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Encyclopedia > Lindbergh kidnapping
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Lindbergh baby kidnapping poster.

The Lindbergh kidnapping was the abduction and murder of Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Junior, the toddler son of world famous aviator Charles Lindbergh and Anne Morrow Lindbergh, in 1932. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... This work is copyrighted. ... Child abduction is the abduction or kidnapping of a child (or baby) by an older person. ... Boy toddler Toddler is a common term for a a young child who is learning to walk or toddle,[1] generally considered to be the second stage of development after infancy and occurring predominantly during the ages of 12 to 36 months old. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... For Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Junior, see Lindbergh kidnapping. ... Anne Morrow Lindbergh (June 22, 1906 – February 7, 2001) was an author and pioneering American aviator. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The kidnapping and subsequent trial might be described as a media circus: every development was read about by millions of people; newspaper writer H.L. Mencken called the affair "the biggest story since the Resurrection." Media circus is a pejorative description of the media. ... H. L. (Henry Louis) Mencken (September 12, 1880 - January 29, 1956) was a twentieth century journalist and social critic, a cynic and a freethinker, known as the Sage of Baltimore and the American Nietzsche. He is often regarded as one of the most influential American writers of the early 20th... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ...


Bruno Hauptmann was convicted and executed for the crime, though he proclaimed his innocence. In the subsequent decades, many have argued that Hauptmann was innocent: the victim of a miscarriage of justice by authorities eager to resolve a highly public case. He undoubtedly possessed some of the ransom money, but beyond that, the questions of further involvement in the crime may remain open. Bruno Hauptmann Bruno Richard Hauptmann (November 26, 1899 – April 3, 1936) was a German carpenter and former criminal, sentenced to death and executed for the abduction and murder of Charles Augustus Lindbergh II, the 20-month old son of famous pilot Charles Lindbergh. ... It has been suggested that Exoneration be merged into this article or section. ...


There is ample evidence that, at the very least, the investigation was badly bungled. As Michael Kurland writes, "From the very beginning, the investigation of the case was fragmented and mishandled, and it suffered from the triple liabilities of Lindbergh's fame, ego, and tendency to manage everything. Everyone that dealt with him was conscious that they were dealing with Colonel Lindbergh, and deferred to his opinions. Lindbergh, too, had a very high opinion of himself. He tended to give orders when it would have been more profitable to listen." In fairness, kidnappings of prominent persons were still fairly rare crimes at the time, and police forces had little experience with them. A detective is an investigator, either a member of a police agency or a private person. ... Michael Joseph Kurland (born 1938) is an American author, best known for his works of (in chronological order) science fiction and detective fiction. ...


Lindbergh authorized two separate intermediaries to contact the supposed kidnappers: one was a bombastic school teacher with cloak and dagger delusions, the other a convicted con artist. Ransom was paid to two different groups – and nearly paid to a third – but the child was never seen alive after the kidnapping. Even the identification of the corpse said to be the Lindbergh baby has been called into question. As of 2007, the body of the child has never been positively identified by forensic means–and, thus, the child may be classified as missing. For general cloak and dagger activities, see espionage and assassination. ... A confidence trick, confidence game, or con for short, (also known as a scam) is an attempt to intentionally mislead a person or persons (known as the mark) usually with the goal of financial or other gain. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Human remains refer to portions of a human body that are left after a person dies. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A missing person is a person who has disappeared for no known reason. ...


The crime inspired the "Lindbergh Law", which made kidnapping a federal crime, and also inspired the Agatha Christie novel Murder on the Orient Express. Following the historic Lindbergh kidnapping (the abduction and murder of Charles Lindberghs toddler son), United States Congress adopted a federal kidnapping statute—popularly known as the Lindbergh Law — which was intended to let federal authorities step in and pursue kidnappers once they had crossed a state border... In the United States, a federal crime or federal offence is a crime that is either made illegal by U.S. federal legislation or a crime that occurs on U.S. federal property. ... Agatha Mary Clarissa, Lady Mallowan, DBE (15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976), mainly known as Agatha Christie, was an English crime fiction writer. ... For other uses, see Murder on the Orient Express (disambiguation). ...

Contents

The case

Background

Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr. (June 22, 1930–March 1932) was dubbed "The Eaglet" by the media. His father's exploits in flying airplanes had earlier earned him immense popularity and acclaim, as well as the nickname "The Lone Eagle". is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section seems to contain too many examples (or of a poor quality) for an encyclopedia entry. ...


