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Encyclopedia > Lingua franca
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Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Current distribution of Human Language Families across the world
Current distribution of Human Language Families across the world

A lingua franca (Italian literally meaning Frankish language, see etymology under Sabir and Italian below) is any language widely used beyond the population of its native speakers. The de facto status of lingua franca is usually "awarded" by the masses to the language of the most influential nation(s) of the time. Any given language normally becomes a lingua franca primarily by being used for international commerce, but can be accepted in other cultural exchanges, especially diplomacy. Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1339x636, 21 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Language family ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1339x636, 21 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Language family ... The Frankish language can refer to: Old Frankish, the language spoken by the Franks, a Germanic people active in the Roman era Low Franconian, the only linguistic subgroup containing modern variants of the Old Frankish language: Dutch and Afrikaans. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... This article is about negotiations. ...


Lingua franca may also refer to the de facto language within a more or less specialized field.


A synonym for lingua franca is “vehicular language.” Whereas a vernacular language is used as a native language in a single speaker community, a vehicular language goes beyond the boundaries of its original community, and is used as a second language for communication between communities. For example, English is a vernacular in England, but is used as a vehicular language (that is, a lingua franca) in the Philippines. Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The term lingua franca is also applied to international auxiliary languages meant specifically for communication between speakers of different native languages. Examples include Esperanto, Ido, Interlingua, Latino Sine Flexione, and Novial. An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... This article is about the language. ... Ido (pronounced ) is a constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier to learn than ethnic languages. ... This article is about the auxiliary language created by the International Auxiliary Language Association. ... Latino sine flexione (Latin without inflections) is an auxiliary language invented by the mathematician Giuseppe Peano in 1903. ... Novial [nov- (new) + IAL, International Auxiliary Language] is a constructed international auxiliary language (IAL) intended to facilitate international communication and friendship, without displacing anyones native language. ...

Contents

English

English is the current lingua franca of international business, science, technology and aviation, and has partially displaced French as the lingua franca of diplomacy since World War I, although the use of French continues to play a large role in diplomatic protocol.[citation needed] The wide-spread use of English was advanced by the prominent international role played by English-speaking nations (i.e., the United States along with the British Commonwealth nations) in the aftermath of World War II, particularly in the establishment and organization of the United Nations.[citation needed] English is one of the six official languages of the U.N., and, along with French, one of the two working languages; the others are Arabic, Russian, Mandarin Chinese, and Spanish. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... UN redirects here. ... UN redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ...


English is the language of England, and therefore, as the United Kingdom (England being the historically dominant part of the United Kingdom) became a colonial power, English served — and, to some extent, continues to serve — as the lingua franca of the Republic of Ireland, former colonies of the British Empire (including Australia, Belize, Canada, Malaysia, India, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Barbados, The Bahamas, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, the United States of America, and Vanuatu), present British territories (like Bermuda, Falkland Islands, and Saint Helena), former British territories (such as Hong Kong), U.S. territories (like Guam, Northern Marianas, Puerto Rico), Virgin Islands (both British and American), and the Philippines. In many of these nations the use of English is seen as a means of avoiding the political difficulties inherent in promoting any individual indigenous language as the lingua franca. For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) is a commonwealth in political union with the United States of America at a strategic location in the West Pacific Ocean. ... The United States Virgin Islands is a group of islands in the Caribbean that is a dependency of the United States. ...


The modern trend to use English outside of English-speaking countries has a number of sources. Ultimately, the use of English in a variety of locations across the globe is a consequence of the reach of the British Empire. But the establishment of English as an international lingua franca after World War II was mostly a result of the spread of English via cultural and technological exports from the United States as well as its embedding in international institutions and that it is easy to learn, because if its less grammar; for instance, the seating and roll-call order in sessions of the United Nations and its organs is determined by English alphabetical order, and, while there are six official languages of the United Nations, only two (English and French) are working languages, and, in practice, English is the sole working language of most UN bodies. This is contributed to by the fact that UN headquarters, and the majority of UN bodies, are based in the United States. UN redirects here. ...


English is also regarded by some as an unofficial global lingua franca owing to the economic, cultural, and geopolitical power of most of the developed Western nations in world financial and business institutions. The de facto status of English as the lingua franca in these countries has carried over globally as a result. English is also overwhelmingly dominant in scientific and technological communications, and all of the world's major scientific journals are published in English. In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. ...


A landmark recognition of the dominance of English in Europe came in 1995 when, on the accession of Austria, Finland and Sweden, English joined French and German as one of the working languages of the European Commission. Many Europeans outside of the EU have also adopted English as their current lingua franca. For example, English serves as a somewhat lingua franca in Switzerland, which has four official languages (German, French, Italian and Romansh, spoken by a relatively small minority). German is also spoken by many Swiss citizens, but the relatively high foreign-born population (21 percent of residents) ensures a relatively wide use of English. Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Not to be confused with Romand which is one of the names for the Franco-Provençal language. ...


