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Encyclopedia > Linguistics

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. Someone who engages in this study is called a linguist. Linguistics: An Interdisciplinary Journal of the Language Sciences is an international peer-reviewed journal of linguistics published by Mouton de Gruyter. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ...


Theoretical (or general) linguistics encompasses a number of sub-fields, such as the study of language structure (grammar) and meaning (semantics). The study of grammar encompasses morphology (formation and alteration) of words and syntax (the rules that determine the way words combine into phrases and sentences). Also a part of this field are phonology, the study of sound systems and abstract sound units, and phonetics, which is concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds (phones), non-speech sounds, and how they are produced and perceived. For the journal, see Theoretical Linguistics (journal). ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... For other uses, see Word (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Look up phrase in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, a sentence is a unit of language, characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Look up phone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Speech perception refers to the processes by which humans are able to interpret and understand the sounds used in language. ...


Linguistics compares languages (comparative linguistics) and explores their histories, in order to find universal properties of language and to account for its development and origins (historical linguistics). Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages in order to establish their historical relatedness. ... A linguistic universal is a statement that is true for all languages. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ...


Applied linguistics puts linguistic theories into practice in areas such as foreign language teaching, speech therapy, translation and speech pathology. Applied linguistics is the branch of linguistics concerned with using linguistic theory to address real-world problems. ... It has been suggested that Speech-Language Pathology, Speech pathology, Phoniatrics be merged into this article or section. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Speech-Language Pathology, Speech therapy, Phoniatrics be merged into this article or section. ...


Linguistic inquiry is pursued by a wide variety of specialists, who may not all be in harmonious agreement; as journalist Russ Rymer put it: Russ Rymer is a book author and freelance journalist with articles on the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The New Yorker, and others. ...

Linguistics is arguably the most hotly contested property in the academic realm. It is soaked with the blood of poets, theologians, philosophers, philologists, psychologists, biologists, anthropologists, and neurologists, along with whatever blood can be got out of grammarians.

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Linguistics
Theoretical linguistics
Phonetics
Phonology
Morphology
Syntax
Lexis
Semantics
Lexical semantics
Statistical semantics
Structural semantics
Prototype semantics
Pragmatics
Applied linguistics
Language acquisition
Psycholinguistics
Sociolinguistics
Linguistic anthropology
Generative linguistics
Cognitive linguistics
Computational linguistics
Descriptive linguistics
Historical linguistics
Comparative linguistics
Etymology
Stylistics
Prescription
Corpus linguistics
History of linguistics
List of linguists
Unsolved problems

Contents

For the journal, see Theoretical Linguistics (journal). ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, the lexis of a language is the entire store of its lexical items. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Lexical semantics is a field in computer science and linguistics which deals mainly with word meaning. ... Statistical Semantics is the study of how the statistical patterns of human word usage can be used to figure out what people mean, at least to a level sufficient for information access (Furnas, 2006). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Prototype Theory is a model of graded categorization in Cognitive Science, where some members of a category are more central than others. ... Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated. ... Applied linguistics is the branch of linguistics concerned with using linguistic theory to address real-world problems. ... Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. ... Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language. ... Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. ... Linguistic anthropology is that branch of anthropology that brings linguistic methods to bear on anthropological problems, linking the analysis of semiotic and particularly linguistic forms and processes (on both small and large scales) to the interpretation of sociocultural processes (again on small and large scales). ... Generative linguistics is a school of thought within linguistics that makes use of the concept of a generative grammar. ... In linguistics and cognitive science, cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the currently dominant school of linguistics that views the important essence of language as innately based in evolutionarily-developed and speciated faculties, and seeks explanations that advance or fit well into the current understandings of the human mind. ... Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and logical modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages in order to establish their historical relatedness. ... Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... Stylistics is the study of style used in literary, and verbal language and the effect the writer/speaker wishes to communicate to the reader/hearer. ... In linguistics, prescription can refer both to the codification and the enforcement of rules governing how a language is to be used. ... Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in samples (corpora) or real world text. ... Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... A linguist in the academic sense is a person who studies linguistics. ... Unsolved problems in : Note: Use the unsolved tag: {{unsolved|F|X}}, where F is any field in the sciences: and X is a concise explanation with or without links. ...

Divisions, specialties, and subfields

The central concern of theoretical linguistics is to characterize the nature of human language ability, or competence: to explain what it is that an individual knows when said to know a language; and to explain how it is that individuals come to know languages.


All humans (setting aside extremely pathological cases) achieve competence in whatever language is spoken (or signed, in the case of signed languages) around them when they are growing up, with apparently little need for conscious instruction. Non-humans do not. Therefore, there is some basic innate property of humans that causes them to be able to use language. There is no discernible genetic process responsible for differences between languages: an individual will acquire whatever language(s) they are exposed to as a child, regardless of their parentage or ethnic origin. Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ...