Lindbergh, Jr. (called "Little It" by his parents) was, beyond a slight deformity of some toes on his right foot, a healthy child. Later, the child became known as the "Lindbergh baby".


To escape the media, the Lindberghs were building a 390 acre (1.6 km²) estate near Hopewell, New Jersey, where the family was spending weekends since the work was not complete. Though Hopewell was the nearest town, the estate was actually located in East Amwell Township (Hunterdon County), just north of Hopewell. Hopewell highlighted in Mercer County. ...


The abduction

Normally, the Lindberghs would have returned to Englewood, New Jersey, where the young family had been staying with Anne Morrow Lindbergh's parents, for the week, but Charles, Jr. was recovering from a bad cold. His parents decided to remain at the house in East Amwell. Map highlighting Englewoods location within Bergen County. ... Anne Morrow Lindbergh (June 22, 1906 – February 7, 2001) was an author and pioneering American aviator. ... East Amwell Township highlighted in Hunterdon County. ...


On the evening of March 1, 1932 at about 8:00 p.m., the baby had been put to bed by his mother and nanny Betty Gow. Gow stayed with the baby a few minutes longer until she was sure he was asleep. Mrs. Lindbergh looked in on the child at about 9:00 p.m. and found him sleeping quietly. is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A nanny is a person who looks after the child or children of one family in their -- the childs -- home. ...


Gow went to check on the baby a little before 10.00 p.m., but discovered he was not in his bed. She told Mrs. Lindbergh. The two women initially suspected that Mr. Lindbergh, who occasionally played practical jokes, was playing a joke on them. Not long before, he had secreted the child in a closet, claiming no awareness of his location while they searched the house. When Mrs Lindbergh and Betty Gow quizzed him as to the baby's whereabouts, Lindbergh grew alarmed and insisted it was no joke. An inspection of the baby's bed revealed that the bedclothes were largely untouched, and it soon became obvious that the boy had not climbed out of bed by himself. Lindbergh turned to his wife and said, "Anne, they have stolen our baby."


A letter was discovered on the nursery windowsill — presumably left there by the kidnapper(s) — but Lindbergh allowed no one to touch it until police arrived.


He told a butler, Ollie Whately, to telephone the police. (A call was placed at 10:25 p.m.). Lindbergh, carrying a rifle, then searched the house and the grounds. The butler is a senior servant in a large household. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Outside, he found a shoddy, homemade wooden ladder on the ground below the second floor nursery window. Its top rung was broken and the remaining rungs were spaced eighteen inches apart, which was different from the standard of twelve inches.


The first on the scene was Chief Harry Wolf of the Hopewell, New Jersey City police. Soon thereafter, however — and before Wolf could begin much of an investigation — many New Jersey State Police officers arrived, claiming control over the case. The State Police wandered around the Lindbergh home and grounds essentially at will, making no organized search and with no ranking officer clearly directing their actions. Their reckless activity makes it very likely that the crime scene was contaminated, compromising and/or destroying valuable physical evidence. For example, there were reports of two sets of footprints on the ground near where the ladder had been leaned against the house. But the area was not secured, and many police walked in and out of the area before the footprints could be photographed or cast in plaster.


The police searched the home and reported that they had scoured the surrounding grounds for miles without finding any evidence.


After midnight, a fingerprint expert arrived at the home to examine the note left on the windowsill and the ladder used. He found nothing of value. The ladder had 500 partial fingerprints, most unusable. The note was opened and read. The handwritten ransom note was riddled with spelling errors and grammatical irregularities: A macro shot of a palm and the base of several fingers; as seen here, debris can gather between the ridges. ...

Dear Sir! Have 50,000$ redy 25,000$ in 20$ bills 15,000$ in 10$ bills and 10,000$ in 5$ bills. After 2-4 days we will inform you were to deliver the mony. We warn you for making anyding public or for notify the Police. The child is in gut care. Indicashon for all letters are singnature amL [and?] 3 holes. [sic]

There were two interconnected circles (colored red and blue) below the message, with one hole punched through the red circle, and 2 other holes punched outside the circles.


The four colonels

Word of the kidnapping spread quickly, and, along with police, the well-connected and well-intentioned arrived at the Lindbergh estate. Three were military colonels offering their aid, though only one had law enforcement expertise: Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf, superintendent of the New Jersey State Police. The other colonels were Henry Breckinridge, a Wall Street lawyer; William Joseph Donovan (a.k.a. "Wild Bill" Donovan, a hero of the First World War who would later head the OSS); and Colonel Lindbergh himself. Major General Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf (August 28, 1895 – November 25, 1958) was the first superintendent of the New Jersey State Police, and had investigated the Lindbergh kidnapping case. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... For other people with similar names, see Wild Bill Major General William Joseph Donovan, KBE United States Army (January 1, 1883 – February 8, 1959) was an American soldier, lawyer and intelligence officer, best remembered today as wartime head of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency and was the predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Special Forces, and Navy SEALs. ...


