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Encyclopedia > Linnaean taxonomy
Title page of Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758.
Title page of Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758.

Linnaean taxonomy is a method of classifying living things, originally devised by (and named for) Carl Linnaeus, although it has changed considerably since his time. The greatest innovation of Linnaeus, and still the most important aspect of this system, is the general use of binomial nomenclature, the combination of a genus name and a single specific epithet to uniquely identify each species of organism. For example, the human species is uniquely identified by the binomial Homo sapiens. No other species of organism can have this binomial. Prior to Linnaean taxonomy, animals were classified according to their mode of movement. Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (525x865, 73 KB) Summary cover of w:en:Systema Naturae sourced from http://bibbild. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (525x865, 73 KB) Summary cover of w:en:Systema Naturae sourced from http://bibbild. ... A painting of Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish scientist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about modern humans. ...


All species are classified in a ranked hierarchy, originally starting with kingdoms although domains have since been added as a rank above the kingdoms. Kingdoms are divided into phyla (singular: phylum) — for animals; the term division, used for plants and fungi, is equivalent to the rank of phylum (and the current International Code of Botanical Nomenclature allows the use of either term). Phyla (or divisions) are divided into classes, and they, in turn, into orders, families, genera (singular: genus), and species (singular: species). A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... In biology, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, or empire) is the top-level grouping of organisms in scientific classification, higher than a kingdom. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is the set of rules that governs plant nomenclature, i. ...


Though the Linnaean system has proven robust, expansion of knowledge has led to an expansion of the number of hierarchical levels within the system, increasing the administrative requirements of the system (see, for example, ICZN), though it remains the only extant working classification system at present that enjoys universal scientific acceptance. Among the later subdivisions that have arisen are such entities as phyla, superclasses, superorders, infraorders, families, superfamilies and tribes. Many of these extra hierarchical levels tend to arise in disciplines such as entomology, whose subject matter is replete with species requiring classification. Any biological field that is species rich, or which is subject to a revision of the state of current knowledge concerning those species and their relationships to each other, will inevitably make use of the additional hierarchical levels, particularly when fossil forms are integrated into classifications originally designed for extant living organisms, and when newer classification tools such as cladistics are applied to facilitate this. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in classifying all animals according to taxonomic judgment. ... Not to be confused with Etymology, the study of the history of words. ... It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ...


There are ranks below species: in zoology, subspecies and morph; in botany, variety (varietas) and form (forma). Many botanists now use "subspecies" instead of "variety" although the two are not, strictly speaking, of equivalent rank, and "form" has largely fallen out of use.


Groups of organisms at any of these ranks are called taxa (singular: taxon), or phyla, or taxonomic groups.

Contents

Taxonomic ranks

A summary of this scheme, from most general to most specific, would be:[1]

A large beetle collection
A large beetle collection

Of these many ranks, the only one that has an exact biological definition is species. The other levels are intended to represent the phylogeny of the organisms under discussion, and are to some extent a matter of judgement. For most groups of organisms, not all the ranks would actually be used; they have been defined to deal with the most complicated cases, such as insects and vertebrates. Download high resolution version (800x605, 164 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Linnaean taxonomy Entomology ... Download high resolution version (800x605, 164 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Linnaean taxonomy Entomology ... For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... In biology, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, or empire) is the top-level grouping of organisms in scientific classification, higher than a kingdom. ... In biology, a domain or empire is the top-level grouping of organisms in scientific classification. ... In biological taxonomy, a kingdom or regnum is a taxon in either (historically) the highest rank, or (in the new three-domain system) the rank below domain. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... A superphylum is a taxon above the phylum and below the subregnum. ... Phylum (plural: phyla) is a taxon used in the classification of animals, adopted from the Greek phylai the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states. ... In biology, the equivalent of a phylum in the plant or the fungal kingdom is called a division. ... In biology, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank intermediate between phylum and superclass. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... In biology, a superclass is a taxonomic grade intermediate between subphylum and class. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... In object-oriented programming, subclass is a class that is derived from another class or classes. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Linnaean taxonomy is a method of classifying living things originally devised by, and named for, Carl Linnaeus although it has changed considerably since his time. ... In biology, the equivalent of a phylum in the plant or the fungal kingdom is called a division. ... The legion, in biological taxonomy, is a non-obligatory rank within the Linnaean hierarchy which is subordinate to the class but superordinate to the cohort. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... In biology, a superfamily is a taxonomic grade intermediate between suborder and family. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... ... In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic classification in between family and genus. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... In biology, a subgenus is a taxonomic grade intermediate between genus and species. ... In biology, a cryptic species complex is a group of species that satisfy the biological definition of species — that is, they are reproductively isolated from each other — but which are not morphologically distinguishable. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about the zoological term. ... In botanical nomenclature, variety is a rank below that of species: As such, it gets a ternary name (a name in three parts). ... Forma (literally Latin for form) is used in a series of terms and abbreviations to describe variation in animals, especially insects. ... A Morph, meaning form (from the Latin morpha), is a zoological term that descibes local populations or subpopulations of a single species of animal that may or may not be phenotypically distinct from the larger population as a whole. ... In botanical nomenclature, a subvariety (subvarietas) is a taxon at a rank below that of variety (varietas) but above that of form (forma): it is an infraspecific taxon. ... In botanical nomenclature, a form (forma) is a taxon at a rank below that of variety: it is an infraspecific taxon. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ...