Linguistic structures are pairings of meaning and sound (or other externalization). Linguists may specialize in some subpart of the linguistic structure, which can be arranged in the following terms, from sound to meaning:

  • Phonetics, the study of the physical properties of sounds of human language
  • Phonology, the study of sounds as discrete categories in the speaker's mind that distinguish meaning
  • Morphology, the study of the internal structure of words
  • Syntax, the study of how words combine to form grammatical sentences
  • Semantics, the study of the meaning of words (lexical semantics) and fixed word combinations (phraseology), and how these combine to form the meanings of sentences
  • Pragmatics, the study of how utterances are used (literally, figuratively, or otherwise) in communicative acts
  • Discourse analysis, the analysis of language use in texts (spoken, written or signed)

Many linguists would agree that the divisions overlap considerably, but the independent significance of each of these areas is not universally acknowledged. Regardless of any particular linguist's position, each area has core concepts that foster significant scholarly inquiry and research. Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Lexical semantics is a field in computer science and linguistics which deals mainly with word meaning. ... In linguistics it describes the context in which a word is used. ... Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated. ... An utterance is a complete unit of talk, bounded by silence. ... Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyzing written, spoken or signed language use. ...


Intersecting with these domains are fields arranged around the kind of external factors that are considered. For example

  • Stylistics, the study of linguistic factors that place a discourse in context
  • Developmental linguistics, the study of the development of linguistic ability in an individual, particularly the acquisition of language in childhood
  • Historical linguistics or Diachronic linguistics, the study of language change
  • Evolutionary linguistics, the study of the origin and subsequent development of language
  • Psycholinguistics, the study of the cognitive processes and representations underlying language use
  • Sociolinguistics, the study of social patterns of linguistic variability
  • Clinical linguistics, the application of linguistic theory to the area of Speech-Language Pathology
  • Neurolinguistics, the study of the brain networks that underlie grammar and communication
  • Biolinguistics, the study of natural as well as human-taught communication systems in animals compared to human language
  • Computational linguistics, the study of computational implementations of linguistic structures
  • Applied linguistics, the study of language related issues applied in every day life, notably language policies, planning, and education

In linguistics, stylistics describes the structure of word forms. ... Developmental linguistics is the study of the development of linguistic ability in an individual, particularly the acquisition of language in childhood. ... Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... Evolutionary linguistics is the scientific study of the origins and development of language. ... Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language. ... Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. ... Clinical Linguistics is a sub-discipline of linguistics and involves the application of linguistic theory to the field of speech-language pathology. ... // Scope of Practice The practice of speech-language pathology includes prevention, diagnosis, habilitation, and rehabilitation of communication, swallowing, or other upper aerodigestive disorders; elective modification of communication behaviors; and enhancement of communication. ... Neurolinguistics is the science concerned with the human brain mechanisms underlying the comprehension, production, and abstract knowledge of language, be it spoken, signed, or written. ... Biolinguistics is the study of the biology and evolution of language. ... Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and logical modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. ... Applied linguistics is the branch of linguistics concerned with using linguistic theory to address real-world problems. ...

Variation

A substantial part of linguistic investigation concerns the nature of the differences among the languages of the world. The nature of variation is very important to an understanding of human linguistic ability in general: if human linguistic ability is very narrowly constrained by biological properties of the species, then languages must be very similar. If human linguistic ability is unconstrained, then languages might vary greatly.


But there are different ways to interpret similarities among languages. For example, the Latin language spoken by the Romans developed into Spanish in Spain and Italian in Italy. Similarities between Spanish and Italian are in many cases due to both being descended from Latin. So in principle, if two languages share some property, this property might either be due to common inheritance or due to some property of the human language faculty. Of course, there is always the possibility of random chance being at the root of the similarity, such as with Spanish 'mucho' and English 'much', which are not related historically in any way, though they mean essentially the same thing and sound similar.


Often, the possibility of common inheritance can be essentially ruled out. Given the fact that learning language comes quite easily to humans, it can be assumed that languages have been spoken at least as long as there have been biologically modern humans, probably at least fifty thousand years. Independent measures of language change (for example, comparing the language of ancient texts to the daughter languages spoken today) suggest that change is rapid enough to make it impossible to reconstruct a language that was spoken so long ago; as a consequence of this, common features of languages spoken in different parts of the world are not normally taken as evidence for common ancestry.


Even more striking, there are documented cases of sign languages being developed in communities of congenitally deaf people who could not have been exposed to spoken language. The properties of these sign languages have been shown to conform generally to many of the properties of spoken languages, strengthening the hypothesis that those properties are not due to common ancestry but to more general characteristics of the way languages are learned. Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ...


Loosely speaking, the collection of properties, which all languages share, can be referred to as "universal grammar" (or UG), the characteristics of which is a much debated topic. Linguists and non-linguists also use this term in several different ways. Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans. ...


Universal properties of language may be partly due to universal aspects of human experience; for example, all humans experience water, and all human languages have a word for water. Nonetheless, UG seeks to define those structures which are necessarily a part of all human language because of the de facto structure of the human mind--so similarities in human language which can be attributed to having arisen out of similarity of experience do not provide information for answering the more difficult questions about UG. Clearly, experience is part of the process by which individuals learn languages; but experience by itself is not enough, since animals raised around people learn extremely little human language, if any at all.