The Four Colonels quickly concluded that the kidnapping was perpetrated by organized crime figures, despite the fact that there was little evidence to support this theory. The letter, they thought, seemed written by someone who spoke German as his native language. Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ...


The Colonels elected to take an unusual step, and contacted Mickey Rosner, a Broadway hanger-on rumored to know mobsters. Rosner, in turn, brought in two speakeasy owners: Salvatore "Salvy" Spitale and Irving Bitz. Lindbergh quickly endorsed the duo and appointed them his intermediaries to deal with the mob. For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Unknown to Lindbergh, however, Bitz and Spitale were actually in cahoots with the New York Daily News, a paper which hoped to use the duo to scoop other newspapers in the race for leads in the kidnapping story. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


As is common in such high-profile cases, the Lindberghs were the victims of several cruel pranks and claims about their baby.


Federal interest

The morning after the kidnapping, U.S. President Herbert Hoover was notified of the crime. Though the case did not seem to have any grounds for federal involvement (kidnapping then being classified as a local crime), Hoover bent the rules for the enormously popular Lindbergh, and declared that he would "move Heaven and Earth" to recover the missing child. Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ...


The Bureau of Investigations (not yet called the FBI) was authorized to investigate the case, while the United States Coast Guard, U.S. Customs Service and the U.S. Immigration Service and the Washington D.C. police were told their services might be required. The Bureau of Investigations is the original name for the United States Federal criminal investigative and intelligence agency which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ), now called the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the United States armed forces a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... The United States Customs Service (now the United States Customs and Border Protection Service or CBP) was the portion of the US Federal Government dedicated to keeping illegal products outside of US borders. ...


New Jersey officials announced a $25,000 reward for the safe return of "Little It". The Lindbergh family offered an additional $50,000 reward of their own. The total reward of $75,000 was made even more significant by the fact that the offer was made during the early days of the Great Depression. (According to the U.S. Consumer Price Index, $75,000 in U.S. currency in 1932 is equal to over $1.1 million in 2007 dollars when adjusted for inflation.)[1] For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... The U.S. Consumer Price Index is a time-series measure of a weighted average of prices of a specified basket of goods and services purchased by consumers in urban areas, providing a measure of inflation. ...


Several organized crime figures — notably Al Capone — spoke from prison, offering to help return the baby to his family in exchange for money or for legal favors. “Capone” redirects here. ...


More ransom letters

A few days after the kidnapping, a new ransom letter arrived at the Lindbergh home via the mail. Postmarked in Brooklyn, the letter was genuine, carrying the perforated red and blue marks. Police wanted to examine the letter, but instead, Lindbergh gave it to Rosen, who said he would pass it on to his supposed mob associates. In actuality, the note went back to the Daily News, where someone photographed it. Before long, copies of the ransom note were being sold on street corners throughout New York for $5 each. Any ransom letters received after this one were therefore automatically suspect. An example of a postmark A postmark is a postal marking made on a letter, package, postcard or the like indicating the (more or less precise) date and time that the item was delivered into the care of the postal service. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ...


A second ransom note then arrived, also postmarked in Brooklyn. Ed Mulrooney, Commissioner of the New York City Police Department, suggested that, given two Brooklyn postmarks, the kidnappers were probably working out of that area. Mulrooney told Lindbergh that his officers could surveil postal letterboxes in Brooklyn, and that a device could be placed inside each letterbox to isolate the letters in sequence as they were dropped in, to help track down anyone who might be tied to the case. If Lindbergh, Jr. was being held in Brooklyn by the kidnappers, Mulrooney insisted that such a plan might help locate the child as well. Mulrooney was willing to go to great lengths, such as organizing a police raid to rescue the baby. This article is about the borough of New York City. ... The New York City Police Department (NYPD) was created in 1845 and currently is the largest municipal police force in the world with primary responsibilities in law enforcement and investigation within the five boroughs of New York City. ...


Lindbergh strongly disapproved of the plan. He feared for his son's life, and warned Mulrooney that if such a plan was carried out, Lindbergh would use his considerable influence in efforts to ruin Mulrooney's career. Reluctantly, Mulrooney acquiesced.