English is also the dominant language of the Internet, due to the fact that it was first developed in the United States, and the dominance of English in academics and science and technology (especially computer technology), which were some of the original uses of the Internet.


On the other hand English as a former lingua franca of the Indian subcontinent was replaced by Hindi-Urdu and has suffered a strong decline in recent decades.[citation needed]


Other European languages

Greek and Latin

During the time of the Hellenistic civilization and Roman Empire, the linguae francae were Koine Greek and Latin. During the Middle Ages, the lingua franca was Greek in the parts of Europe,Middle East and Northern Africa where the Byzantine Empire held hegemony, and Latin was primarily used in the rest of Europe. Latin, for a significant portion of the expansion of the Roman Catholic Church, was used as the basis of the Church. This was later changed to local languages, although it is still the official language of the Vatican. The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Koine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


Sabir and Italian

Main article: Mediterranean Lingua Franca

Originally lingua Franca (or Sabir) referred to a mixed language composed mostly of Italian with a broad vocabulary drawn from Persian, French, Greek and Arabic. Lingua Franca literally means "Frankish language". This originated from the Arabic custom of referring to all Europeans as Franks. This mixed language was used for communication throughout the medieval and early modern Middle East[citation needed] as a diplomatic language; the generic description lingua franca has since become common for any language used by speakers of different languages to communicate with one another. Some samples of Sabir have been preserved in Molière's comedy, Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme. The Lingua franca of the Mediterranean or Sabir (know) was a pidgin language used as a Lingua franca in the Mediterranean Basin from the 11th to the 19th century. ... A mixed language is a language that arises when speakers of different languages are in contact and show a high degree of bilingualism. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For the 2007 film, see Molière (film). ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme is a comédie-ballet in 5 acts by Molière, first presented October 14, 1670 before the court of Louis XIV at the château of Chambord by Molières troup of actors. ...


Italian dialects were spoken in medieval times as a lingua franca in the European commercial empires of Italian cities (Genoa, Venice, Florence, Milan, Pisa, Siena, Amalfi) and in their colonies located in the Middle East[citation needed] and in the Mediterranean sea. During the Renaissance, Italian was also spoken as language of culture in the main royal courts of Europe and among intellectuals. The Italian language is still used as a lingua franca in some environments. For example, in the Catholic ecclesiastic hierarchy, Italian is known by a large part of members and is used in substitution of Latin in some official documents as well. The presence of Italian as the second official language in Vatican City indicates its use not only in the seat in Rome, but also anywhere in the world where an episcopal seat is present. For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... For other uses, see Pisa (disambiguation). ... Piazza del Campo Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ... Amalfi is a town and commune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, 24 miles southeast of Naples. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


Spanish

Spanish replaced Latin as the language of diplomacy and (in some aspects) culture during the 16th and 17th centuries, until it was replaced by French. Spanish was also used throughout the former Spanish Empire, particularly in Central and South America, and became the lingua franca of the Philippines in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Today, it is a lingua franca in most of the countries of Latin America (with the notable exceptions of Brazil and the Guianas). For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The term Guianas refers to an area comprising three different countries in the north-eastern part of South America; Guyana, French Guiana, and Suriname. ...


French

French was the language of diplomacy in Europe from the 17th century until its recent replacement by English, and as a result is still a working language of international institutions and is seen on documents ranging from passports to airmail letters. For many years, until the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Denmark joined in 1973, French and German were the only official working languages of the European Economic Community. French was also the lingua franca of European literature in the 18th century. This article is about negotiations. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


French was also the language used among the educated in many cosmopolitan cities across the Middle East and North Africa. This was true in cities such as Cairo, around the turn of the 20th century until World War II, and especially in the French colonies of the Maghreb. French is particularly important in Algeria and its capital, Algiers. Until the outbreak of the civil war in Lebanon, French was the language that the Christian members of the upper class of Lebanese society used. French is still a lingua franca in most Western and Central African countries (where it often enjoys official status), a remnant of the colonial rule of France and Belgium. These African countries, together with several other countries throughout the world, are members of La Francophonie. French is the sole official language of the Universal Postal Union, and English was only added as a working language as late as 1994.[1] A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ... The Universal Postal Union (UPU, French: Union postale universelle) is an international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ...


