one 2s and three 2p orbitals in a carbon atom can be combined to make four equivalent orbitals (called sp³ hybrid orbitals), which would be the appropriate orbitals to describe carbon compounds such as methane, or the 2s orbital may be combined with two of the 2p orbitals to make three equivalent orbitals (called sp² hybrid orbitals), with the remaining 2p orbital unhybridized, which would be the appropriate orbitals to describe certain unsaturated carbon compounds such as ethylene. Other hybridization schemes are also found in other types of molecules. In chemistry, hybridisation is the mixing of atomic orbitals to form new orbitals suitable for bonding. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, an atomic orbital is the region in which an electron may be found around a single atom. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ...


Another area which he explored was the relationship between ionic bonding, where electrons are transferred between atoms, and covalent bonding where electrons are shared between atoms on an equal basis. Pauling showed that these were merely extremes, between which most actual cases of bonding fall. It was here especially that Pauling's electronegativity concept was particularly useful; the electronegativity difference between a pair of atoms will be the surest predictor of the degree of ionicity of the bond.[28] Sodium and chlorine bonding ionically to form sodium chloride. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Covalent redirects here. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ...


The third of the topics that Pauling attacked under the overall heading of "the nature of the chemical bond" was the accounting of the structure of aromatic hydrocarbons, particularly the prototype, benzene.[29] The best description of benzene had been made by the German chemist Friedrich Kekulé. He had treated it as a rapid interconversion between two structures, each with alternating single and double bonds, but with the double bonds of one structure in the locations where the single bonds were in the other. Pauling showed that a proper description based on quantum mechanics was an intermediate structure which was a blend of each. The structure was a superposition of structures rather than a rapid interconversion between them. The name "resonance"[30] was later applied to this phenomenon. In a sense, this phenomenon resembles that of hybridization, described earlier, because it involves combining more than one electronic structure to achieve an intermediate result. An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz (September 7, 1829 – July 13, 1896) was a German organic chemist. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... For other uses, see Resonance (disambiguation). ...


Structure of the atomic nucleus

On September 16, 1952, Pauling opened a new research notebook with these words "I have decided to attack the problem of the structure of nuclei."[31] On October 15, 1965, Pauling published his Close-Packed Spheron Model of the atomic nucleus in two well respected journals, Science, and Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.[32] For nearly three decades, until his death in 1994, Pauling published numerous papers on his spheron cluster model.[33][34] [35] [36] [37] [38] is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


Few modern text books on nuclear physics discuss the Pauling Spheron Model of the Atomic Nucleus, yet it provides a unique perspective, well published in the leading journals of science, on how fundamental "clusters of nucleons" can form shell structure in agreement with recognized theory of quantum mechanics. Pauling was well versed in quantum mechanics; he co-authored one of the first textbooks on the subject, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Chemistry. In a 2006 review of models of atomic nuclei, Norman D. Cook said of the Pauling Spheron Model: "…the model leads to a rather common-sense molecular build-up of nuclei and has an internal logic that is hard to deny…however…nuclear theorists have not elaborated on the idea of nucleon spherons, and Pauling's model has not entered mainstream nuclear theory."[39] The 1965 Pauling Spheron Model of the atomic nucleus has not been replaced by a better model, but has simply been ignored.[citation needed]


The Pauling spheron nucleon clusters include the deuteron[NP], helion [PNP], and triton [NPN]. Even-even nuclei were described as being composed of clusters of alpha particles, as has often been done for light nuclei. He made an effort to derive the shell structure of nuclei from the Platonic solids rather than starting from an independent particle model as in the usual shell model. It was sometimes said at that time that this work received more attention than it would have if it had been done by a less famous person, but more likely Pauling was taking a unique approach to understanding the relatively new discovery in the late 1940s of Maria Goeppert-Mayer of structure within the nucleus. In an interview Pauling commented on his model:[citation needed] Deuterium (symbol 2H) is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance of one atom in 6500 of hydrogen. ... A helion is a short name for the naked nucleus of Helium, a doubly positively charged helium ion. ... Tritium (symbol T or ³H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... A Platonic solid is a convex polyhedron whose faces all use the same regular polygon and such that the same number of faces meet at all its vertices. ... In nuclear physics, the nuclear shell model is a model of the atomic nucleus. ... Maria Goeppert Mayer: Physicist (Women in Science) ISBN 0791072479 Maria Goeppert-Mayer (June 28, 1906 – February 20, 1972) was born Maria Goeppert in Katowice, Silesia (then in Germany, now part of Poland). ...

Now recently, I have been trying to determine detailed structures of atomic nuclei by analyzing the ground state and excited state vibrational bends, as observed experimentally. From reading the physics literature, Physical Review Letters and other journals, I know that many physicists are interested in atomic nuclei, but none of them, so far as I have been able to discover, has been attacking the problem in the same way that I attack it. So I just move along at my own speed, making calculations…

Biological molecules

Double Helix
Discovery
William Astbury
Oswald Avery
Francis Crick
Erwin Chargaff
Max Delbrück
Jerry Donohue
Rosalind Franklin
Raymond Gosling
Phoebus Levene
Linus Pauling
Sir John Randall
Erwin Schrödinger
Alec Stokes
James Watson
Maurice Wilkins
Herbert Wilson