The day after Lindbergh rejected Mulrooney's plan, a third letter was mailed — it too came from Brooklyn. This letter warned that since the police were now involved in the case, the ransom had been doubled to $100,000.


Enter Jafsie

At about this time in the ongoing drama, John F. Condon forced his way onstage. He was a 72 year-old school teacher in the Bronx, and a prolific writer of fiery letters to newspapers, especially the Bronx Home News. He usually signed his letters with pseudonyms like "P.A. Triot" or "J.U. Stice". For other uses, see Bronx (disambiguation). ... A pseudonym (Greek: , pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons legal name. ...


Condom wrote a letter to the Home News — signed with his legal name, for once — proclaiming his willingness to help the Lindbergh case in any way he could. He added $1000 of his own money to the reward.


Afterwards, Condon received a letter care of the Home News. Purportedly written by the kidnappers, it was marked with the punctured red-and-blue circles, and authorized Condon as their intermediary with Lindbergh; Lindbergh accepted the letter as genuine, though at the time, neither man seemed to know that copies of the first mailed ransom letter were being sold by the hundreds, and that, by now, a great many people must have known the "signature" required to forge a letter from the kidnappers.


Following the latest letter's instructions, Condon placed a classified ad in the New York American: "Money is Ready. Jafsie". Condon's new pseudonym was based on a phonetic pronunciation of his initials, "J.F.C." Condon then waited for further instructions from the culprit(s). The New York Journal American was a newspaper published from 1895 – 1966. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS... CULPRIT, properly the prisoner at the bar, one accused of a crime; so used, generally, of one guilty of an offence. ...


Enter Violet Sharpe

Violet Sharpe was a servant for the Lindbergh family. She usually stayed at the Next Day Hill. The day of the kidnapping, she was telephoned by Betty Gow and told that Charles was sick and would not be coming to the Next Day Hill the next day. Sharpe was interviewed by the police and she was acting very nervous and suspicious. She said the day of the crime, she had received a telephone call from a man she'd met. He asked if she would go to the movies with him. She accepted the offer, and she went with the man and another couple. She said she couldn't remember the movie she saw, the man's name, or the names of the couple that she went with. In a subsequent interview she suddenly remembered that she did not go to the movies but to the Peanut Grill, reported that the man's name was Ernie, and that her sister had come the day of the kidnapping. She left on March 6 without telling police. On her last interview, she was just as hostile as she was on the last two interviews. They found cards in her room with the name Ernie Brinkert on them. She identified him as the man she went out with. Soon after, she was found dead, having committed suicide by drinking poison. She did not kidnap the baby[citation needed], but people believe she could have helped pull it off. Police asked Ernie Brinkert if he knew Sharpe, and he denied it. Six months later, Ernie Miller identified himself as the person who had asked Sharpe to go to a movie with him. The two men looked nothing alike.


Gaston Means, the socialite, and the baby trail

While the irrepressible Jafsie was shoehorning himself into the investigation, a professional con man named Gaston Means was drawn into the case. He took a telephone call from Evalyn Walsh McLean, a wealthy Washington D.C. socialite who'd taken an interest in the kidnapping. A confidence trick, confidence game, or con for short, (also known as a scam) is an attempt to intentionally mislead a person or persons (known as the mark) usually with the goal of financial or other gain. ... Gaston Bullock Means, a. ... Evalyn Walsh McLean (b. ...


It remains unclear how McLean became convinced that Means could offer any help in the case, but he accepted her invitation. He told her that due to his many criminal contacts, he could quickly solve the kidnapping which seemed to have defeated police. Sure enough, a few days later, he told McLean that he had contacted the kidnappers and that he was their only authorized contact. As proof, Means provided a holdback detail which had been withheld by police: the baby's sleeping suit lacked a diaper-changing flap then typical of such clothing. McLean contacted her friend, Rear Admiral Emory Land, who was a distant Lindbergh relative. When Land related the sleeping suit description to Mr. Lindbergh, the aviator was stunned: his son's sleeping suit had, in fact, lacked a diaper flap. In criminal investigations, a holdback is a piece of information about a crime which is known to police but not released to the public. ... Vice Admiral Emory Scott Land (8 January 1879 - November 1971) was an officer in the United States Navy, noted for his contributions to naval architecture, particularly in submarine design. ...