German

German served as a lingua franca in large portions of Europe for centuries, mainly the Holy Roman Empire (of the German Nation). From about 1200 to 1600, Middle Low German was the language of the Hanseatic League which was present in most Northern European seaports, even London[citation needed]. Later, variants of German were (or are) also used in the Americas and small parts of Asia, (Turkey, Russia, Kazakhstan). During the 19th and 20th centuries, Germany was leading in the sciences — particularly in physics, chemistry and sociology, winning many Nobel Prizes — and the language was also used in international business and politics. Since 1933, the politics of Nazi Germany caused the emigration of many scientists like Albert Einstein, or artists like Marlene Dietrich, mainly to the US, thus American English took over in these fields after 1945. German was also spoken in much of Eastern Europe long after the end of World War II. In some academic disciplines, most notably philosophy and theology, a reading knowledge of German is still considered essential and required of doctoral candidates by some universities all over the world, not just those in Europe. During the construction of the Snowy Mountains Scheme in Australia, German was the lingua franca for workers from central and east Europe. This article is about the medieval empire. ... The Middle Low German language is an ancestor of the modern Low German language, and was spoken from about 1100 to 1500. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Laureates of the Nobel Prize listed by country. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Marlene Dietrich IPA: ; (December 27, 1901 – May 6, 1992) was a German-born American actress, singer and entertainer. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Talbingo Dam The Snowy Mountains Scheme is a hydro-electricity and irrigation complex in south-east Australia. ...


Polish

Polish was a kind of lingua franca in large areas of Central and Eastern Europe, especially regions that belonged to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth; this influence extend beyond the borders of the Commonwealth because of the state's considerable political and military power in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. Polish was for several centuries the main language spoken by the ruling classes in Lithuania and Ukraine, and the modern state of Belarus, but was also understood further south-east, for example in the Tatar Khanate, the Romanian lands and the Slav parts of Hungary. After the partitioning of Poland in the 1790s, the Russian language almost completely substituted Polish by the 20th century. Even so, Polish is today still sometimes spoken or at least understood in the western border areas of Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and parts of northern Slovakia. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , Russian pronunciation: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages, and the largest native language in Europe. ...


Portuguese

Portuguese served as lingua franca in Africa, South America and Asia in the 15th and 16th centuries. When the Portuguese started exploring the seas of Africa, America, Asia and Oceania, they tried to communicate with the natives by mixing a Portuguese-influenced version of Lingua Franca with the local languages. When English or French ships came to compete with the Portuguese, the crew tried to learn this "broken Portuguese". Through a process of change the Lingua Franca and Portuguese lexicon was replaced with the languages of the people in contact. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


Portuguese remains an important lingua franca in Africa (PALOP), Macau, East Timor, and to a certain extent in South America because Brazil is the largest and most populous country in Latin America. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Russian

Russian is in use and widely understood in areas of Central and Eastern Europe and Northern and Central Asia formerly part of the Soviet Union, or of the former Soviet bloc. Its use in Central and Eastern Europe has declined dramatically since the fall of communism, but it remains the lingua franca in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Recent migrations from the former Soviet Union made Russian one of the most spoken languages in Israel. Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ...


Asian languages

Arabic

Arabic, the native language of the Arabs, who originally came from the Arabian Peninsula, became the "lingua franca" of the Islamic Empire (Arab Empire) (from AD 700 - AD 1492), which at a certain point spread from the borders of China and Northern India through Central Asia, Persia, Asia Minor, Middle East, North Africa all the way to Spain and Portugal in the west. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Arabia redirects here. ... Template:Islamic Empire infobox The Ottoman Empire (1299 - 29 October 1923) (Ottoman Turkish: Devlet-i Aliye-yi Osmaniyye; literally, The Sublime Ottoman State, modern Turkish: Osmanlı Ä°mparatorluÄŸu), is also known in the West as the Turkish Empire. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Persia redirects here. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


Arabic was also used by people neighboring the Islamic Empire. During the Islamic Golden Age, Arabic was the language of science and diplomacy (around 1200 AD), when more books were written in Arabic than in any other language in the world at that time period. It influenced African sub-Saharan languages, east African languages, such as Swahili and loaned many words to Persian, Turkish, Urdu and to significant extent on European languages such as Spanish and Portuguese, countries it ruled for 700 years (see Al-Andalus). It also had some influence over the English language. During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see Kiswahili for a discussion of the nomenclature) is an agglutinative Bantu language widely spoken in East Africa. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... A manuscript page of the Quran in the script developed in al-Andalus, 12th century Al-ʾAndalus (Arabic الأندلس) is the Arabic name given to the southern parts of theIberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Emirate (ca 750–929) and Caliphate of Cordoba (929–1031... Star names are not included. ...