In the mid-1930s, Pauling decided to strike out into new areas of interest. Early in his career, he was uninterested in studying molecules of biological importance. But as Caltech was developing a new strength in biology, and Pauling interacted with such great biologists as Thomas Hunt Morgan, Theodosius Dobzhanski, Calvin Bridges, and Alfred Sturtevant, he changed his mind and switched to the study of biomolecules. His first work in this area involved the structure of hemoglobin. He demonstrated that the hemoglobin molecule changes structure when it gains or loses an oxygen atom. As a result of this observation, he decided to conduct a more thorough study of protein structure in general. He returned to his earlier use of X-ray diffraction analysis. But protein structures were far less amenable to this technique than the crystalline minerals of his former work. The best X-ray pictures of proteins in the 1930s had been made by the British crystallographer William Astbury, but when Pauling tried, in 1937, to account for Astbury's observations quantum mechanically, he could not. The Discovery of the DNA Double Helix Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid by James D. Watson and Francis H. Crick. ... The Discovery of the DNA Double Helix Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid by James D. Watson and Francis H. Crick. ... Image File history File links Dna-split2. ... William Astbury (1898-1961) was an English biochemist who made X-ray diffraction studies of nucleic acid in 1937. ... Oswald Theodore Avery (October 21, 1877–1955) was a Canadian-born American physician and medical researcher. ... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004), (Ph. ... // Erwin Chargaff (Czernowitz, August 11, 1905 – New York City, USA, June 20, 2002) was an Austrian biochemist who emigrated to the United States during the Nazi era. ... Max Delbrück in the early 1940s at Vanderbilt University. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... The joke funeral card in the names of Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling Raymond Gosling is a distinguished scientist who worked with both Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin at Kings College London in deducing the structure of DNA. He was born in 1926 and attended school in Wembley. ... Molecular diagram of a hypothetical tetranucleotide, as proposed (incorrectly) by Phoebus Levene around 1910. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American scientist, peace activist, author and educator of German ancestry. ... Sir John Randall Sir John Randall (March 23, 1905 – June 16, 1984) was a British physicist, credited with radical improvement of the cavity magnetron, an essential component of the centimetre radar, which was one of the keys to the Allied victory in the Second World War. ... Schrödinger in 1933, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics Bust of Schrödinger, in the courtyard arcade of the main building, University of Vienna, Austria. ... Alec Stokes (Alexander Rawson Stokes, June 27, 1919–February 5, 2003) was one of the key contributors in the original DNA research team at Kings College London. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... Professor Herbert Wilson (1929 —) is a physicist, who was one of the original team who worked on the structure of DNA at Kings College London. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 – December 4, 1945) was an American geneticist and embryologist. ... Theodosius Grigorevich Dobzhansky (Russian — Феодосий Григорьевич Добржанский; sometimes anglicized to Theodore Dobzhansky; January 25, 1900 - November 11, 1975) was a noted geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ... Calvin Bridges (1889-1938) is known for his contributions to the field of genetics. ... Alfred Henry Sturtevant (November 21, 1891–April 5, 1970) was an American geneticist, Sturtevant constructed the first genetic map of a chromosome in 1913. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... X-ray crystallography is a technique in crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of x-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... William Astbury (1898-1961) was an English biochemist who made X-ray diffraction studies of nucleic acid in 1937. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ...


It took eleven years for Pauling to explain the problem: his mathematical analysis was correct, but Astbury's pictures were taken in such a way that the protein molecules were tilted from their expected positions. Pauling had formulated a model for the structure of hemoglobin in which atoms were arranged in a helical pattern, and applied this idea to proteins in general. For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... A helix (pl: helices), from the Greek word έλικας/έλιξ, is a twisted shape like a spring, screw or a spiral (correctly termed helical) staircase. ...


In 1951, based on the structures of amino acids and peptides and the planarity of the peptide bond, Pauling and colleagues correctly proposed the alpha helix and beta sheet as the primary structural motifs in protein secondary structure. This work exemplified his ability to think unconventionally; central to the structure was the unorthodox assumption that one turn of the helix may well contain a non-integral number of amino acid residues. This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... Side view of an α-helix of alanine residues in atomic detail. ... Diagram of β-pleated sheet with H-bonding between protein strands The β sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is the second form of regular secondary structure in proteins — the first is the alpha helix — consisting of beta strands connected laterally by three or more hydrogen bonds, forming a generally twisted, pleated sheet. ... A representation of the 3D structure of the myoglobin protein. ... The integers are commonly denoted by the above symbol. ...


Pauling then suggested a helical structure for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA); however, his model contained several basic mistakes, including a proposal of neutral phosphate groups, an idea that conflicted with the acidity of DNA.[40] Sir Lawrence Bragg had been disappointed that Pauling had won the race to find the alpha helix. Bragg's team had made a fundamental error in making their models of protein by not recognizing the planar nature of the peptide bond. When it was learned at the Cavendish Laboratory that Pauling was working on molecular models of the structure of DNA, Watson and Crick were allowed to make a molecular model of DNA using unpublished data from Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin at King's College. Early in 1953 James D. Watson and Francis Crick proposed a correct structure for the DNA double helix. One of the impediments facing Pauling in this work was that he did not have access to the high quality X-ray diffraction photographs of DNA taken by Rosalind Franklin, which Watson and Crick had seen. He planned to attend a conference in England, where he might have been shown the photos, but he could not do so because his passport was withheld in 1952 by the State Department, on suspicions that he had Communist sympathies. This was at the start of the McCarthy period in the United States[41]. DNA replication Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid which carries genetic instructions for the biological development of all cellular forms of life and many viruses. ... Sir William Lawrence Bragg CH, FRS, (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1915 with his father Sir William Henry Bragg. ... Plaque, at old site Entrance, old site, Free School Lane The Cavendish Laboratory is the University of Cambridges Department of Physics, and is part of the universitys School of Physical Sciences. ... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... For other uses, see Kings College. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004), (Ph. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ...


Pauling also studied enzyme reactions and was among the first to point out that enzymes bring about reactions by stabilizing the transition state of the reaction, a view which is central to understanding their mechanism of action. He was also among the first scientists to postulate that the binding of antibodies to antigens would be due to a complementarity between their structures. Along the same lines, with the physicist turned biologist Max Delbruck, he wrote an early paper arguing that DNA replication was likely to be due to complementarity, rather than similarity, as suggested by a few researchers. This was made clear in the model of the structure of DNA that Watson and Crick discovered. Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... The transition state of a chemical reaction is a particular configuration along the reaction coordinate. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Max Delbrück (September 4, 1906 - March 9, 1981) was a German biologist. ... DNA replication. ... On the left: nucleotides that forms the DNA and their complementary. ...