Curiously, Means reported the same fact as the letter-writer: the ransom was now doubled to $100,000. McLean gathered the money and gave it to Means, who insisted that while he could deliver the cash, the kidnappers would return the child only to a Roman Catholic priest. Father Francis J. Hurney agreed to receive the child. Means told Hurney, Land and McLean to retire to McLean's second home in Maryland and await further news. Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29...


There were now ongoing negotiations with two sets of alleged kidnappers. As Kurland writes, "nobody could explain why there were two different groups trying to collect the ransom. Nonetheless, Lindbergh told Land/McLean/Means to go ahead."


In the meantime, Means was stringing McLean and her entourage along. Following his instructions, the group moved from Maryland, to South Carolina, to El Paso, Texas (Means reported that the baby had been hidden in Juarez, Mexico). At no point did they recover the Lindbergh child. Ciudad Juárez, or simply Juárez, is a city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua formerly known as El Paso del Norte. ...


McLean was tiring of the games. She demanded Means return either the money or produce the Lindbergh baby. When Means balked, McLean telephoned police. Means and another man were arrested and convicted of various crimes, and sentenced to prison.


Cemetery John

While Means was preparing money for his group of supposed kidnappers, "Jafsie" was in contact with a different group of supposed kidnappers. The meeting was scheduled for late one evening at Woodlawn Cemetery. Located in The Bronx, Woodlawn Cemetery is one of the largest cemeteries in New York City. ...


According to Condon, the man stayed in the shadows during the conversation, and he was thus unable to get a close look at his face. The man said his name was John, and he related his story: he was a "Scandinavian" sailor, part of a gang of three men and two women. The Lindbergh child was unharmed and being held on a boat, but the kidnappers were still not ready to return him or receive the ransom. Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Three types of mariners are seen here in the wheelhouse: a master, an able seaman, and a harbour pilot. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ...


When Condon expressed doubt that Cemetery John actually had the baby, he promised some proof: the kidnapper would soon return the baby's sleeping suit.


Lindbergh insisted that Mulrooney not be informed, and so "Cemetery John" was not followed by police after the meeting.


Condon would later identify the stranger as "sounding foreign". The stranger asked Dr. Condon " ... would I burn [be executed], if the package [baby] were dead?" When questioned further, he assured Dr. Condon that the baby was alive.


Enter John Hughes Curtis

There was another complication in the case when Commodore John Hughes Curtis became involved with the case. Curtis reported that he was approached outside a Norfolk, Virginia social club by a man who called himself "Sam." Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... This article is about clubs referring to a particular organization of people. ...


Sam said he had been part of the kidnapping gang, but, after a quarrel, decided to split from them. He could return the baby for only $25,000 and chose Curtis as his representative.


When Condon learned of Curtis's story, he promptly declared it a fraud. Lindbergh was not so sure and considered paying him the money.


The New York police questioned Curtis, whose story quickly fell apart. Curtis announced that the scheme was a fraud: he'd hoped to sell his phony story to the press in order to raise money to pay off some creditors.


In a strange turn of events, Curtis was charged by the authorities — not with filing a false report, but with obstruction of justice for his supposed dealings with the kidnappers. He was fined $1,000, and given a suspended one-year sentence. Modern Obstruction of Justice, in a common law state, refers to the crime of offering interference of any sort to the work of police, investigators, regulatory agencies, prosecutors, or other (usually government) officials. ...


Jafsie delivers the ransom

A few days after Curtis's initial declaration, Condon got a package in the mail: it was a toddler's sleeping suit. Condon showed it to Lindbergh, who quickly identified it as his son's. Kurland writes, "On what basis he made this identification is not known, since the garment contained no laundrymark or other means of distinguishing it from the thousands of others identical to it sold in the stores."


After the delivery of the sleeping suit, Condon took out a new ad in the Home News declaring, "Money is ready. No cops. No secret service. I come alone, like last time."


One month and one day after the child was kidnapped, on April 1, 1932 — perhaps a significant date — Condon received a letter from the purported kidnappers. They were ready to accept payment. The ransom had been bargained down to $70,000. is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The ransom was packaged in a wooden box which was custom-made — with hopes that it could later be identified. $50,000 was in relatively new bank notes while $20,000 was in the older gold certificates then being withdrawn from circulation. It was hoped that anyone passing large amounts of gold notes would draw attention to themselves, and thus aid in identifying the culprit(s). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The next evening, Condon was given a note by cab driver Raymond Perrone, who said he'd been paid by a man to deliver the note to Condon. The note was the first in a series of convoluted instructions, leading Condon and Lindbergh all over Manhattan. Eventually, Condon and Lindbergh finally delivered the money to St. Raymond's Cemetery. Condon met a man he thought might have been "Cemetery John", and told him that they'd been able to raise only $50,000. The man accepted the money, and gave Condon a note. Again, Lindbergh (who saw the man only from a distance) had insisted the police not be informed of the procedure, and again, a suspect got away without anyone following him. For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ...


