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Encyclopedia > Linguistic typology
Linguistic typology
Morphological
Analytic
Synthetic
Fusional
Agglutinative
Polysynthetic
Morphosyntactic
Nominative-accusative
Ergative-absolutive
Active
Tripartite
Direct-inverse
Syntactic pivot
Theta role
Word Order
VO Languages
Subject Verb Object
Verb Subject Object
Verb Object Subject
OV Languages
Subject Object Verb
Object Subject Verb
Object Verb Subject
Time Manner Place
Place Manner Time
edit

Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features. Linguistic typology includes morphological, syntactic (sometimes "morphosyntactic"), and phonological typology. Typological classification of languages contrasts with the more familiar genetic classification into families that share an ancestor language (see historical linguistics). A genetic class is a language family, while a typological class is a language type. Research in typology—in the ways in which languages vary—often overlaps with research in linguistic universals—in the ways in which they don't vary. Morphological typology was developed by brothers Friedrich and August von Schlegel. ... An analytic language (or isolating language) is a language in which the vast majority of morphemes are free morphemes and considered to be full-fledged words. By contrast, in a synthetic language, a word is composed of agglutinated or fused morphemes that denote its syntactic meanings. ... A synthetic language, in linguistic typology, is a language with a high morpheme-to-word ratio. ... A fusional language is a type of synthetic language, distinguished from agglutinative languages by its tendency to squish together many morphemes in a way which can be difficult to segment. ... An agglutinative language is a language in which the words are formed by joining morphemes together. ... Polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i. ... In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the system used to distinguish between the arguments of transitive verbs and intransitive verbs. ... A nominative-accusative language (or simply accusative language) is one that marks the direct object of transitive verbs distinguishing them from the subject of both transitive and intransitive verbs. ... An ergative-absolutive language (or just ergative language) is one that marks the subject of transitive verbs distinctly from the subject of intransitive verbs and the object of transitive verbs. ... A nominative-absolutive language is one that marks the subject of a transitive verb or a voluntary subject of an intransitive verb distinctly from the object of a transitive verb or an involuntary subject of an intransitive verb. ... A tripartite language is one that marks the agent, experiencer, and patient verb arguments each in different ways. ... A direct-inverse language is one where morphosyntactic markers vary according to compliance or non-compliance with normal rules governing the neutral order of verb arguments with respect to the position of each on the animacyhierarchy, similar to the way that Indo-European neuters were not originally regarded as possible... LL may stand for: Love Letter Late Latin The word legis (Latin for laws) in law degrees Lebanese pound, Livre Libanaise in French Linked list, a type of data structure Little league Lie-Ler, a person named Tyler who tends to lie, exaggerate, and endlessy spread rumors Long lines, a... LL may stand for: Love Letter Late Latin The word legis (Latin for laws) in law degrees Lebanese pound, Livre Libanaise in French Linked list, a type of data structure Little league Lie-Ler, a person named Tyler who tends to lie, exaggerate, and endlessy spread rumors Long lines, a... Word order, in linguistic typology, refers to the order in which words appear in sentences across different languages. ... In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ... Verb Subject Object—commonly used in its abbreviated form VSO—is a term in linguistic typology. ... Verb Object Subject - commonly used in its abbreviated form VOS - is a term in Linguistic typology. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ... Object Subject Verb (OSV) is one of the permutations of expression used in Linguistic typology. ... Object Verb Subject (OVS) is one of the permutations of expression used in linguistic typology. ... Time Manner Place is a term used in linguistic typology to state the general order of adpositional phrases in a languages sentences: yesterday by car to the store. It is common among SOV languages. ... Place Manner Time is a term used in linguistic typology to state the general order of adpositional phrases in a languages sentences: to the store by car yesterday. It would seem that it is common among SVO languages. ... The word typology literally means the study of types. ... Classification may refer to: Taxonomic classification See also class (philosophy) Statistical classification Hint: Language use may refer to a taxonomic classification that is used for statistical purposes also as a statistical classification (like International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems). ... Morphological typology was developed by brothers Friedrich and August von Schlegel. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time, by means of examining languages which are recognizably related through similarities such as vocabulary, word formation, and syntax, as well as the surviving records of ancient languages. ... A linguistic universal is a statement that is true for all natural languages. ...