Arabic script was adopted by many other languages such as Urdu, Persian, Swahili (changed to Latin in the late 19th century) and Turkish which switched to Latin script in 1928. Arabic became the lingua franca of these regions mainly because it is the language of the Qur’an, Islam's holy book. Arabic remains as the lingua franca for 22 countries (24 if one was to include occupied Palestine and Western Sahara), in the Middle East and North Africain addition to Chad. Despite a few language script conversions from Arabic to Latin as just described, Arabic still is the second most widely used alphabetic system in the world after Latin.[2] Arabic script is/has been used in languages including Hausa, Kashmiri, Kazak, Kurdish, Kyrghyz, Malay, Morisco, Pashto, Persian/Farsi, Punjabi, Sindhi, Tatar, Turkish, Uyghur.[3] The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Farsi redirects here. ... This article is about the language. ... The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al KarÄ«m or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... // See List of official languages by institution. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Hausa are a people of northern Nigeria and south-eastern Niger. ... For other uses, see Kashmiri (disambiguation) Kashmiri is a Dardic language spoken primarily in Kashmir, an Asian region now split between India, Pakistan and China. ... The words kazaks, kazak may be a transliteration from Russian language of Kazakhs, people of Kazakhstan Cossacks (Russian: kazak) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Look up Kurdish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kirghiz (also Kyrgyz and Kirgiz) are a Turkic-Mongoloid ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... Farsi may refer to: The name of the the Persian language among native speakers Farsi Island, an Iranian island in the Persian Gulf The Jafari Shia Tajiks of Central Asia Salman al-Farsi, one of the prophet Muhammads companions Al-Farisi (1260-1320), Persian mathematician and physicist Jalaleddin Farsi... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Sindhi refers to an ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... The Uyghur (Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Uighur Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾; Pinyin: Wéiwúěr; Turkish: Uygur) are a Turkic people, forming one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ...


According to Encarta, which classified Chinese as a single language, Arabic is perceived to be the second largest language among first-time speakers.[4] Used by more than a billion Muslims around the world,[5] it is also one of the six official languages of the United Nations.[6] This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... UN redirects here. ...


Aramaic

Aramaic, the native language of the Arameans, became the lingua franca of the Assyrian Empire and the western provinces of the Persian Empire, mainly because of its simple, alphabetic writing system (of which the modern Hebrew alphabet is little more than a stylized form), more useful in administration than cuneiform. Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, seminomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... This article concerns the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom. ... Persia redirects here. ... An alphabet is a complete standardized set of letters—basic written symbols—each of which roughly represents a phoneme of a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it may have been in the past. ... Bilingual inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by the Indian emperor Ashoka the Great, 3rd century BC. The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Cuneiform redirects here. ...


Azeri

According to the Russian historian Nikolai Trubetzkoy, Azeri served as a lingua franca throughout most parts of Transcaucasia (except the Black Sea coast), in Eastern Anatolia, Iranian Azerbaijan, and Southern Dagestan.[7] Prince Nikolai Sergeyevich Trubetzkoy (Cyrillic ; Moscow, April 15, 1890 - Vienna, June 25, 1938) was a Russian linguist whose teachings formed a nucleus of the Prague School of structural linguistics. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Transcaucasia is the name given to a region south of the Caucasus Mountains that covers Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Anatolia lies east of the Bosphorus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Anatolia or Anatolian Peninsula is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion, (Eastern) Thrace; tr:Trakya. ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Āzārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ... The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...


Bengali

Further information: Bengali language

Bengali or Bangla, is commonly spoken in Bangladesh and India (especially in the states of West Bengal and Tripura). It is the official language and lingua franca of Bangladesh. In India, Bengali is the official language of West Bengal state; an official language of Tripura (along with Khokborok) and Assam (along with Assamese) states. The language is also one of several official languages of the Republic of India, being the second most spoken language (as mother tongue) among Indians, after Hindi. It has been derived from Sanskrit. Bangla redirects here. ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ...


Cebuano

In the Philippines, Cebuano is spoken natively by the inhabitants of Cebu, Bohol, Negros Oriental and some parts of Leyte and the Samar islands and throughout Mindanao. It is also spoken in a few towns and islands in Samar. Until 1975, Cebuano surpassed Tagalog in terms of number of native speakers. Some dialects of Cebuano give different names to the language. Residents of Bohol may refer to Cebuano as "Bol-anon" while Cebuano-speakers in Leyte may call their dialect "Kana". It is also spoken by Warays in Samar and Leyte, Porohanon in Poro, Ilonggos in Negros Oriental, Eskaya in Bohol, and by native (like Atas, Bagobos, and Butuanons) and migrant Filipino ethnic groups (like Ilocanos and Ilonggos), and foreign ethnic groups (like Spaniards, Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans) ,and other people in Mindanao as second language. For other uses, see Cebu (disambiguation). ... For the island see Bohol Island. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Negros Oriental Region: Central Visayas (Region VII) Capital: Dumaguete City Founded: March 10, 1917 Population: 2000 census—1,126,061 (20th largest) Density—208 per km² (41st highest) Area: 5,402. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Leyte Region: Eastern Visayas (Region VIII) Capital: Tacloban City Founded: 1543 and March 10, 1917 Population: 2000 census—1,592,336 (14th largest) Density—279 per km² (24th highest) Area: 5,712. ... Samar, formerly Western Samar, is a province of the Philippines located in the Eastern Visayas region. ... Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Wáray-Wáray is a language spoken in the provinces of Samar, Northern Samar, Eastern Samar, Leyte (eastern portion), and Biliran in the Philippines. ... Porohanon are the people of Poro Island, Cebu in the Philippines. ... Hiligaynon or Ilonggo is an Austronesian language spoken in Western Visayas in the Philippines. ... The Eskaya or Eskaya tribe is an indigenous people community in Bohol, Philippines. ... ATA may refer to: The Athens Trombone Association The ISO 3166-1 3-letter country code for Antarctica. ... Butuanon may refer to: The Butuanon language, an Austronesian language and member of the Visayan language family, spoken in the Philippines. ... Ilocano, also Iloko and Ilokano, refers to the language and culture associated with the Ilocano people, the third largest ethnic group in the Philippines. ...