A more interesting example is this: suppose that all human languages distinguish nouns from verbs (this is generally believed to be true). This would require a more sophisticated explanation, since nouns and verbs do not exist in the world, apart from languages that make use of them.


In general, a property of UG could be due to general properties of human cognition, or due to some property of human cognition that is specific to language. Too little is understood about human cognition in general to allow a meaningful distinction to be made. As a result, generalizations are often stated in theoretical linguistics without a stand being taken on whether the generalization could have some bearing on other aspects of cognition.


Properties of language

Ferdinand de Saussure, recognized as the father of modern linguistics.
Ferdinand de Saussure, recognized as the father of modern linguistics.

It has been understood since the time of the ancient Greeks that languages tend to be organized around grammatical categories such as noun and verb, nominative and accusative, or present and past, though, importantly, not exclusively so. The grammar of a language is organized around such fundamental categories, though many languages express the relationships between words and syntax in other discrete ways (cf. some Bantu languages for noun/verb relations, ergative/absolutive systems for case relations, several Native American languages for tense/aspect relations). Image File history File links Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) Image from http://www. ... Image File history File links Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) Image from http://www. ... Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (pronounced ) (November 26, 1857 – February 22, 1913) was a Geneva-born Swiss linguist whose ideas laid the foundation for many of the significant developments in linguistics in the 20th century. ... A grammatical category is a general term. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ...


In addition to making substantial use of discrete categories, language has the important property that it organizes elements into recursive structures; this allows, for example, a noun phrase to contain another noun phrase (as in the chimpanzee's lips) or a clause to contain a clause (as in I think that it's raining). Though recursion in grammar was implicitly recognized much earlier (for example by Jespersen), the importance of this aspect of language was only fully realized after the 1957 publication of Noam Chomsky's book Syntactic Structures,[1] which presented a formal grammar of a fragment of English. Prior to this, the most detailed descriptions of linguistic systems were of phonological or morphological systems, which tend to be closed and admit little creativity. Jens Otto Harry Jespersen or Otto Jespersen (July 16, 1860-April 30, 1943) was a Danish linguist who specialized in the grammar of the English language. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew: אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... Syntactic Structures is the name of an influential book by Noam Chomsky first published in 1957. ...


Chomsky used a context-free grammar augmented with transformations. Since then, context-free grammars have been written for substantial fragments of various languages (for example GPSG, for English), but it has been demonstrated that human languages include cross-serial dependencies, which cannot be handled adequately by Context-free grammars. This requires increased power, for example transformations. In formal language theory, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a grammar in which every production rule is of the form V → w where V is a single nonterminal symbol, and w is a string of terminals and/or nonterminals (possibly empty). ... Generalised phrase structure grammar (GPSG) is a framework for describing the syntax and semantics of natural languages. ...


An example of a natural-language clause involving a cross-serial dependency is the Dutch[2][3]

Ik denk dat Jan Piet de kinderen zag helpen zwemmen
I think that Jan Piet the children saw help swim
'I think that Jan saw Piet help the children swim'

The important point is that the noun phrases before the verb cluster (Jan, Piet, de kinderen) are identified with the verbs in the verb cluster (zag, helpen, zwemmen) in left-right order.


This means that natural language formalisms must be relatively powerful in terms of generative capacity. The models currently used (LFG, HPSG, Minimalism) are very powerful, in general too powerful to be computationally tractable in principle. Implementations of them are scaled down. Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is a reaction to the direction research in the area of transformational grammar began to take in the 1970s. ... The Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) is a non-derivational generative grammar theory developed by Carl Pollard and Ivan Sag (1985). ...


Details on selected divisions and subfields

Contextual linguistics

Contextual linguistics may include the study of linguistics in interaction with other academic disciplines. While in core theoretical linguistics language is studied independently, the interdisciplinary areas of linguistics consider how language interacts with the rest of the world.


Sociolinguistics, anthropological linguistics, and linguistic anthropology are social sciences that consider the interactions between linguistics and society as a whole. Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. ... Anthropological linguistics is the study of language through human genetics and human development. ... Linguistic anthropology is that branch of anthropology that brings linguistic methods to bear on anthropological problems, linking the analysis of semiotic and particularly linguistic forms and processes (on both small and large scales) to the interpretation of sociocultural processes (again on small and large scales). ...


Psycholinguistics and neurolinguistics combine medical science and linguistics. Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language. ... Neurolinguistics is the science concerned with the human brain mechanisms underlying the comprehension, production, and abstract knowledge of language, be it spoken, signed, or written. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ...


Other cross-disciplinary areas of linguistics include language acquisition, evolutionary linguistics, computational linguistics and cognitive science. Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. ... Evolutionary linguistics is the scientific study of the origins and development of language. ... Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and logical modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ...