The note reported that the child was being held on a boat called The Nelly in Martha's Vineyard with two women. He told Condon the two women were innocent. Lindbergh went there, and searched the piers. There was no boat called The Nelly, and a desperate Lindbergh took to flying an airplane low over the piers in an attempt to startle the kidnappers into showing themselves. After two days, Lindbergh admitted he'd been fooled. Map of Marthas Vineyard. ...


The body

On May 12, 1932, delivery truck driver William Allen pulled his truck to the side of a road about 4.5 miles from the Lindbergh home. He went to a grove of trees to urinate, and there he discovered the corpse of a toddler. Allen notified police, who took the body to a morgue in nearby Trenton, New Jersey. Mortuary, a film directed by Tobe Hooper, see Mortuary (film). ... Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County Coordinates: Country United States State New Jersey County Mercer County Founded circa 1719 Government  - Mayor Douglas H. Palmer Area  - City  8. ...


The body was badly decomposed. The skull was badly fractured, the left leg and both hands were missing; and it was impossible to determine if the body was a boy or a girl.


Lindbergh and Gow identified the baby as the missing infant after less than three minutes' examination, based on the overlapping toes of the right foot, and the shirt that Gow had made for the baby. They surmised that the child had been killed by a blow to the head. The body was soon afterwards cremated at Mr. Lindbergh's order. It still has not been fully proved that the body that was found was the Lindbergh Baby, due to its current state and the fact that they did not have the tools for autopsy that are available today. The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ...


The identification of the tiny body remains a point of contention on the case. In fact, Dr. Philip Van Ingen, Lindbergh Jr.'s pediatrician, had seen the baby only a few weeks before the kidnapping, and after his examination of the remains, refused to identify the corpse as the Lindbergh baby's, stating, "If someone were to come in here and offer me ten million dollars ... I simply wouldn't be able to identify those remains."


Investigation

Once the Little Eaglet was presumed dead, the U.S. Congress rushed through legislation making kidnapping a federal crime. The Bureau of Investigations could now aid the case more directly. In the United States, a federal crime or federal offence is a crime that is either made illegal by U.S. federal legislation or a crime that occurs on U.S. federal property. ...


In July 1932, with few leads, officials began to suspect an "inside job": someone the Lindberghs trusted may have betrayed the family. Suspicions fell upon Violet Sharp, a British household servant of the Lindbergh home. She had lied about her whereabouts on the night of the kidnapping, and she eventually committed suicide after repeated questioning by the authorities.


The ransom

Investigation of the case was soon caught in the doldrums: there were no developments and little evidence of any sort, so police turned their attention to tracking the ransom payments. A list of the serial numbers on the ransom bills were widely circulated to banks and businesses. During the following three years, a few of the bills turned up in scattered locations — as far away as Chicago and Minneapolis — but the people spending them eluded capture. Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... “Minneapolis” redirects here. ...


Gold Certificates were to be turned in by May 1, 1933. After that day, they would be worthless. A few days before the deadline, a man in Manhattan brought in $2,990 of the ransom money to be exchanged. The bank was so busy, however, that no one remembered much of what he'd looked like. He had filled out a required form, giving his name as J. J. Faulkner and his address as 537 West 159th Street in New York City.


When authorities visited the address, they learned no one named Faulkner had lived there — or anywhere nearby — for many years. U.S. Treasury officials kept looking, and eventually learned that a woman named Jane Faulkner had lived at the address in question in 1913. She had moved after she married a German man named Gerhardt. The couple was tracked down, and both denied any involvement in the crime.


Mr. Gerhardt had two children from his first marriage. Though neither could be conclusively tied to the kidnapping, there were some curious facts which led authorities to suspect involvement: Gerhardt's son worked as a florist and lived about one block from "Jafsie", while Gerhardt's daughter had married a German gardener. "Jafsie" again figured in the investigation: after hearing the three men from the Gerhardt family speak, Condon declared that Gerhardt's son-in-law, the gardener, had a voice very similar to Cemetery John's. The police continued their investigation (Kurland characterizes it as "harassment"), and the gardener killed himself. Floristry is most often understood as referring to the cultivation of flowers as well as their arrangement, rather than to the business of selling them. ...