Chinese

Classical Chinese previously served as both a written lingua franca and diplomatic language in Far East Asia, used by China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, the Ryukyus, and Vietnam in interstate communications. In the early 20th century Classical Chinese in China was replaced by modern written Standard Chinese. Currently, among most Chinese-speaking communities, Standard Mandarin serves the function of providing a common spoken language between speakers of different and mutually unintelligible Chinese spoken languages - not to mention between the Han Chinese and other ethnic groups in China. Written Chinese has also been used as a way of communication through these character-using countries. Chinese is also a lingua franca of Hong Kong, Macau, the ethnic Chinese population in Singapore and to a lesser extent the ethnic Chinese population in Malaysia. Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... The Ryukyu Islands (琉球列島 Ryūkyū-rettō) are an island group, the southern portion belonging to Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the northern part belonging to Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. ... Vernacular Chinese (pinyin: báihuà; Wade-Giles: paihua) is a style or register of the written Chinese language essentially modeled after the spoken language and associated with Standard Mandarin. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Mutually Unintelligible In linguistics, two or more languages or dialects are said to be mutually unintelligible when a knowledge or familiarity of one language does not preclude a knowledge or familiarity of the other(s). ... Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... Various styles of Chinese calligraphy. ...


Filipino

Further information: Filipino language

Filipino, a standardized variety of Tagalog, serves as a lingua franca throughout the Philippines archipelago together with some Spanish words and English language. In the southern regions though, the Cebuano language and English Language is more used as a lingua franca than Filipino. Filipino (formerly Pilipino) is the national and an official language of the Philippines as designated in the 1987 Philippine Constitution. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Cebuano, also known as Sinugboanon, is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 20,000,000 people (according to Ethnologue). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Hindi - Urdu

Further information: Hindustani language

Hindustani or Hindi-Urdu, is commonly spoken in India and Pakistan. It encompasses two standardized registers in the form of the official languages of Hindi and Urdu, as well as several nonstandard dialects. Hindi is one of the official languages of India, and Urdu is the official language and lingua franca of Pakistan. Urdu is also an official language in India. However, whilst the words and much of the speaking may sound similar, the writing styles are completely different, both using different charactersets altogether. Hindustani redirects here. ... Hindustani redirects here. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... A nonstandard dialect of a language is a dialect of a language that does not have the institutional support or sanction that a standardized dialect has. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ...


Ilokano

Ilokano is natively spoken in Ilocos Region, northwest Philippines. Ilokanos migrated to Batanes, Cordillera, Cagayan Valley, and Pangasinan until it is now the lingua franca of northern Philippines. The Ilocos Region or Region I (Ilokano: Rehion ti Ilokos, Pagasinan: Rihiyon na Sagor na Baybay na Luzon or Rihiyon na Ilokos) of the Philippines is located in the northwestern part of Luzon. ... The Ilocano or Ilokano people are the third largest Filipino ethnic group. ... The Province of Batanes is the northernmost and the smallest province of the Philippine Republic, both in terms of population and land area. ... Cagayan Valley (Lambak ng Cagayan in Filipino) is a region of the Philippines, also designated as Region II or Region 02. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Pangasinan Luyag na Pangasinan Region: Ilocos Region (Region I) Capital: Lingayen Founded: 1578 Population: 2000 census—2,434,086 (3rd largest) Density—453 per km² (8th highest) Area: 5,368. ...


Malay

In the 14th century, during the Malacca Sultanate, Malay was used as a lingua franca in the Malay archipelago, by the locals as much as by the traders and artisans that stopped at Malacca via the Straits of Malacca. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ... The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ...


Nowadays, Malay is used mostly in Malaysia (officially called Bahasa Malaysia) and Brunei, as well as - but to a lesser extent in - Singapore (one of their four official languages; a "street" version of Malay - Baba Malay was the lingua franca in Singapore prior to the introduction of English as a working and instructional language, and remains so for the elder generation). Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... The Malay language, also known locally as Bahasa Melayu, is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who are native to the Malay peninsula, southern Thailand, Singapore and parts of Sumatra. ... The Malay language, through its history also experiences pidginization and creolization processes. ...