Applied linguistics

Theoretical linguistics are concerned with finding and describing generalities both within particular languages and among all languages. Applied linguistics take the results of those findings and applies them to other areas. Often applied linguistics refers to the use of linguistic research in language teaching, but results of linguistic research are used in many other areas, as well. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Applied linguistics is the branch of linguistics concerned with using linguistic theory to address real-world problems. ...


Many areas of applied linguistics today involve the explicit use of computers. Speech synthesis and speech recognition use phonetic and phonemic knowledge to provide voice interfaces to computers. Applications of computational linguistics in machine translation, computer-assisted translation, and natural language processing are extremely fruitful areas of applied linguistics which have come to the forefront in recent years with increasing computing power. Their influence has had a great effect on theories of syntax and semantics, as modeling syntactic and semantic theories on computers constrains the theories to computable operations and provides a more rigorous mathematical basis. Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. ... Speech recognition (in many contexts also known as automatic speech recognition, computer speech recognition or erroneously as Voice Recognition) is the process of converting a speech signal to a sequence of words, by means of an algorithm implemented as a computer program. ... Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and logical modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. ... Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the acronym MT, is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another. ... Computer-assisted translation, computer-aided translation, or CAT is a form of translation wherein a human translator translates texts using computer software designed to support and facilitate the translation process. ... Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and linguistics. ... In computer science, computability theory is the branch of the theory of computation that studies which problems are computationally solvable using different models of computation. ...


Diachronic linguistics

Whereas the core of theoretical linguistics is concerned with studying languages at a particular point in time (usually the present) and thus "synchronic", diachronic linguistics examines how language changes through time, sometimes over centuries. Historical linguistics enjoys both a rich history (the study of linguistics grew out of historical linguistics) and a strong theoretical foundation for the study of language change. Language change is the manner in which the phonetic, morphological, semantic, syntactic, and other features of a language are modified over time. ...


In universities in the United States, the non-historic perspective seems to have the upper hand. Many introductory linguistics classes, for example, cover historical linguistics only cursorily. The shift in focus to a non-historic perspective started with Saussure and became predominant with Noam Chomsky. Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (pronounced ) (November 26, 1857 – February 22, 1913) was a Geneva-born Swiss linguist whose ideas laid the foundation for many of the significant developments in linguistics in the 20th century. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew: אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ...


Explicitly historical perspectives include historical-comparative linguistics and etymology. Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time, by means of examining languages which are recognizably related through similarities such as vocabulary, word formation, and syntax, as well as the surviving records of ancient languages. ... Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ...


Prescription and description

Research currently performed under the name "linguistics" is purely descriptive; linguists seek to clarify the nature of language without passing value judgements or trying to chart future language directions. Nonetheless, there are many professionals and amateurs who also prescribe rules of language, holding a particular standard out for all to follow. In linguistics, prescription is the laying down or prescribing of normative rules for the use of a language. ...


Prescriptivists tend to be found among the ranks of language educators and journalists, and not in the actual academic discipline of linguistics. They hold clear notions of what is right and wrong, and may assign themselves the responsibility of ensuring that the next generation use the variety of language that is most likely to lead to "success," often the acrolect of a particular language. The reasons for their intolerance of "incorrect usage" may include distrust of neologisms, connections to socially-disapproved dialects (i.e., basilects), or simple conflicts with pet theories. An extreme version of prescriptivism can be found among censors, whose personal mission is to eradicate words and structures which they consider to be destructive to society. An acrolect is a register of a spoken language that is considered formal and high-style. ... A neologism (Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... In linguistics, a basilect is a dialect of speech that has diverged so far from the standard language that in essence it has become a different language. ...


Descriptivists, on the other hand, do not accept the prescriptivists' notion of "incorrect usage." They might describe the usages the other has in mind simply as "idiosyncratic," or they may discover a regularity (a rule) that the usage in question follows (in contrast to the common prescriptive assumption that "bad" usage is unsystematic). Within the context of fieldwork, descriptive linguistics refers to the study of language using a descriptivist approach. Descriptivist methodology more closely resembles scientific methodology in other disciplines. Fieldwork refers to scientific activity conducted in the field, outside the laboratory, of subject matter in an as-found state, by anthropologists, geologists, botanists, archaeologists or others who study the natural or human world. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Speech versus writing

Most contemporary linguists work under the assumption that spoken language is more fundamental, and thus more important to study, than written language. Reasons for this perspective include: Spoken language is a language that people utter words of the language. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...

  • Speech appears to be a human universal, whereas there have been many cultures and speech communities that lack written communication;
  • People learn to speak and process spoken languages more easily and much earlier than writing;
  • A number of cognitive scientists argue that the brain has an innate "language module", knowledge of which is thought to come more from studying speech than writing, particularly since language as speech is held to be an evolutionary adaptation, whereas writing is a comparatively recent invention.