Example classification: humans

As an example, consider the Linnaean classification for modern humans: This article is about modern humans. ...

  • Domain: Eukaryota (organisms which have cells with a nucleus)
  • Kingdom: Animalia (with eukaryotic cells having cell membrane but lacking cell wall, multicellular, heterotrophic)
  • Phylum: Chordata (animals with a notochord, dorsal nerve cord, and pharyngeal gill slits, which may be vestigial)
  • Subphylum: Vertebrata (possessing a backbone, which may be cartilaginous, to protect the dorsal nerve cord)
  • Class: Mammalia (endothermic vertebrates with hair and mammary glands which, in females, secrete milk to nourish young)
  • Subclass: Placentalia (giving birth to live young after a full internal gestation period)
  • Order: Primates (collar bone, eyes face forward, grasping hands with fingers, and two types of teeth: incisors and molars)
  • Family: Hominidae (upright posture, large brain, stereoscopic vision, flat face, hands and feet have different specializations)
  • Genus: Homo (s-curved spine, "man")
  • Species: Homo sapiens (high forehead, well-developed chin, skull bones thin)

(Note that this makes use of the customary visible diagnostic characters.) Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... A heterotroph (Greek heteron = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... The notochord is a flexible, rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... A warm-blooded (homeothermic) animal is one that can keep its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis) . This can involve not only the ability to generate heat, but also the ability to cool down... A glass of cows milk. ... Orders Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia Xenarthra Dermoptera: Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Placentalia and Eutheria are terms used to describe major groupings within the animal class of Mammalia. ... For the ecclesiastical use of this term, see primate (religion) Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, and apes, including humans. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... Two young girls Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ...


Nomenclature

A strength of Linnaean taxonomy is that it can be used to develop a simple and practical system for organizing the different kinds of living organisms. Every species is given a unique and stable name (compared with common names that are often neither unique nor consistent from place to place and language to language). This uniqueness and stability are, of course, a result of the acceptance by working systematists (biologists specializing in taxonomy); not merely of the binomial nomenclature in itself, but of much more complex codes of rules and procedures governing the use of these names. Life on Earth redirects here. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ...


These rules are governed by formal codes of biological nomenclature. The rules governing the nomenclature and classification of plants and fungi are contained in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, maintained by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy. The current code, the "Saint Louis Code" was adopted in 1999 and supersedes the "Tokyo code". The corresponding code for animals is the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN], also last revised in 1999, and maintained by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. The code for bacteria is the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB), last revised in 1990, and maintained by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP). There is also a code for virus nomenclature, the Universal Virus Database of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTVdB) although it is organized on somewhat different principles, as the evolutionary history of these forms is not understood. For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is the set of rules that governs plant nomenclature, i. ... The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) is devoted to plant systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature. ... The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in classifying all animals according to taxonomic judgment. ... The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals. It was founded in 1895 and currently comprises 28 members from 20 countries, primarily practicing zoological taxonomists. ... The International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria governs the scientific names for bacteria. ...