However, Indonesian, a standardized variety of Malay, serves as a lingua franca throughout Indonesia and East Timor. While Indonesia counts several hundred different languages, Indonesian, the official language of Indonesia, is their vehicular language. Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ...


Persian

Further information: Persian language

Persian served as the lingua franca of the eastern Islamic world and became the second lingua franca of the Islamic World.[8] Besides serving as the state and administrative language in many Islamic dynasties, some of which included Samanids, Ghurids, Ghaznavids, Ilkhanids, Seljuqids, Moguls and early Ottomans, Persian cultural and political forms, and often the Persian language were used by the cultural elites from the Balkans to India.[9] Arnold Joseph Toynbee's assessment of the role of the Persian language is worth quoting in more detail: Farsi redirects here. ... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) (Persian: ) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Persians (Tajiks)[1][2] origin. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 977 to 1186. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turkic descent[1][2][3][4] that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... This page is about the historian Toynbee, for the page about the strange tiles set into roads in major cities seemingly named after him, see Toynbee tiles. ...

In the Iranic world, before it began to succumb to the process of Westernization, the New Persian language, which had been fashioned into literary form in mighty works of art. . . gained a currency as a lingua franca; and at its widest, about the turn of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries of the Christian Era, its range in this role extended, without a break, across the face of South-Eastern Europe and South-Western Asia.[10]

Persian remains the lingua franca in its native homelands of Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan and was the lingua franca of India before the British conquest. It is still understood by many intellectuals of India and Pakistan.


Persian has also exerted some influence on the English language. As Indo-European languages, English and Persian have many words of common Proto-Indo-European origin, and many of these cognate words often have similar forms. ...


Sanskrit

Further information: Sanskrit

Sanskrit was widely used across South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Asia and Central Asia at various times in ancient and medieval history; it has religious significance for all those religious traditions that arose from the Vedic religion. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The religion of the Vedic civilization is the predecessor of classical Hinduism, usually included in the term. ...


African languages

Afrikaans

Afrikaans is considered to be the most learned language native to the African continent. The vast majority of scholarly works and publications that are written in a native African language are done in Afrikaans. Afrikaans has several million native speakers, particularly in the country of South Africa. Aside from being a native language for many millions in the Boer and Coloured communities in South Africa, it is also spoken as a second language by many millions of people, securing its place as an African lingua franca. Among the finest universities in Africa teach courses in Afrikaans and several also use it as an official language with English. Among these are Stellenbosch and University of Witwatersrand. Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ... In the South African, Namibian, Zambian and Zimbabwean context, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruin Afrikaners in Afrikaans) refers to a heterogeneous group of people who posess some degree of sub-Saharan ancestry, but not enough to be considered Black under South African law. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Stellenbosch from Botmaskop mountain looking towards Cape Town Stellenbosch (IPA: ) is the second oldest European settlement in the Western Cape Province, South Africa after Cape Town, and is situated about 50 kilometers (30 mi) away along the banks of the Eerste River. ... The University of the Witwatersrand is a leading South African university situated in Johannesburg. ...


Hausa

Hausa is widely spoken through Nigeria and Niger and recognised in neighbouring states (Ghana, Benin, Cameroon etc). The reason for this is that Hausa people used to be traders who led caravans with goods (cotton, leather, slaves, food crops etc.) through the whole West African region, from the Niger Delta to the Atlantic shores at the very west edge of Africa. They also reached North African states through Trans-Saharan routes. Thus trade deals in Timbuktu in modern Mali, Agadez, Ghat, Fez in Northern Africa, and other trade centers were often concluded in Hausa. The Hausa are a people of northern Nigeria and south-eastern Niger. ... This article is about the Malian city. ... Agadez is the largest city in northern Niger, lying in the Sahara and is the capital of Aïr, one of the traditional Tuareg federations. ... Ghat (Arabic: غات) is a city in remote south-western Libya. ... Fes redirects here. ...


Swahili

Swahili is used throughout large parts of East Africa as a lingua franca, despite being the mother tongue of a relatively small ethnic group on the East African coast and nearby islands in the Indian Ocean. At least as early as the late eighteenth century, Swahili was used along trading and slave routes that extended west across Lake Tanganyika and into the present-day Democratic Republic of Congo. Swahili rose in prominence throughout the colonial era, and has become the predominant African language of Tanzania and Kenya. Some contemporary members of non-Swahili ethnic groups speak Swahili more often than their mother tongues, and many choose to raise their children with Swahili as their first language, leading to the possibility that several smaller East African languages will fade as Swahili transitions from being a regional lingua franca to a regional first language. This article is about the language. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... The Democratic Republic of the Congo, called Zaïre between 1971 and 1997, is a nation in central Africa. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ...