Molecular genetics

In November 1949, Linus Pauling, Harvey Itano, S. J. Singer and Ibert Wells published in the journal Science the first proof of a human disease caused by an abnormal protein.[42] Using electrophoresis, they demonstrated that individuals with sickle cell disease had a modified form of hemoglobin in their red blood cells, and that individuals with sickle cell trait had both the normal and abnormal forms of hemoglobin. This was also the first demonstration that Mendelian inheritance determined the specific physical properties of proteins, not simply their presence or absence — the dawn of molecular genetics. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For specific types of electrophoresis (for example, the process of administering medicine, iontophoresis), see electrophoresis (disambiguation). ... ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... Sickle cell trait describes the way a person can inherit some of the genes of sickle cell disease, but not develop symptoms. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their children; it underlies much of genetics. ... Molecular genetics is the field of biology which studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. ...


Activism

Pauling had been practically apolitical until World War II, but the aftermath of the war and his wife's pacifism changed his life profoundly, and he became a peace activist. During the beginning of the Manhattan Project, Robert Oppenheimer invited him to be in charge of the Chemistry division of the project, but he declined, not wanting to uproot his family. He did work on other projects that had military applications such as explosives, rocket propellants, an oxygen meter for submarines and patented an armor piercing shell and was awarded a Presidential Medal of Merit.[2][43] In 1946, he joined the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists, chaired by Albert Einstein.[44] Its mission was to warn the public of the dangers associated with the development of nuclear weapons. His political activism prompted the U.S. State Department to deny him a passport in 1952, when he was invited to speak at a scientific conference in London.[45] His passport was restored in 1954, shortly before the ceremony in Stockholm where he received his first Nobel Prize. Joining Einstein, Bertrand Russell and eight other leading scientists and intellectuals, he signed the Russell-Einstein Manifesto in 1955.[46] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... The Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists (ECAS) was founded by Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard in 1946. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Department of State redirects here. ... For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... The Russell-Einstein Manifesto was issued in London on July 9, 1955 by Bertrand Russell in the midst of the Cold War. ...


In 1958, Pauling began a petition drive in cooperation with biologist Barry Commoner, who had studied radioactive strontium-90 in the baby teeth of children across North America and concluded that above-ground nuclear testing posed public health risks in the form of radioactive fallout.[47][48] He also participated in a public debate with the atomic physicist Edward Teller about the actual probability of fallout causing mutations.[49] In 1958, Pauling and his wife presented the United Nations with a petition signed by more than 11,000 scientists calling for an end to nuclear-weapon testing. Public pressure subsequently led to a moratorium on above-ground nuclear weapons testing, followed by the Partial Test Ban Treaty, signed in 1963 by John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev. On the day that the treaty went into force[50], the Nobel Prize Committee awarded Pauling the Nobel Peace Prize, describing him as "Linus Carl Pauling, who ever since 1946 has campaigned ceaselessly, not only against nuclear weapons tests, not only against the spread of these armaments, not only against their very use, but against all warfare as a means of solving international conflicts." Interestingly, the Caltech Chemistry Department, wary of his political views, did not even formally congratulate him. However, the Biology Department did throw him a small party, showing they were more appreciative and sympathetic toward his work on radiation mutation. At Caltech he founded Sigma Xi's (The Scientific Research Society) chapter at the school, as he had previously been a member of that organisation. He continued his peace activism in the following years co-founding the International League of Humanists in 1974. He was also one of the signers of the Dubrovnik-Philadelphia Statement. Barry Commoner (born May 28, 1917) was an American biologist and college professor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... Five-year-old boy having lost his first decidous teeth. ... North American redirects here. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... The Treaty Banning poop, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty intended to obtain an agreement... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Sigma Xi: The Scientific Research Society, founded in 1886, is a non-profit honor society of about 62,000 scientists and engineers elected on the basis of their research achievements or potential. ... International League of Humanists (ILH) is a non-profit international association of eminent humanists. ...


Many of Pauling's critics, including scientists who appreciated the contributions that he had made in chemistry, disagreed with his political positions and saw him as a naïve spokesman for Soviet communism. He was ordered to appear before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, which termed him "the number one scientific name in virtually every major activity of the Communist peace offensive in this country." An extraordinary headline in Life magazine characterized his 1962 Nobel Prize as "A Weird Insult from Norway". Pauling was awarded the International Lenin Peace Prize by the USSR in 1970. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... The Special Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, 1951-77, more commonly known as the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS) and sometimes the McCarran Committee, was authorized under S. Res. ... A cover of Life Magazine from 1911 Life has been the name of two notable magazines published in the United States. ... The International Stalin Prize or the International Stalin Prize for Strengthening Peace Among Peoples (renamed Russian: , the International Lenin Prize for Strengthening Peace Among Peoples as a result of destalinization) was the Soviet Unions equivalent to the Nobel Peace Prize. ...


Development of the electric car

Pauling contributed to the development of the first modern electric car - the Henney Kilowatt.
Pauling contributed to the development of the first modern electric car - the Henney Kilowatt.