Later developments since Linnaeus

Over time, our understanding of the relationships between living things has changed. Linnaeus could only base his scheme on the structural similarities of the different organisms. The greatest change was the widespread acceptance of evolution as the mechanism of biological diversity and species formation. It then became generally understood that classifications ought to reflect the phylogeny of organisms, by grouping each taxon so as to include the common ancestor of the group's members (and thus to avoid polyphyly). Such taxa may be either monophyletic (including all descendants) such as genus Homo, or paraphyletic (excluding some descendants), such as genus Australopithecus. This article is about evolution in biology. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... In phylogenetics, a taxon is polyphyletic (Greek for of many races) if the trait its members have in common evolved separately in different places in the phylogenetic tree. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For the song by Modest Mouse, see Sad Sappy Sucker. ...


Originally, Linnaeus established three kingdoms in his scheme, namely Plantae, Animalia and an additional group for minerals, which has long since been abandoned. Since then, various life forms have been moved into three new kingdoms: Monera, for prokaryotes (i.e., bacteria); Protista, for protozoans and most algae; and Fungi. This five kingdom scheme is still far from the phylogenetic ideal and has largely been supplanted in modern taxonomic work by a division into three domains: Bacteria and Archaea, which contain the prokaryotes, and Eukaryota, comprising the remaining forms. This change was precipitated by the discovery of the Archaea. These arrangements should not be seen as definitive. They are based on the genomes of the organisms; as knowledge on this increases, so will the categories change. For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Figure 1. ... Prokaryotic bacteria cell structure Prokaryotes (IPA: //) are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (), or archaebacteria, are a major group of microorganisms. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (), or archaebacteria, are a major group of microorganisms. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ...


Reflecting truly evolutionary relationships, especially given the wide acceptance of cladistic methodology and numerous molecular phylogenies that have challenged long-accepted classifications, has proved problematic within the framework of Linnaean taxonomy. Therefore, some systematists have proposed a Phylocode to replace it. Greek clados = branch) or phylogenetic systematics is a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships of living things based on derived similarities. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into molecular systematics. ... Types of Clade (Note: Stem-based is now branch-based, to avoid confusion with the term stem group which means total clade minus crown clade.) The PhyloCode is a developing draft for a formal set of rules governing phylogenetic nomenclature. ...


Quotations

  • "Taxonomy (the science of classification) is often undervalued as a glorified form of filing—with each species in its prescribed place in an album; but taxonomy is a fundamental and dynamic science, dedicated to exploring the causes of relationships and similarities among organisms. Classifications are theories about the basis of natural order, not dull catalogues compiled only to avoid chaos." Stephen Jay Gould (1990, p.98)

Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ...

See also

The evolutionary tree of living things is currently supposed to run something along the lines of that listed below. ... A history of plant systematics should either start with folk taxonomy or with Theophrastus’s Historia Plantarum, the first scientific treatise published on plants. ...

Notes

  1. ^ For the general usage and coordination of zoological ranks between the phylum and family levels, including many intercalary ranks, see Carroll (1988). For additional intercalary ranks in zoology, see especially Gaffney & Meylan (1988); McKenna & Bell (1997); Milner (1988); Novacek (1986, cit. in Carroll 1988: 499, 629); and Paul Sereno's 1986 classification of ornithischian dinosaurs as reported in Lambert (1990: 149, 159). For botanical ranks, including many intercalary ranks, see Willis & McElwain (2002).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h In zoological classification, the cohort and its associated group of ranks are inserted between the class group and the ordinal group. In botanical classification, the cohort group is inserted between the division (phylum) group and the class group: see Willis & McElwain (2002: 100-101). The cohort has also been used between infraorder and family in saurischian dinosaurs (Benton 2005).
  3. ^ a b c d These are movable ranks, most often inserted between the class and the legion or cohort. Nevertheless, their positioning in the zoological hierarchy may be subject to wide variation. For examples, see the Benton classification of vertebrates (2005).
  4. ^ a b c d e The supra-ordinal sequence gigaorder-megaorder-capaxorder-hyperorder (and the microorder, in roughly the position most often assigned to the parvorder) has been employed in turtles at least (Gaffney & Meylan 1988), while the parallel sequence magnorder-grandorder-mirorder figures in recently influential classifications of mammals. It is unclear from the sources how these two sequences are to be coordinated (or interwoven) within a unitary zoological hierarchy of ranks. Previously, Novacek (1986) and McKenna-Bell (1997) had inserted mirorders and grandorders between the order and superorder, but Benton (2005) now positions both of these ranks above the superorder.
  5. ^ Additionally, the terms biovar, morphovar and serovar designate bacterial strains (genetic variants) that are physiologically or biochemically distinctive. These are not taxonomic ranks, but are groupings of various sorts which may define a bacterial subspecies.