Of course, linguists agree that the study of written language can be worthwhile and valuable. For linguistic research that uses the methods of corpus linguistics and computational linguistics, written language is often much more convenient for processing large amounts of linguistic data. Large corpora of spoken language are difficult to create and hard to find, and are typically transcribed and written. Additionally, linguists have turned to text-based discourse occurring in various formats of computer-mediated communication as a viable site for linguistic inquiry. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Language module refers to a hypothesized structure in the human brain that some linguists claim contains innate capacities for language. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in samples (corpora) or real world text. ... Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and logical modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. ... Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a spoken language source, such as the proceedings of a court hearing. ... Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) can be defined broadly as any form of data exchange across two or more networked computers. ...


The study of writing systems themselves is in any case considered a branch of linguistics. A writing system, also called a script, is used to visually record a language with symbols. ...


History of linguistics

Main article: History of linguistics

Linguistics, or at least the version practiced today, has its origins in Iron Age India with the analysis of Sanskrit. The Pratishakhyas (from ca. the 8th Century BC) constitute as it were a proto-linguistic ad hoc collection of observations about mutations to a given corpus particular to a given Vedic school. Systematic study of these texts gives rise to the Vedanga discipline of Vyakarana, the earliest surviving account of which is the work of Pāṇini (c. 520460 BC), who, however, looks back on what are probably several generations of grammarians, whose opinions he occasionally refers to. Pāṇini formulates close to 4,000 rules which together form a complete and extremely compact generative grammar of Sanskrit. Inherent in his analytic approach are the concepts of the phoneme, the morpheme and the root. Due to its focus on brevity, his grammar has a highly unintuitive structure, reminiscent of contemporary "machine language" (as opposed to "human readable" programming languages). His sophisticated logical rules and techniques have been widely influential in ancient and modern linguistics. Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent succeeds the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture, also known as the last phase of the Indus Valley Tradition. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Shiksha (IAST ) by Gargeya is one of the six Vedangas, treating the traditional Hindu science of phonetics and phonology of Sanskrit. ... Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in samples (corpora) or real world text. ... Shakha (IAST ), literally branch or limb, is the Sanskrit term for a recension or version of Vedic texts according to a particular school. ... The Vedanga (IAST , member of the Veda) are six auxiliary disciplines for the understanding and tradition of the Vedas. ... The Sanskrit grammatical tradition of , is one of the six Vedanga disciplines. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 465 BC 464 BC 463 BC 462 BC 461 BC - 460 BC - 459 BC 458 BC... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Generative linguistics. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ...


Indian linguistics maintained a high level for several centuries; Patanjali in the 2nd Century BC still actively criticizes Panini. In the later centuries BC, however, Panini's grammar came to be seen as prescriptive, and commentators came to be fully dependent on it. Bhartrihari (c. 450510) theorized the act of speech as being made up of four stages: first, conceptualization of an idea, second, its verbalization and sequencing and third, delivery of speech into atmospheric air, all these by the speaker and last, the comprehension of speech by the listener, the interpreter. The Mahābhāṣya (great commentary), attributed to Patañjali, is a commentary on the celebrated Ashtadhyayi of Panini is one of the three most famous works in Sanskrit grammar. ... Bhartrihari (c 450–510) was an Indian author of Wikipedia and early figure in Indic linguistic theory. ... Events August 25 - Marcian proclaimed Eastern Roman Emperor by Aspar and Pulcheria. ... Events Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius is appointed a consul by Theoderic Births Gildas, Celtic monk Deaths Hashim, great-grandfather of Muhammad and ancestor of the Hashemites Categories: 510 ...


In the Middle East, the Persian linguist Sibawayh made a detailed and professional description of Arabic in 760, in his monumental work, Al-kitab fi al-nahw (الكتاب في النحو, The Book on Grammar), bringing many linguistic aspects of language to light. In his book he distinguished phonetics from phonology.[citation needed] A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Sibawayh (سيبويه Sîbawayh in Arabic, سیبویه Sibuyeh in Persian) was a linguist of Persian origin born ca. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Phonology (Greek phonÄ“ = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ...


Western linguistics begins in Classical Antiquity with grammatical speculation such as Plato's Cratylus, but remains far behind the achievements of ancient Indian grammarians until the 19th Century, when Indian literature begins to become available in Europe. PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Cratylus (Κρατυλος) is the name of a dialogue by Plato, dating to ca. ...


An early 19th Century linguist was Jakob Grimm, who devised the principle of consonantal shifts in pronunciation known as Grimm's Law in 1822, Karl Verner, who discovered Verner's Law, August Schleicher, who created the "Stammbaumtheorie" and Johannes Schmidt, who developed the "Wellentheorie" ("wave model") in 1872. Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (January 4, 1785 – September 20, 1863), German philologist and mythologist, was born at Hanau, in Hesse-Kassel. ... Grimms law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift) is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic (PGmc, the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC. It establishes... Karl Adolf Verner (* 7. ... It has been suggested that Grammatischer Wechsel be merged into this article or section. ... August Schleicher August Schleicher (February 19, 1821 - December 6, 1868) was a German linguist. ... Johannes Schmidt (July 29, 1843 - July 4, 1901) was a German linguist. ...