In the late 1950s, Pauling became concerned with the problem of air pollution—particularly with the growing smog problem in Los Angeles. At the time, most scientists believed that the smog was due to chemical plants and refineries, not gasoline engine exhaust. Pauling worked with Arie Haagen-Smit and others at Caltech to show that smog was a product of automobile pollution instead of factory pollution. Shortly after this discovery, Pauling began work to develop a practical and affordable electric car. He joined forces with the engineers at the Eureka Williams company in the development of the Henney Kilowatt—the first speed-controlled electric car. After researching the electrophysics underlying the initial Kilowatt propulsion system, Pauling determined that traditional lead-acid batteries would not provide the power necessary to give electric cars the performance necessary to rival traditional gasoline powered cars. Pauling accurately predicted that the low top speed and the short range of the Henney Kilowatt would make them impractical and unpopular. Pauling insisted on making the car more practical before releasing it to the public, and recommended that the project be discontinued until the appropriate battery was available commercially.[citation needed] Unfortunately, the Eureka Williams Company insisted that production plans for the car proceed; as Pauling predicted, the model experienced dismal sales. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (889x630, 149 KB) Summary 1960 Henney Kilowatt Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (889x630, 149 KB) Summary 1960 Henney Kilowatt Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... For other uses, see Smog (disambiguation). ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... The Toyota RAV4 EV was powered by twenty-four 12 volt batteries, with an operational cost equivalent of over 165 miles per gallon at 2005 US gasoline prices. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... A valve-regulated, sometimes called sealed, lead acid battery Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. ... Look up gasoline in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Molecular medicine and medical research

In 1941, at age 40, Pauling was diagnosed with a serious form of Bright’s disease, a fatal renal disease. Experts believed then that Bright's disease was untreatable. With the help of Dr. Thomas Addis at Stanford, Pauling was able to control the disease with Addis' then unusual, low protein, salt-free diet. Addis also prescribed vitamins and minerals for all his patients. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the worlds largest medical library. ... Brights disease is a historical classification of kidney diseases that would be described in modern medicine as acute or chronic nephritis. ... Thomas Addis (July 27, 1881 - June 4, 1949) was a physician-scientist who made important advances in the understanding of how blood clots. ...


In 1951, Pauling gave a lecture entitled, "Molecular Medicine".[51] In the late 1950s, Pauling worked on the role of enzymes in brain function, believing that mental illness may be partly caused by enzyme dysfunction. It wasn't until he read "Niacin Therapy in Psychiatry" by Abram Hoffer in 1965 that he realized that vitamins might have important biochemical effects unrelated to their prevention of associated deficiency diseases. Pauling published a brief paper, "Orthomolecular Psychiatry", in the journal Science in 1968 (PMID 5641253) that gave name and principle to the popular but controversial megavitamin therapy movement of the 1970s. Pauling coined the term "orthomolecular" to refer to the practice of varying the concentration of substances normally present in the body to prevent and treat disease. His ideas formed the basis of orthomolecular medicine, which is not generally practiced by conventional medical professionals and is strongly criticized by some.[52][53] Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In nutrition and CAM, megavitamin therapy makes use of large amounts of vitamins, often many times greater than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), to treat many types of diseases. ... Orthomolecular medicine emphasises the use of natural substances found in a healthy diet such as vitamins, dietary minerals, amino acids, and essential fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of diseases. ... Orthomolecular medicine and optimum nutrition are controversial medical and health approaches[1] that posit that many diseases and abnormalities result from various chemical imbalances or deficiencies and can be prevented, treated, or sometimes cured by achieving optimal levels of naturally occurring chemical substances, such as vitamins, dietary minerals, enzymes, antioxidants...


Pauling's work on vitamin C in his later years generated controversy and was originally regarded by some adversaries in the field of medicine as outright quackery.[54] He was first introduced to the concept of high-dose vitamin C by biochemist Irwin Stone in 1966. After becoming convinced of its worth, Linus Pauling took 10 grams of vitamin C every day to prevent colds.[55] Excited by the results, he researched the clinical literature and published "Vitamin C and the Common Cold" in 1970. He began a long clinical collaboration with the British cancer surgeon Ewan Cameron[56] in 1971 on the use of intravenous and oral vitamin C as cancer therapy for terminal patients. Cameron and Pauling wrote many technical papers and a popular book, "Cancer and Vitamin C", that discussed their observations. Three prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trials were conducted by Moertel et al. at the Mayo Clinic; all three failed to prove a benefit for megadoses of vitamin C in cancer patients.[57] Pauling denounced Charles Moertel's conclusions and handling of the final study as "fraud and deliberate misrepresentation."[58][59] Pauling then published critiques of the second Mayo-Moertel cancer trial's flaws over several years as he was able to slowly unearth some of the trial's undisclosed details.[60] However, the wave of adverse publicity generated by Moertel and the media effectively undercut Pauling's credibility and his vitamin C work for a generation,[61] the oncological mainstream continued with other avenues of treatment.[62] Always precariously perched since his molecular biologically inspired crusade to stop atmospheric nuclear testing in the 1950s,[63] the 1985 Mayo-Moertel confrontation left Pauling isolated from his institutional funding sources, academic support and a bemused public. He later collaborated with the Canadian physician Abram Hoffer[64] on a micronutrient regimen, including high-dose vitamin C, as adjunctive cancer therapy. This article is about the nutrient. ... Pietro Longhi: The Charlatan, 1757 Quackery is a derogatory term used to describe unscientific medical practices. ... Dr. Irwin Stone (b. ... Ewan Cameron (July 31, 1922 - March 21, 1991) was a medical doctor born in Glasgow, Scotland who worked with Linus Pauling on Vitamin C research. ... The Treaty Banning poop, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty intended to obtain an agreement... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... Abram Hoffer (b. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...

Linus Pauling's book How to Live Longer and Feel Better, advocated very high doses of Vitamin C.
Linus Pauling's book How to Live Longer and Feel Better, advocated very high doses of Vitamin C.