Paul Callistus Sereno (born October 11, 1957) is an American paleontologist who is the discoverer of several new dinosaur species on several continents. ... Suborders Thyreophora Cerapoda    Ornithopoda    Marginocephalia Ornithischia is an order of beaked, herbivorous dinosaurs. ... Groups Sauropodomorpha    Saturnalia    Prosauropoda    Sauropoda Theropoda    Eoraptor    Herrerasauridae    Ceratosauria    Tetanurae       Aves(extant) Saurischians (from the Greek Saurischia meaning lizard hip) are one of the two orders/branches of dinosaurs. ... Biovar is a variant prokaryotic strain that differs physiologically and/or biochemically from other strains in a particular species. ... Light-morph Jaguar (typical) Dark-morph or melanistic Jaguar (about 6% of the South American population) Polymorphism in biology occurs when two or more clearly different types exist in the same population of the same species— in other words, the occurrence of more than one form or morph. ... A serovar or serotype is a grouping of microorganisms or viruses based on their cell surface antigens. ... In biology, Strain can be used two ways. ...

Literature

References

  • Benton, Michael J. 2005. Vertebrate Palaeontology, 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-632-05637-1. ISBN-13: ISBN 978-0-632-05637-8
  • Carroll, Robert L. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. New York: W.H. Freeman & Co. ISBN 0-716-7-1822-7
  • Gaffney, Eugene S., and Peter A. Meylan. 1988. "A phylogeny of turtles." In M.J. Benton (ed.), The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, Volume 1: Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, 157-219. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Lambert, David. 1990. Dinosaur Data Book. Oxford: Facts On File & British Museum (Natural History). ISBN 0-8160-2431-6
  • McKenna, Malcolm C., and Susan K. Bell (editors). 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11013-8
  • Milner, Andrew. 1988. "The relationships and origin of living amphibians." In M.J. Benton (ed.), The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, Volume 1: Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, 59-102. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Novacek, Michael J. 1986. "The skull of leptictid insectivorans and the higher-level classification of eutherian mammals." Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 183: 1-112.
  • Sereno, Paul C. 1986. "Phylogeny of the bird-hipped dinosaurs (Order Ornithischia)." National Geographic Research 2: 234-56.
  • Willis, K.J., and J.C. McElwain. 2002. The Evolution of Plants. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850065-3

An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy one of the guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia on one of the following topics: If you are familiar with the subject matter, please expand the article to establish its notability, citing reliable sources. ... Robert L. Carroll (b. ...

Further reading

  • Dawkins, Richard. 2004. The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0618005838
  • Gould, Stephen Jay. 1989. Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-02705-8
  • Pavord, Anna. The Naming of Names: The Search for Order in the World of Plants. Bloomsbury. ISBN 0-747-57052-0

Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... Wonderful Life (1989) is a book on evolution by Stephen Jay Gould. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Linnaean taxonomy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (841 words)
A strength of Linnaean taxonomy is that it can be used to develop a simple and practical system for organizing the different kinds of living organisms.
This uniqueness and stability are, of course, a result of the acceptance by working systematists (biologists specializing in taxonomy); not merely of the binomial nomenclature in itself, but of much more complex codes of rules and procedures governing the use of these names.
"Taxonomy (the science of classification) is often undervalued as a glorified form of filing—with each species in its prescribed place in an album; but taxonomy is a fundamental and dynamic science, dedicated to exploring the causes of relationships and similarities among organisms.
Taxonomy (320 words)
Anthropologists have observed that taxonomies are generally embedded in local cultural and social systems, and serve various social functions.
Such taxonomies as those analyzed by Durkheim and Levi-Strauss are sometimes called folk taxonomies to distinguish them from scientific taxonomies that claim to be disembedded from social relations and thus objective and universal.
The most well-known and widely used scientific taxonomy is Linnaean taxonomy which classifies living things and originated with Carolus Linnaeus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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