Contents


Typological systems

Subject-Verb-Object positioning

One set of types is determined by the order of subject, verb, and object in sentences:

These are usually abbreviated SVO and so forth, and may be called just "typologies" of the languages to which they apply. In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ... Verb Subject Object—commonly used in its abbreviated form VSO—is a term in linguistic typology. ... Verb Object Subject - commonly used in its abbreviated form VOS - is a term in Linguistic typology. ... Object Subject Verb (OSV) is one of the permutations of expression used in Linguistic typology. ... Object Verb Subject (OVS) is one of the permutations of expression used in linguistic typology. ...


Some languages split verbs into an auxiliary and an infinitive or participle, and put the subject or object between them. For instance, German ("Im Wald habe ich einen Fuchs gesehen" - *"In-the wood have I a fox seen"), Dutch ("Hans vermoedde dat Jan Piet Marie zag leren zwemmen" - *"Hans suspected that Jan Piet Marie saw teach swim") and Welsh ("Mae'r gwirio sillafu wedi'i gwblhau" - *"Is the check spelling after to complete"). In this case, typology is based on the non-analytic tenses (i.e. those sentences in which the verb is not split) or the position of the auxiliary. German is thus SVO/VSO (without "im Wald" the subject would go first) in main clauses and Welsh is VSO (and O would go after the infinitive).


Both German and Dutch are often classified as V2 languages, as the verb invariantly occurs as the second element of a full clause. Verb-second (V2) word order, in syntax, is the effect that in some languages the second constituent of declarative main clauses is always a verb, while this is not necessarily the case in other types of clauses. ...


Some languages that are inflected are difficult to classify in the SVO typological system, because virtually any ordering of verb, object, and subject is possible and correct. All we can do for such languages is find out which word order is the most frequent. For example, in a non-inflected language, the subject and object of a sentence are determined by word order; in an inflected language, the determination may be made by affixes applied to nouns to designate their grammatical roles. In such a system, fixed word order is not necessary to determine meaning (although highly inflected languages do sometimes develop normative word orders). Inflected languages without a fixed word order include Latin, Polish, and Greek. This article is about inflection in linguistics. ... An affix is a morpheme that is attached to a base morpheme such as a root or to a stem, to form a word. ... Latin differs from languages like English in that it uses many noun cases which are declined in such a way that they are nearly all different from each other, and even proper nouns such as names are declined. ...


Ergative-accusative

Another common classification is according to whether a language is accusative or ergative. In a language with cases, the classification depends on whether the subject of an intransitive verb has the same case as the subject or the object of a transitive verb. If a language has no cases, but is SVO or OVS, then the classification depends on whether the subject of an intransitive verb is on the same side as the subject or the object of the transitive verb. The accusative case of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a verb. ... An ergative-absolutive language (or just ergative language) is one that marks the subject of transitive verbs distinctly from the subject of intransitive verbs and the object of transitive verbs. ... In linguistics, declension is a feature of inflected languages: generally, the alteration of a noun to indicate its grammatical role. ...


Many languages show mixed accusative and ergative behaviour (e.g. ergative morphology marking the verb arguments, on top of an accusative syntax). Other languages (called "active languages") have two types of intransitive verbs—some of them ("active verbs") join the subject in the same case as the subject of a transitive verb, and the rest ("stative verbs") join the subject in the same case as the object. Yet other languages behave ergatively only in some contexts (this is called split ergativity, and is usually based on the grammatical person of the arguments or in the tense/aspect of the verb). For example, only some verbs in Georgian behave this way, and, as a rule, only while the tense called aorist is used. Split ergativity is shown by languages that have a partly ergative behaviour, but employ another syntax or morphology (usually accusative) in some contexts. ... The aorist aspect was one of the three original aspects that defined the Indo_European verbal paradigm. ...


See also: morphosyntactic alignment. In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the system used to distinguish between the arguments of transitive verbs and intransitive verbs. ...


External link

  • Association for Linguistic Typology

  Results from FactBites:
 
UCSB Linguistics Research: Typology (236 words)
UCSB linguists understand linguistic typology as the systematic study of cross-linguistic variation and seek to come to terms with the full scope of typological differences among the world’s languages.
While acknowledging the role of language universals—recurrent tendencies in structure and function—research in linguistic typology at UCSB concentrates on the ways in which languages differ from one another, because this tremendous diversity helps us to understand the full range of what language can be.
Linguistic typology at UCSB participates in a strong two-way relationship with language documentation.
Linguistic typology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (606 words)
Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features.
Linguistic typology includes morphological, syntactic (sometimes "morphosyntactic"), and phonological typology.
Research in typology—in the ways in which languages vary—often overlaps with research in linguistic universals—in the ways in which they don't vary.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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