As of 2006, new evidence of high-dose Vitamin C efficacy was proposed by a Canadian group of researchers. These researchers observed longer-than expected survival times in three patients treated with high doses of intravenous Vitamin C.[65] The researchers are reportedly planning a new Phase I clinical trial [66] The selective toxicity of vitamin C for cancer cells has been demonstrated in-vitro (i.e., in a cell culture Petri dish), and was reported in 2005. [67] The combination of case-report data and preclinical information suggest biological plausibility and the possibility of clinical efficacy at the possible expense of critical toxicity at active doses; future clinical testing will ultimately determine the utility and safety of intravenous high-dose Vitamin C treatments for patients with cancer. Researchers released a paper demonstrating in-vitro vitamin C killing of cancer cells in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in 2006[68]. Image File history File links Pauling_Vit_C_Book_Cover. ... Image File history File links Pauling_Vit_C_Book_Cover. ... It has been suggested that Dynamic Flow be merged into this article or section. ... Phase 1 Reactions: Consists of three reactions that metobolize Xenobiotics and Endobiotics: oxidation, reduction and hydrolysis. ... In health care, including medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a process in which a medicine or other medical treatment is tested for its safety and effectiveness, often in comparison to existing treatments. ... In vitro (Latin: within the glass) refers to the technique of performing a given experiment in a test tube, or, generally, in a controlled environment outside a living organism. ... Epithelial cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) Cell culture is the process by which either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells are grown under controlled conditions. ... Man looking at fungus inside of petri dishes A Petri dish is a shallow glass or plastic cylindrical dish that biologists use to culture microbes. ... In vitro (Latin: within the glass) refers to the technique of performing a given experiment in a test tube, or, generally, in a controlled environment outside a living organism. ... This article is about the nutrient. ...


With two colleagues, Pauling founded the Institute of Orthomolecular Medicine in Menlo Park, California, in 1973, which was soon renamed the Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine. Pauling directed research on vitamin C, but also continued his theoretical work in chemistry and physics until his death. In his last years, he became especially interested in the possible role of vitamin C in preventing atherosclerosis and published three case reports on the use of lysine and vitamin C to relieve angina pectoris. In 1996, the Linus Pauling Institute moved from Palo Alto, California, to Corvallis, Oregon, to become part of Oregon State University, where it continues to conduct research on micronutrients, phytochemicals (chemicals from plants), and other constituents of the diet in preventing and treating disease. Several of the employees that had previously worked at the Linus Pauling Institute in Palo Alto moved on to form the Genetic Information Research Institute. The Linus Pauling Institute was established at Oregon State University in August 1996 under an agreement reached between OSU and the Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine (located in California from 1973 to 1996). ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... Micronutrients for plants: There are about eight nutrients essential to plant growth and health that are only present in very small quantities. ... Phytochemicals are plant or fruit derived chemical compounds. ... The Genetic Information Research Institute (GIRI) is a non-profit institution that was founded in 1994 by Jerzy Jurka. ...


Pauling's legacy

Pauling died of prostate cancer on August 19, 1994, at 7:20 PM at home in Big Sur, California. He was 93 years old.[69][70] A gravemarker for him is in Oswego Pioneer Cemetery in Lake Oswego, Oregon, where he was born.[70][71] HRPC redirects here. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... View inland (east) from Route 1 Daily June fog in Big Sur. ... Flag Seal Location Location in Oregon Coordinates , Government County Clackamas County Founded 1847 Mayor Judie Hammerstad Geographical characteristics Area     City 26. ...


Pauling's contribution to science is held by many in the utmost regard. He was included in a list of the 20 greatest scientists of all time by the magazine New Scientist, with Albert Einstein being the only other scientist from the twentieth century on the list. Gautam R. Desiraju, the author of the Millennium Essay in Nature,[72] claimed that Pauling was one of the greatest thinkers and visionaries of the millennium, along with Galileo, Newton, and Einstein. Pauling is also notable for the diversity of his interests: quantum mechanics, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, protein structure, molecular biology, and medicine. In all these fields, and especially on the boundaries between them, he made decisive contributions. His work on chemical bonding marks the beginning of modern quantum chemistry, and many of his contributions like hybridization and electronegativity have become part of standard chemistry textbooks. Although his valence bond approach fell short of accounting quantitatively for some of the characteristics of molecules, such as the paramagnetic nature of oxygen and the color of organometallic complexes, and would later be superseded by the Molecular Orbital Theory of Robert Mulliken, the strength of Pauling's theory has lain in its simplicity, and it has endured. Nowadays the Valence Bond theory still exists in its modern form and competes with the Molecular Orbital Theory and Density Functional Theory (DFT) for describing the chemical phenomena.[73] Pauling's work on crystal structure contributed significantly to the prediction and elucidation of the structures of complex minerals and compounds. His discovery of the alpha helix and beta sheet is a fundamental foundation for the study of protein structure. New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ... Four sp3 orbitals. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... In chemistry, a chemical bond is the force, which holds together atoms in molecules or crystals. ... Paramagnetism is the tendency of the atomic magnetic dipoles, due to quantum-mechanical spin, in a material that is otherwise non-magnetic to align with an external magnetic field. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Organometallic have classically been compounds having bonds between one or more metal atoms and one or more carbon atoms of an organyl group. ... In chemistry, molecular orbital theory (MO theory) is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule. ... Robert Sanderson Mulliken (June 7, 1896-October 31, 1986) was an American physicist and chemist, primarily responsible for the elaboration of the molecular orbital method of computing the structure of molecules. ... In chemistry, a chemical bond is the force, which holds together atoms in molecules or crystals. ... In chemistry, molecular orbital theory (MO theory) is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule. ... Density functional theory (DFT) is a quantum mechanical method used in physics and chemistry to investigate the electronic structure of many-body systems, in particular molecules and the condensed phases. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... Side view of an α-helix of alanine residues in atomic detail. ... Diagram of β-pleated sheet with H-bonding between protein strands The β sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is the second form of regular secondary structure in proteins — the first is the alpha helix — consisting of beta strands connected laterally by three or more hydrogen bonds, forming a generally twisted, pleated sheet. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ...