Zulu

South Africa has eleven official languages, however the mutual intelligibility of many Nguni languages (Zulu, Xhosa, Swazi and Ndebele) has meant that Zulu is increasingly becoming a lingua franca throughout Eastern South Africa, including the major cities of Durban and Johannesburg. Zulu is the first language of ten million people, but is spoken as a second language by over 25 million in the region and is now the most commonly understood language in the country. Map showing principal South African languages by municipality. ... Nguni is a group of languages spoken in southern Africa including isiZulu, isiXhosa, siSwati, and isiNdebele. ... Zulu (called isiZulu in Zulu), is a language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ...


Fula

Fula, also known as Pulaar or Fulfulde depending on the region, is the language of the Fula people – who in turn are known under the various names of Fula or Fulani or Peuls or Fulbe or Fulɓe or Toucouleur. Fula is spoken in all countries directly south of the Sahara (north of Cameroon, Chad, Nigeria, Niger, Mali…). It is spoken mainly by Fula people, but is also used as a lingua franca by several populations of various origin, throughout Western Africa.[citation needed] The Fula language is a language of West Africa, spoken by the Fula people from Senegal to Cameroon and Sudan. ... The Fulbhe (singular Pullo) or Fulani is an ethnic group of people spread over many countries in West Africa,Central Africa and as far as East Africa. ... The Fulbhe (singular Pullo) or Fulani is an ethnic group of people spread over many countries in West Africa, Central Africa and as far as East Africa, and are found in Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, The Gambia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Côte dIvoire, Niger... The Toucouleurs (or Haalpulaaren) are an ethnicity of West Africa. ...


Manding

The largely interintelligible Manding languages of West Africa serve as lingua francas in various places. For instance Bambara is the most widely spoken language in Mali, and Jula (almost the same as Bambara) is commonly used in western Burkina Faso and northern Cote d'Ivoire. Manding languages have long been used in regional commerce, so much so that the word for trader, jula, was applied to the language currently known by the same name. Other varieties of Manding are used in several other countries, such as Guinea, The Gambia, and Senegal. Mande (or Manding) is the name of a group of languages which are spoken in several countries in West Africa, including Mandinka and Bambara. ... Bambara, also known as Bamanankan in the language itself, is a language spoken in Mali by as many as six million people (including second language users). ... Dioula (Jula, Dyula) is a language spoken in Burkina Faso and Côte dIvoire. ... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ...


Sango

The Sango language is a lingua franca developed for intertribal trading in the Central African Republic. It is based on the Northern Ngbandi language spoken by the Sango people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo but with a large vocabulary of French loan words. For other uses, see Sango (disambiguation) Sango (also spelt Sangho) is the primary language spoken in the Central African Republic: it has 5 million second-language speakers, but only 400,000 native speakers, mainly in the towns. ...


Wolof

Wolof is a more widely spoken lingua franca of The Gambia and Senegal, although English and French, the official languages of The Gambia and Senegal, are the lingua francas of the urban areas of the 2 countries.


Amerindian languages

Mobilian Jargon

The Mobilian Trade Language was developed and used along the Gulf Coast from Florida to Texas. It was a creole named for the Mabila (Mobile) tribe, which spoke Alibamu (Alabama), but it was more based on Choctaw. Mobilian Jargon was a pidgin trade language used as a lingua franca among Native American groups living along the Gulf of Mexico around the time of European settlement of the region. ... The Mobilian language was a trade language used as a lingua franca among Native American groups living along the Gulf of Mexico around the time of European settlement of the region. ... Alabama-Coushatta Reservation welcome sign The Alabama or Alibamu (Albaamaha in the Alabama language) are a Southeastern culture people of Native Americans. ... The Choctaw language, traditionally spoken by the Native American Choctaw people of the southeastern United States, is a member of the Muskogean family. ...


Tupi

The Tupi language served as the lingua franca of Brazil among speakers of the various indigenous languages, mainly in the coastal regions. Tupi as a lingua franca, and as recorded in colonial books, was in fact a creation of the Portuguese, who assembled it from the similarities between the coastal indigenous Tupi-guarani languages. The language served the Jesuit priests as a way to teach natives, and it was widely spoken by Europeans. It was the predominant language spoken in Brazil until 1758, when the Jesuits were expelled from Brazil by the Portuguese government and the use and teaching of Tupi was banned.[11] Since then, Tupi as Lingua Franca was quickly replaced by Portuguese, although Tupi-guarani family languages are still spoken by small native groups in Brazil. Old Tupi is an extinct Tupian language which was spoken by the native Tupi people of Brazil, mostly those who lived close to the sea. ...


Quechua

As the Inca empire rose to prominence in South America, the imperial language Quechua became the most widely spoken language in the western regions of the continent. Even among tribes that were not absorbed by the empire Quechua still became an important language for trade because of the empire's influence. Even after the Spanish conquest of Peru Quechua for a long time was the most common language. Today it is still widely spoken although it has given way to Spanish as the more common lingua franca. For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was a process through which a group of Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro succeeded in toppling the Inca Empire in the early 16th-century. ...