Ferdinand de Saussure was the founder of modern structural linguistics. Edward Sapir, a leader in American structural linguistics, was one of the first who explored the relations between language studies and anthropology. His methodology had strong influence on all his successors. Noam Chomsky's formal model of language, transformational-generative grammar, developed under the influence of his teacher Zellig Harris, who was in turn strongly influenced by Leonard Bloomfield, has been the dominant model since the 1960s. Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (pronounced ) (November 26, 1857 – February 22, 1913) was a Geneva-born Swiss linguist whose ideas laid the foundation for many of the significant developments in linguistics in the 20th century. ... Edward Sapir (IPA: ), (January 26, 1884 – February 4, 1939) was an American anthropologist-linguist, a leader in American structural linguistics, and one of the creators of what is now called the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew: אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... Transformational grammar is a broad term describing grammars (almost exclusively those of natural languages) which have been developed in a Chomskyan tradition. ... Zellig Sabbetai Harris (October 23, 1909 - May 22, 1992) was an American linguist, mathematical syntactician, and methodologist of science. ... Leonard Bloomfield (April 1, 1887 - April 18, 1949) was an American linguist, whose influence dominated the development of structural linguistics in America between the 1930s and the 1950s. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ...


Noam Chomsky remains one of the most influential linguists in the world today. Linguists working in frameworks such as Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) or Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) stress the importance of formalization and formal rigor in linguistic description, and may distance themselves somewhat from Chomsky's more recent work (the "Minimalist" program for Transformational grammar), connecting more closely to his earlier works. Linguists working in Optimality Theory state generalizations in terms of violable rules, which is a greater departure from mainstream linguistics, and linguists working in various kinds of functional grammar and Cognitive Linguistics tend to stress the non-autonomy of linguistic knowledge and the non-universality of linguistic structures, thus departing importantly from the Chomskyan paradigm. Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew: אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... The Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) is a non-derivational generative grammar theory developed by Carl Pollard and Ivan Sag (1985). ... Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is a reaction to the direction research in the area of transformational grammar began to take in the 1970s. ... In linguistics, a transformational grammar, or transformational-generative grammar (TGG), is a grammar, especially of a natural language, that has been developed in a Chomskian tradition. ... Optimality theory or OT is a linguistic model originally proposed by the linguists Alan Prince and Paul Smolensky in 1993. ... Functional grammar is the name given to any of a range of functionally-based approaches to the scientific study of language. ... In linguistics and cognitive science, cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the currently dominant school of linguistics that views the important essence of language as innately based in evolutionarily-developed and speciated faculties, and seeks explanations that advance or fit well into the current understandings of the human mind. ...


See also

Lists

Below is a list of basic topics in linguistics -- topics which will help the beginner become familiar with the field of linguistics. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to cognitive science. ... This page aims to list articles related to linguistics. ... A linguist in the academic sense is a person who studies linguistics. ... . ...  Croatia: Empirical and Computational Linguistics - Zadar (2006) [1]  European Union: Logic, Language and Information - Dublin (2007) [2] Language and Speech Communication - Hamburg (2006) [3]  Germany: Computational Linguistics - Potsdam (2007) [4]  Netherlands: Indo-European Linguistics - Leiden (2007) [5]  Russia: General, Applied and Turkic Linguistics - Abakan (2006) [6]  Spain: Minority Languages - Bilbao...