In his time, Pauling was frequently honored with the sobriquet "Father of molecular biology", a contribution acknowledged by Francis Crick. His discovery of sickle cell anemia as a 'molecular disease' opened the way toward examining genetically acquired mutations at a molecular level. Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004), (Ph. ... Sickle-shaped red blood cells Sickle cell anemia (American English), sickle cell anaemia (British English) or sickle cell disease is a genetic disease in which red blood cells may change shape under certain circumstances. ...


Though the scientific community at large did not agree with Pauling's conclusions in his vitamin-related medical research and writing, his entry into the fray gave a larger voice in the public mind to nutrients such as vitamins and minerals for disease prevention. Specifically, his protege Dr Mathias Rath, MD, continued his early works into Cellular Medicine, expanding the volumes of data about natural substances related in disease prevention and alleviation. Pauling's stand also led these subjects to be much more actively investigated by other researchers, including those at the Linus Pauling Institute which lists a dozen principal investigators and faculty who explore the role of micronutrients, plus phytochemicals, in health and disease.


Items named after Pauling include Linus Pauling Middle School in Corvallis, Oregon, and Pauling Field a small airfield located in Condon, Oregon. Dr. Pauling spent his youth in Condon. Corvallis (IPA: ) is a city located in central western Oregon, USA. It is the county seat of Benton CountyGR6 and the principal city of the Corvallis, Oregon Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Benton County. ... Condon State Airport (FAA LID: 3S9), is a public airport located one mile (1. ... Condon is a city located in Gilliam County, Oregon. ...


Linus Torvalds who develops the Linux kernel is named after Pauling[74]. Linus Benedict Torvalds  ; born December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, Finland, is a Finnish software engineer best known for initiating the development of the Linux kernel. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ...


On 2008-03-06, the United States Postal Service released a 41 cent stamp honoring Pauling.[75] 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ...


Honors and awards

Pauling received numerous awards and honors during his career. Following are awards and honors he has received.

  • 1931 Langmuir Prize, American Chemical Society
  • 1941 Nichols Medal, New York Section, American Chemical Society
  • 1947 Davy Medal, Royal Society
  • 1948 United States Presidential Medal for Merit
  • 1952 Pasteur Medal, Biochemical Society of France
  • 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
  • 1955 Addis Medal, National Nephrosis Foundation
  • 1955 Phillips Memorial Award, American College of Physicians
  • 1956 Avogadro Medal, Italian Academy of b,la
  • 1957 Paul Sabatier Medal
  • 1957 Pierre Fermat Medal in Mathematics
  • 1957 International Grotius Medal
  • 1961 Humanist of the Year, American Humanist Association
  • 1962 Nobel Peace Prize
  • 1965 Republic of Italy
  • 1965 Medal, Academy of the Rumanian People's Republic
  • 1966 Linus Pauling Medal
  • 1966 Silver Medal, Institute of France
  • 1966 Supreme Peace Sponsor, World Fellowship of Religion
  • 1972 United States National Medal of Science
  • 1972 International Lenin Peace Prize
  • 1977 Lomonosov Gold Medal, USSR Academy of Science
  • 1979 Medal for Chemical Sciences, National Academy of Science
  • 1984 Priestley Medal, American Chemical Society
  • 1984 Award for Chemistry, Arthur M. Sackler Foundation
  • 1987 Award in Chemical Education, American Chemical Society
  • 1989 Vannevar Bush Award, National Science Board
  • 1990 Richard C. Tolman Medal, Southern California, Section, American Chemical Society

The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... The American College of Physicians (ACP) is a national organization of doctors of internal medicine (internists), physicians who specialize in the prevention, detection and treatment of illnesses in adults. ... The American Humanist Association (AHA) is an educational organization in the United States that advances Humanism. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The Institut de France (French Institute) is a French learned society, grouping five académies, the most famous of which is probably the Académie française. ... The Lomonosov Gold Medal, named after Russian scientist and polymath Mikhail Lomonosov, is awarded each year since 1959 for outstanding achievements in the natural sciences and the humanities by the USSR Academy of Sciences and later the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. ... The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency responsible for supporting basic science research mainly by providing research funding. ...

Works by Linus Pauling

  • Pauling, L. The Nature of the Chemical Bond. Cornell University Press ISBN 0-8014-0333-2
  • Pauling, L., and Wilson, E. B. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Chemistry (Dover Publications) ISBN 0-486-64871-0
  • Pauling, L. Vitamin C, the Common Cold and the Flu (W.H. Freeman and Company) ISBN 0-7167-0360-2
  • Cameron E. and Pauling, L. Cancer and Vitamin C: A Discussion of the Nature, Causes, Prevention, and Treatment of Cancer With Special Reference to the Value of Vitamin C (Camino Books) ISBN 0-940159-21-X
  • Pauling, L. How to Live Longer and Feel Better (Avon Books) ISBN 0-380-70289-4
  • Pauling, L. Linus Pauling On Peace - A Scientist Speaks Out on Humanism and World Survival (Rising Star Press) ISBN 0-933670-03-6
  • Pauling, L. General Chemistry (Dover Publications) ISBN 0-486-65622-5
  • A Lifelong Quest for Peace with Daisaku Ikeda
  • Pauling, L. The Architecture of Molecules
  • Pauling, L. No More War!

Daisaku Ikeda (池田大作: Ikeda Daisaku; January 2, 1928–) is president of Soka Gakkai International (SGI), a Buddhist association with about 15 million members in more than 190 countries and territories, and founder of several educational, cultural and research institutions. ...