Condon's actions were becoming increasingly flamboyant. On one occasion, while riding a city bus, he saw a suspect and, announcing his secret identity, ordered the bus to a stop. The startled driver complied, and Condon darted from the bus, though Condon's target eluded him. Another time he dressed as a woman for his clandestine activities, with a collar pulled up to hide his handlebar mustache. The New York Police were by now aware of the "Jafsie" newspaper advertisements, and wanted to know who the mysterious Jafsie was, but Lindbergh refused to say anything. For other uses of this term, please see Secret identity (disambiguation). ... This article is about cross-dressing in general. ...


Eventually, Condon's flamboyance made it obvious that he was Jafsie. Tiring of Condon's interference, the police threatened to charge him as an accomplice to the crime. He afterwards curtailed his involvement.


The geographical pattern of the bill sightings led the investigators to conclude that the wanted person or persons lived in The Bronx. A circular was sent out to gas stations throughout New York state with a list of the serial numbers of the ransom bills. The station attendants were requested to write the registration number of any vehicle driven by someone who used one of the bills to pay for gasoline. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... “Petrol” redirects here. ...


Bruno Hauptmann

Main article: Bruno Hauptmann

More than two years after the kidnapping, on September 18, 1934, a gold certificate from the ransom money was referred to New York Police detective James J. Finn and FBI Agent Thomas Sisk.[2] Finn and Sisk had been working the Lindbergh case for thirty months by this point and had been able to track down many bills from the ransom hoard to places throughout New York City. Their maps recording each find showed that the bills were being passed mainly along the route of the Lexington Avenue subway that connected the East Bronx with the east side of Manhattan, including Yorkville, the German-Austrian neighborhood. The bill located in September 1934, however, bore a New York license plate penciled in the margin and its use was traced to a gas station in upper Manhattan. The station attendants wrote down the license plate number after reading a company flier warning about certain bills and feeling that their customer was suspicious, possibly a counterfeiter. The license plate belonged to a blue Dodge sedan owned by Bruno Richard Hauptmann, of 1279 East 222nd Street in The Bronx. Hauptmann turned out to be a German immigrant with a criminal record in his homeland. After his immigration in 1923 — he had entered as a stowaway, he claimed — he preferred to use his middle name, "Richard," because it was more familiar to American native speakers of English than "Bruno". In order to give the suspect a more foreign and ominous name, the press used his first name, Bruno, for reports during the trial instead of Richard. Bruno Hauptmann Bruno Richard Hauptmann (November 26, 1899 – April 3, 1936) was a German carpenter and former criminal, sentenced to death and executed for the abduction and murder of Charles Augustus Lindbergh II, the 20-month old son of famous pilot Charles Lindbergh. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the crime term. ... Look up Bruno in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


He was arrested the Wednesday after the Saturday he passed that $10 gold certificate from the ransom money. Police searched his home and found more than $15,000 of the ransom money hidden away in and under the garage. Again, the scene was not secured, and reporters were allowed to wander through the second-floor apartment where Hauptmann lived with his wife and young son. Hauptmann was arrested by Detective Finn and interrogated through the day and night that followed. The story Hauptmann gave was that the money had been left with him by a friend and former business partner, Isidor Fisch. Fisch returned to Germany in 1933 and died there and only then, Hauptmann reported, did he learn that the shoe box left with him contained a considerable sum of money. Hauptmann consistently denied any connection to the crime or knowledge that the money came from the ransom. In the search of his apartment by police, considerable other suggestions and evidence that he was involved in the crime surfaced, not least a notebook construction sketch of a collapsible ladder similar to that which was found at the Lindbergh home in March 1932. Initially, Hauptmann was indicted in the Bronx for crimes in connections with the ransom money but he was soon extradited to New Jersey to face charges directly related to the kidnap/murder of the Lindbergh child. Isidor Srul Fisch (26 July 1905 – 29 March 1934) was a friend and business associate of Bruno Hauptmann from whom Hauptmann claimed to have received a box containing gold certificates which had earlier been used to pay a ransom in the kidnapping of Charles Augustus Lindbergh jr. ...


Hauptmann's trial and conviction

The old Hunterdon County Courthouse, site of the trial

Hauptmann was charged with kidnapping and murder — conviction on even one charge could earn him the death penalty. He pleaded not guilty. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (783x1008, 580 KB) Summary Photographed by Daniel Case 2006-07-27 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (783x1008, 580 KB) Summary Photographed by Daniel Case 2006-07-27 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


Held in Flemington, New Jersey, the trial soon became a sensation: reporters swarmed the town, and every hotel room was booked. Flemington is a Borough in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, United States. ...