Related topics

Anthropological linguistics is the study of language through human genetics and human development. ... Articulatory phonology [1][2] is a linguistic theory originally proposed in 1986 by Catherine Browman[3] of Haskins Laboratories and Louis Goldstein[4] of Yale University and Haskins. ... Biolinguistics is the study of the biology and evolution of language. ... Biosemiotics (bios=life & semion=sign) is a growing field that studies the production, action and interpretation of signs in the physical and biologic realms in an attempt to integrate the findings of scientific biology and semiotics to form a new view of life and meaning as immanent features of the... In linguistics and cognitive science, cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the currently dominant school of linguistics that views the important essence of language as innately based in evolutionarily-developed and speciated faculties, and seeks explanations that advance or fit well into the current understandings of the human mind. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages in order to establish their historical relatedness. ... Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and logical modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. ... Developmental linguistics is the study of the development of linguistic ability in an individual, particularly the acquisition of language in childhood. ... Articulatory synthesis refers to computational techniques for synthesizing speech based on models of the human vocal tract and the articulation processes occurring there. ... Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the acronym MT, is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another. ... Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and linguistics. ... Speaker recognition, or voice recognition is the task of recognizing people from their voices. ... Speech processing is the study of speech signals and the processing methods of these signals. ... Speech recognition (in many contexts also known as automatic speech recognition, computer speech recognition or erroneously as Voice Recognition) is the process of converting a speech signal to a sequence of words, by means of an algorithm implemented as a computer program. ... Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. ... It has been suggested that Taxonomic classification be merged into this article or section. ... Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in samples (corpora) or real world text. ... Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of texts, which views language as a form of social practice (Fairclough 1989: 20) and attempts to unpack the ideological underpinnings of discourse that have become so naturalized over time that we begin to treat them as common, acceptable... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... Decipherment is the analysis of documents written in ancient languages, where the language is unknown, or knowledge of the language has been lost. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Ecolinguistics A branch of linguistics which links ecology with the study of language. ... Embodied Cognitive Science is an interdisciplinary field of research whose aim is to explain the mechanisms underlying intelligent behavior. ... An endangered language is a language with so few surviving speakers that it is in danger of falling out of use. ... Evolutionary linguistics is the scientific study of the origins and development of language. ... Forensic linguistics is the name given to a number of sub-disciplines within applied linguistics, and which relate to the interface between language, the law and crime. ... ... Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... Integrationism Integrational linguistics or integrationism is a new development in the theory of communication. ... Intercultural competence is the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures. ... Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. ... Language attrition is the loss of a first or second language or a portion of that language by either a community or an individual. ... Language Engineering Building language processing systems whose cost and outputs are measurable and predictable. ... The pursuit of lexicography is divided into two related disciplines: Practical lexicography is the art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries. ... Not to be mistaken with lexicography. ... Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features. ... Metacommunicative competence is the ability to steeringly intervene within difficult conversations and to correct communication problems by utilizing the different ways of practical communication: verbal communication: by words or their meaning paraverbal communication: loudness of speaking, manner of speaking, when keeping silent, meaning of interrupting or interfering the conversation nonverbal... Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and linguistics. ... Neurolinguistics is the science concerned with the human brain mechanisms underlying the comprehension, production, and abstract knowledge of language, be it spoken, signed, or written. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ... Reading is a process of retrieving and comprehending some form of stored information or ideas. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with language education. ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... Sociocultural linguistics is a term used to encompass a broad range of theories and methods for the study of language in its sociocultural context. ... Stratificational Linguistics is a view of linguistics advocated by Sydney Lamb. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... Text lingustics is a branch of linguistics that deals with texts as communication systems. ... Writing systems of the world today. ...

References

  1. ^ Chomsky, Noam. 1957. "Syntactic Structures". Mouton, the Hague.
  2. ^ Bresnan, Joan, Ronald Kaplan, Stanley Peters, and Annie Zaenen. 1982. Cross-serial dependencies in Dutch. Linguistic Inquiry 13:613-636.
  3. ^ Shieber, Stuart. 1985. Evidence against the context-freeness of natural language. Linguistics and Philosophy 8:333-344.

Textbooks

  • Aitchison, Jean [1995] (1999). Linguistics: An Introduction, 2nd, London: Hodder & Stoughton. 
  • Akmajian, Adrian (2001). Linguistics, et al, MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-51123-1. 
  • Griniewicz, Sergiusz; Elwira M. Dubieniec (2004). Introduction To Linguistics, 2nd, Białystok, WSFiZ, 91. 
  • Hudson, G. (2000) Essential Introductory Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Jackson, Howard. (2007), Key Terms in Linguistics, Continuum. (ISBN 0-82-648742-4)
  • Lyons, John (1995), Linguistic Semantics, Cambridge University Press. (ISBN 0-521-43877-2)
  • Napoli, Donna J. (2003) Language Matters. A Guide to Everyday Questions about Language. Oxford University Press.
  • O'Grady, William D., Michael Dobrovolsky & Francis Katamba [eds.] (2001), Contemporary Linguistics, Longman. (ISBN 0-582-24691-1) - Lower Level
  • Ohio State University Department of Linguistics. (2004) Language Files, 9th Ed. Ohio State University Press. (ISBN 0-814-25128-5)
  • Taylor, John R. (2003), Cognitive Grammar, Oxford University Press. (ISBN 0-19-870033-4)
  • Trask, R. L. (1995) Language: The Basics. London: Routledge.
  • Ungerer, Friedrich & Hans-Jorg Schmid (1996), An Introduction to Cognitive Linguistics, Longman. (ISBN 0-582-23966-4)

Academic works

  • Chomsky, Noam, (1965), Aspects of the Theory of Syntax.
  • Fauconnier, Gilles
    • (1995), Mental Spaces, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press. (ISBN 0-521-44949-9)
    • (1997), Mappings in Thought and Language, Cambridge University Press. (ISBN 0-521-59953-9)
    • & Mark Turner (2003), The Way We Think, Basic Books. (ISBN 0-465-08786-8)
      • Rymer, p. 48, quoted in Fauconnier and Turner, p. 353
  • Sampson, Geoffrey (1982), Schools of Linguistics, Stanford University Press. (ISBN 0-8047-1125-9)
  • Sweetser, Eve (1992), From Etymology to Pragmatics, repr ed., Cambridge University Press. (ISBN 0-521-42442-9)
  • Van Orman Quine, Willard (1960), Word and Object, MIT Press. (ISBN 0-262-67001-1)

Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew: אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... Gilles Fauconnier (born August 19, 1944) is a linguist, researcher in cognitive science, and author. ... Mark Turner is a cognitive scientist, linguist, and author. ... Geoffrey Sampson is Professor of Natural Language Computing in the Department of Informatics, University of Sussex, England. ...