See also

Side view of an α-helix of alanine residues in atomic detail. ... In nutrition and CAM, megavitamin therapy makes use of large amounts of vitamins, often many times greater than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), to treat many types of diseases. ... Orthomolecular medicine and optimum nutrition are controversial medical and health approaches[1] that posit that many diseases and abnormalities result from various chemical imbalances or deficiencies and can be prevented, treated, or sometimes cured by achieving optimal levels of naturally occurring chemical substances, such as vitamins, dietary minerals, enzymes, antioxidants... Paulings rules are a set of five rules developed by Linus Pauling for determining the molecular structures of complex crystals. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2517x1897, 845 KB)Linus Carl Pauling (1901-1994) in the 1920 US Census in Portland, Oregon. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Type Commission  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ...

References

  • Dunitz, Jack D. (November 1996). "Linus Carl Pauling, 28 February 1901–19 August 1994". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 42: 316–338. 
  • Goertzel, Ted; Ben Goertzel (1995). Linus Pauling: A Life in Science and Politics. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00672-8. 
  • Hager, Thomas (1995). Force of Nature: The Life of Linus Pauling. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80909-5. 
  • Hager, Thomas (1998). Linus Pauling and the Chemistry of Life. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513972-0. 
  • Marinacci, Barbara; Ramesh Krishnamurthy (1998). Linus Pauling on Peace. Rising Star Press. ISBN 0-933670-03-6. 
  • Mead, Clifford; Thomas Hager (eds.) (2001). Linus Pauling: Scientist and Peacemaker. Oregon State University Press. ISBN 0-87071-489-9. 
  • Serafini, Anthony (1989). Linus Pauling: A Man and His Science. Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-440-X. 

The Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, (formerly known as Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society), is a journal published by the Royal Society of London. ... Ben Goertzel giving a talk at the 2007 Singularity Summit Ben Goertzel (born December 8, 1966 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), is an American author and researcher in the field of artificial intelligence. ... Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Oregon State University Press, or OSU Press, founded in 1961, is a university press that is part of the Oregon State University. ... Paragon House is an independent publisher of quality scholarly books and serious non-fiction. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Dunitz, p222.
  2. ^ a b The Linus Pauling Papers: Biographical Information. United States National Library of Medicine. Retrieved on 2008-02-11.
  3. ^ NDDB: Linus Pauling http://www.nndb.com/people/824/000031731/
  4. ^ Abrams, Irwin (2001). The Nobel Peace Prize and the Laureates: An Illustrated Biographical History. Science History Publications, p196. ISBN 0-88135-388-4. 
  5. ^ Mead and Hager, p8.
  6. ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p1.
  7. ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p2.
  8. ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p6.
  9. ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p8.
  10. ^ a b Goertzel and Goertzel, p4.
  11. ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p5.
  12. ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p12.
  13. ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p13.
  14. ^ Mead and Hager, p9.
  15. ^ Dunitz, p223.
  16. ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p17.
  17. ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, pp22–23.
  18. ^ Linus Pauling – Biography. Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  19. ^ Bourgoin, Suzanne M.; Paula K. Byers (1998). Encyclopedia of World Biography. Thomson Gale, Vol. 12, p150. ISBN 0787622214. 
  20. ^ Swanson, Stephen. "OSU fraternity to donate Pauling treasures to campus library", Oregon State University, 2000-10-03. Retrieved on 2008-03-11. 
  21. ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p29.
  22. ^ Linus Pauling Institute. Linus Pauling: A Biographical Timeline. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  23. ^ "... I [Pauling] am not, however, militant in my atheism. The great English theoretical physicist Paul Dirac is a militant atheist. I suppose he is interested in arguing about the existence of God. I am not. It was once quipped that there is no God and Dirac is his prophet." Linus Pauling & Daisaku Ikeda (1992). A Lifelong Quest for Peace: A Dialogue. Jones & Bartlett, page 22. ISBN 0867202777. 
  24. ^ Tom Hager (December 2004). "The Langmuir Prize" (html). Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections. Retrieved on 2008-02-29.
  25. ^ Linus Pauling (March 1932). "The nature of the chemical bond. III. The transition from one extreme bond type to another." (html). Journal of the American Chemical Society. Retrieved on 2008-02-29.
  26. ^ Thomas Hager (December 2004). The Nature of the Chemical Bond (html). Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections. Retrieved on 2008-02-29.
  27. ^ Linus Pauling (1928). "London's paper. General ideas on bonds." (html). Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections. Retrieved on 2008-02-29.
  28. ^ Linus Pauling (1930s). "Notes and Calculations re: Electronegativity and the Electronegativity Scale" (html). Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections. Retrieved on 2008-02-29.
  29. ^ Linus Pauling (1934-01-06). "Benzene" (html). Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections. Retrieved on 2008-02-29.
  30. ^ Linus Pauling (1946-07-29). "Resonance" (html). Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections. Retrieved on 2008-02-29.
  31. ^ Oregon State Special Collections
  32. ^ Pauling, Linus (October 1965). The close-packed-spheron theory and nuclear fission. Science. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  33. ^ Pauling, Linus (October 1965). The close-packed spheron model of atomic nuclei and its relation to the shell model. Science. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  34. ^ Pauling, Linus (July 1966). The close-packed-spheron theory of nuclear structure and the neutron excess for stable nuclei (Dedicated to the seventieth anniversary of Professor Horia Hulubei). Science. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  35. ^ Pauling, Linus (December 1967). Magnetic-moment evidence for the polyspheron structure of the lighter atomic nuclei. Science. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  36. ^ Pauling, Linus (November 1969). Orbiting clusters in atomic nuclei. Science. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  37. ^ Pauling, Linus; Arthur B. Robinson (1975). Rotating clusters in nuclei. Canadian Journal of Physics. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  38. ^ Pauling, Linus (February 1991). http://osulibrary.orst.edu/specialcollections/rnb/26/26-125.html. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  39. ^ Norman D. Cook, Models of the Atomic Nucleus, 2006, Springer
  40. ^ Linus Pauling's DNA Model. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  41. ^ Pauling biography citing State Department's revocation of Pauling's passport in 1952. Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
  42. ^ Pauling, Linus; Harvey Itano, S. J. Singer, Ibert Wells (November 1949). Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease. Science. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  43. ^ Paulus, John Allen. "Pauling's Prizes", New York Times, 1995-11-05. Retrieved on 2007-12-09. 
  44. ^ Thomas Hager (29 November 2007). Einstein (html). Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections. Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  45. ^ Linus Pauling (May 1952). The Department of State and the Structure of Proteins. Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections. Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  46. ^ Thomas Hager (29 November 2007). Russell/Einstein (html). Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections. Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  47. ^ Thomas Hager (29 November 2007). Strontium-90 (html). Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections. Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  48. ^ Thomas Hager (29 November 2007). The Right to Petition (html). Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections. Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  49. ^ Linus Pauling; Edward Teller (1958). Teller vs. Pauling (html). Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections. Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  50. ^ Linus Pauling (1963-10-10). Notes by Linus Pauling. October 10, 1963. (html). Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections. Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  51. ^ Pauling, Linus (October 1951). Molecular Medicine. Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  52. ^ Cassileth, BR (1998:67). Alternative Medicine Handbook: the Complete Reference Guide to Alternative and Complementary Therapies. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.. 
  53. ^ Vitamin Therapy, Megadose / Orthomolecular Therapy. BC Cancer Agency (February 2000). Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  54. ^ Stephen Barrett M.D. (2001-05-05). The Dark Side of Linus Pauling's Legacy. Quackwatch. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  55. ^ Vitamin C does not cause cancer. Less at 11 - Men's Fitness Takes on TV News. Men's Fitness (February 2002). Retrieved on 2007-08-05. “Brief Article”
  56. ^ Ewan Cameron M.D.. Cancer bibliography. Doctoryourself.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  57. ^ Stephen Barrett M.D. (1999-11-07). High Doses of Vitamin C Are Not Effective as a Cancer Treatment. Quackwatch. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  58. ^ Ted Goertzel (1996). Analyzing Pauling's Personality: A Three Generational, Three Decade Project. Special Collections, Oregon State University Libraries. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  59. ^ (2005), University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-11366-3, Excerpt from pages 89-111
  60. ^ Mark Levine; Sebastian J. Padayatty, Hugh D. Riordan, Stephen M. Hewitt, Arie Katz, L. John Hoffer (2006-03-28). Intravenously administered vitamin C as cancer therapy: three cases. CMA Media. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  61. ^ Ibtravenous Vitamin C Kills Cancer Celld. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (2005-09-12). Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  62. ^ Collin, Harry; Pinch, Trevor (2007). Dr. Golem: How to Think about Medicine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226113671. 
  63. ^ No More War!. Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century. Archived from the original on 2007-08-06. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  64. ^ Andrew W. Saul; Dr. Abram Hoffer. Abram Hoffer, M.D., Ph.D. 50 Years of Megavitamin Research, Practice and Publication. Doctoryourself.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  65. ^ Padayatty S, Riordan H, Hewitt S, Katz A, Hoffer L, Levine M (2006). "Intravenously administered vitamin C as cancer therapy: three cases". CMAJ 174 (7): 937-42. PMID 16567755. 
  66. ^ Assouline S, Miller W (2006). "High-dose vitamin C therapy: renewed hope or false promise?". CMAJ 174 (7): 956-7. PMID 16567756. 
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The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the worlds largest medical library. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nobel Foundation was created by Lord Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, to manage his estate and award prizes for academic achievement in several areas: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomson Gale is a part of the Thomson Learning division of the Thomson Corporation, and is based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit. ... Oregon State University (OSU) is a four-year research and degree-granting public university, located in Corvallis, Oregon (USA). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 2, 2004 edition. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Persondata
NAME Pauling, Linus Carl
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION American biochemist and theoretical chemist, anti-nuclear testing campaigner, Nobel laureate
DATE OF BIRTH February 28, 1901
PLACE OF BIRTH Portland, Oregon
DATE OF DEATH August 19, 1994
PLACE OF DEATH Big Sur, California