Pidgins and creoles

Further information: Pidgin and Creole language.

Various pidgin languages have been used in many locations and times as a common trade speech. They can be based on English, French, Chinese, or indeed any other language. A pidgin is defined by its use as a lingua franca, between populations speaking other mother tongues. When a pidgin becomes a population's first language, then it is called a creole language. This article is about simplified languages. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a nativized pidgin. ... This article is about simplified languages. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a nativized pidgin. ...


Tok Pisin

Tok Pisin is largely spoken in Papua New Guinea as a lingua franca. It developed as an English-based creole with influences from local languages and to a smaller extent German or Unserdeutsch and Portuguese. Tok Pisin originated as a pidgin in the 19th century, hence the name 'Tok Pisin' from 'Talk Pidgin', but has now evolved into a modern language. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Unserdeutsch (literally, Our German) is a German-based creole language spoken primarily in Papua New Guinea and the northeast of Australia. ... This article is about simplified languages. ...


Also called Pidgin English, this Lingua Franca is also spoken in the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. The versions of Pidgin vary between PNG, the Solomons and Vanuatu, but all Pidgin speakers from these countries are able to communicate and often understand each others language variations.


Pidgin English is derived from Australian English and its idioms, so an understanding of vernacular Australian English is often helpful in understanding the origins and application of Pidgin English.


Guinea-Bissau Creole

Guinea-Bissau Creole is a Portuguese Creole used as a lingua franca of Guinea-Bissau and Casamance, Senegal among people of different ethnic groups. It is also the mother tongue of many people in Guinea-Bissau. Kriol (crioulo in Portuguese) is a language spoken by 60% of the population of Guinea-Bissau, where it is the lingua franca, and also in Senegal. ... Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have been significantly influenced by Portuguese. ... The flag of the Democratic Forces Movement of Casamance was adopted in 1988. ...


See also

An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... Business English is English especially related to international trade. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... Language contact occurs when speakers of distinct speech varieties interact. ... Lingua Franca Nova is an auxiliary constructed language created by Dr. C. George Boeree of Shippensburg University, Pennsylvania. ... A mixed language is a language that arises when speakers of different languages are in contact and show a high degree of bilingualism. ... The idea of a universal language is at least as old as the Biblical story of Babel. ...

References

  1. ^ Universal Postal Union, retrieved 28 April 2008, URL http://www.upu.int/about_us/en/languages.html
  2. ^ Arabic Alphabet. Enclopaedia Britannica online. Retrieved on 2007-11-23.
  3. ^ United Nations Arabic Language Programme. United Nations. Retrieved on 2008-01-25.
  4. ^ Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People. Microsoft Encarta 2006. Retrieved on 2007-02-18.
  5. ^ United Nations Arabic Language Programme. United Nations. Retrieved on 2008-01-25.
  6. ^ Department for General Assembley and Conferance Management - What are the official languages of the United Nations?. United Nations. Retrieved on 2008-01-25.
  7. ^ - On the Peoples of the Caucasus by N. Trubetskoi. IRS Magazine, #7. Retrieved 15 September 2006 (in Russian)
  8. ^ Dr Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization, HarperCollins,Published 2003
  9. ^ Robert Famighetti, The World Almanac and Book of Facts,World Almanac Books, 1998, pg 582
  10. ^ Arnold J. Toynbee, A Study of History,V, pp. 514-15
  11. ^ "Abá nhe'enga oîebyr — Tradução: a língua dos índios está de volta", by Suzel Tunes essay in Portuguese.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Heine, Bernd (1970). Status and Use of African Lingua Francas. ISBN 3-8039-0033-6
  • Kahane, Henry Romanos (1958). The Lingua Franca in the Levant.
  • R. A. Hall, Jr. (1966). Pidgin and Creole Languages, Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0173-9.
  • MELATTI, Julio Cezar (1983). Índios do Brasil. São Paulo:Hucitec Press, 48th edition

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lingua franca - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1866 words)
During the Middle Ages, the lingua franca was Greek in the parts of Europe and Middle East where the Byzantine Empire held hegemony, and Latin was primarily used in the rest of Europe.
Hindi is the official language and lingua franca of India and Urdu is the official language and lingua franca of Pakistan.
Swahili is used throughout large parts of East Africa as a lingua franca, despite being the mother tongue of a relatively small ethnic group on the East African coast and nearby islands in the Indian Ocean.
Encyclopedia4U - Lingua franca - Encyclopedia Article (687 words)
The term lingua franca refers to a language most widely used: adopted as a common means of communication between people of different languages.
English is the current lingua franca of the world, and people worldwide are fast becoming acclimated to its use.
Lingua Franca (Italian meaning "Frankish language") or Sabir ("to know") was an early pidgin language, used in the Mediterranean area from the 14th century or earlier and still in use in the 20th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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