Popular works

  • Bloomfield, Leonard (1933,1984), Language, University of Chicago Press (ISBN 0-226-06067-5) - an influential work, but does not include modern theoretical developments.
  • Burgess, Anthony
  • Deacon, Terrence (1998), The Symbolic Species, WW Norton & Co. (ISBN 0-393-31754-4)
  • Deutscher, Guy (2005), The Unfolding of Language, Metropolitan Books (ISBN 0-8050-7907-6) (ISBN 978-0-8050-7907-4)
  • Harrison, K. David. (2007) When Languages Die: The Extinction of the World's Languages and the Erosion of Human Knowledge. New York and London: Oxford University Press. (ISBN 0-195-18192-1)
  • Hayakawa, Alan R & S. I. (1990), Language in Thought and Action, Harvest. (ISBN 0-15-648240-1)
  • Pinker, Steven
    • (2000), The Language Instinct, repr ed., Perennial. (ISBN 0-06-095833-2)
    • (2000), Words and Rules, Perennial. (ISBN 0-06-095840-5)
  • Sampson, Geoffrey (2006), The Language Instinct Debate, Continuum International, (ISBN 0-8264-7385-7) - challenges the fundamental assumptions of Pinker's The Language Instinct, the two together illustrate one of the most significant debates within the field of theoretical linguistics in the early 21st century.
  • Rymer, Russ (1992), Annals of Science in "The New Yorker", 13th April
  • Sapir, Edward (1921), "Language: An introduction to the study of speech (Gutenberg.Org)", New York: Harcourt, Brace and company. - an influential work, but does not include modern theoretical developments.
  • Saussure, Ferdinand de (1916,1998), Cours de linguistique générale (Course in general linguistics) Open Court. (ISBN 0-812-69023-0) - an influential work, but does not include modern theoretical developments.
  • White, Lydia (1992), Universal Grammar and Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge University Press. (ISBN 0-521-79647-4)

Leonard Bloomfield (April 1, 1887 - April 18, 1949) was an American linguist, whose influence dominated the development of structural linguistics in America between the 1930s and the 1950s. ... Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was a British novelist, critic and composer. ... Language Made Plain is an excursion into the field of linguistics by Anthony Burgess. ... A Mouthful of Air: Language and Languages, Especially English is a work on the subject of linguistics written by Anthony Burgess and published in 1992. ... Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ... The Language Instinct is a book by Steven Pinker, published in 1995, in which he argues the case for the belief that humans are born with an innate capacity for language. ... Edward Sapir (pronunciation: suh PEER), (1884-1939) was an American anthropologist-linguist, a leader in American structural linguistics, and one of the creators of what is now called the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. ... Ferdinand de Saussure (November 26, 1857 - February 22, 1913) was a Swiss linguist. ... Ferdinand de Saussures Cours de linguistique générale was published posthumously in 1916 by Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye based on lecture notes. ...

Reference books

  • Aronoff, Mark & Janie Rees-Miller (Eds.) (2003) The Handbook of Linguistics. Blackwell Publishers. (ISBN 1-4051-0252-7)
  • Asher, R. (Ed.) (1993) Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 10 vols.
  • Bright, William (Ed) (1992) International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Oxford University Press. 4 Vols.
  • Brown, Keith R. (Ed.) (2005) Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2nd ed.). Elsevier. 14 vols.
  • Bussmann, H. (1996) Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. Routledge (translated from German).
  • Chakrabarti, Byomkes(India, 1923–1981), Santali language,Bengali language, comparative linguistics
  • Crystal, David
    • (1987) The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Language. Cambridge University Press.
    • (1991) A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. Blackwell. (ISBN 0-631-17871-6)
    • (1992) An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Language and Languages. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Graffi, G. 2001 200 Years of Syntax. A Critical Survey, Amsterdam, Benjamins, 2001.
  • Frawley, William (Ed.) (2003) International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.
  • Malmkjaer, Kirsten (1991) The Linguistics Encyclopaedia. Routledge (ISBN 0-415-22210-9)
  • Trask, R. L.
    • (1993) A Dictionary of Grammatical Terms in Linguistics. Routledge. (ISBN 0-415-08628-0)
    • (1996) Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology. Routledge.
    • (1997) A student's dictionary of language and linguistics.
    • (1999) Key Concepts in Language and Linguistics. London: Routledge.

Dr. Byomkes Chakrabarti (also spelled Byomkesh Chakraborty or Byomkesh Chakrabarty) (1923–1981) was a Bengali research worker on ethnic languages. ... Santali is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austro-Asiatic, related to Ho and Mundari. ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... Professor David Crystal, OBE (born 1941 in Lisburn, Northern Ireland, UK) is a linguist, academic and author. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

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Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... SIL International is a worldwide non-profit evangelical Christian organization whose main purpose is to study, develop and document lesser-known languages in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy and aid minority language development. ... Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Population density by country, 2006 Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with the environment, with particular reference to the causes and consequences of the spatial distribution of human activity on the Earths surface. ... Not to be confused with informatics or information theory. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ...


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