is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Type Commission  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... View inland (east) from Route 1 Daily June fog in Big Sur. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Linus Pauling: Biography and Much More from Answers.com (6456 words)
Linus Pauling was born in Portland, Oregon, to a self-taught druggist, Herman Henry William Pauling, and his wife Isabelle (Belle) Linus received a strong blow at age nine when his father died of a perforating ulcer, leaving a wife, son, and two daughters on the edge of poverty.
Pauling is noted as a versatile scholar for his expertise in inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, metallurgy, immunology, anesthesiology, psychology, debate, radioactive decay, and the aftermath of nuclear weapons, in addition to quantum mechanics and molecular biology.
Pauling was born in Portland, Oregon to Herman Henry William Pauling (1876-1910) of Concordia, Missouri; and Lucy Isabelle Darling (1881-1926) of Lonerock, Oregon.
Linus Pauling: Nobel Laureate for Peace and Chemistry (1973 words)
Pauling frequently credits his wife as the catalyst of his professional success, and calls their acquaintance "the event that had the greatest affect on [his] life." He insists that he is not more intelligent than other scientists; he is simply more active -- and his activity, Pauling says, was enabled by Mrs.
Pauling also credits his wife for helping to inspire his initial involvement in nuclear disarmament -- she not only encouraged his activism, but also exhorted him to study economics and social theory, so that he could understand the issues he was trying to address and defend the positions he took.
Pauling's advocacy of megadosage, some opponents say, is based on insubstantial research and an alliance with a leading vitamin C distributor, Hoffmann-La Roche, a primary contributor to the Linus Pauling Institute of Medicine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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