Edward J. Reilly was hired by the Daily Mirror to serve as Hauptmann's attorney. Reilly was a histrionic alcoholic, called "The Old Lion" to his face for his forceful personality, but called "Deathhouse Reilly" when his back was turned, since many of his clients ended up on death row. Two other lawyers, Lloyd Fisher and Frederick Pope, were co-counselors, but Reilly was in charge of the defense. Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a popular British tabloid daily newspaper. ... King Alcohol and his Prime Minister circa 1820 Alcoholism is the consumption of or preoccupation with alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the alcoholics normal personal, family, social, or work life. ...


The State introduced photographic evidence demonstrating that the wood from the ladder left at the crime scene matched a plank from the floor of Hauptmann's attic: the type of wood, the direction of tree growth, the milling pattern at the factory, the inside and outside surface of the wood, and the grain on both sides were identical, and two oddly placed nail holes lined up with a joist splice in Hauptmann's attic.

Photograph introduced at the trial showing Condon's address and telephone number written in Hauptmann's house

Additionally, the prosecutors noted that Condon's address and telephone number had been found written in pencil on a closet door in Hauptmann's home. Hauptmann himself admitted in a police interview that he had written Condon's address on the closet door: "I must have read it in the paper about the story. I was a little bit interested and keep a little bit record of it, and maybe I was just on the closet, and was reading the paper and put it down the address." When asked about Condon's telephone number, he could respond only, "I can't give you any explanation about the telephone number." Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 636 pixel, file size: 107 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 636 pixel, file size: 107 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Source: http://www. ... This article is about the handwriting instrument. ...


When it came time to introduce evidence about the tiny body discovered in the woods near the Lindbergh home, the prosecutors were cautious: they expected the defense to note that the child's own doctor had been unable to identify the remains. When Reilly rose to speak on the subject, he announced, "We concede that the corpse that was found was that of the Lindbergh baby." This admission surprised nearly everyone in the courtroom.

Lindbergh on the witness stand
Lindbergh on the witness stand

Condon and Lindbergh both testified, confirming that Hauptmann was Cemetery John (despite Condon's earlier insistence that Hauptmann was too small to have been the man). Amandus Hockmuth testified that he saw Hauptmann near the scene of the crime. Reilly did not question Hockmuth about his cataracts or his poor vision. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1898x1475, 265 KB) (Note: high resolution version from http://memory. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1898x1475, 265 KB) (Note: high resolution version from http://memory. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ...

Bruno Hauptmann

Hauptmann was ultimately convicted of the crimes and sentenced to death. His appeals were rejected, though New Jersey Governor Harold G. Hoffman granted a temporary reprieve of Hauptmann's execution, expressed doubt about the trial's fairness, and made the politically unpopular move to have the New Jersey Board of Pardons review the case. Image File history File links Burnohauptman33. ... Image File history File links Burnohauptman33. ... Harold Giles Hoffman (February 7, 1896–June 4, 1954) was an American politician who was the Republican Governor of New Jersey from 1935 to 1938. ...


Hauptmann turned down a $90,000 offer from a Hearst newspaper for a confession — such a large sum would have benefitted his wife and child — and refused a last-minute offer to commute his execution to a life sentence in exchange for a confession.


He was executed on April 3, 1936 in the electric chair just over four years after the kidnapping. Hauptmann's widow Anna continued to insist that he was innocent until her own death in 1994. is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Aftermath and unresolved questions

In December 1935, the Lindberghs moved to Europe, partly to evade publicity. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Questions about Hauptmann's guilt

Mugshot
Mugshot

In the decades since the trial, many have argued that Hauptmann was not guilty of the crimes. Image File history File links Hauptmannmugshot2. ... Image File history File links Hauptmannmugshot2. ...


As Kurland writes, "The only thing we can be sure Hauptmann was guilty of was possession of some of the ransom money. The rest, incidentally, has never turned up. To the unbiased observer, it was never established that Hauptmann was Cemetery John; it was never established that Cemetery John was connected to the kidnapping and not just an extortionist; and it was never established that the body in the woods was that of the Lindbergh baby." Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ...


Michael Newton goes even further, writing, "A review of the prosecution's evidence, coupled with FBI documents declassified in the 1990s, reveals a blatant frame up in the case." Michael Newton (1951- ) is an American author best known for his work on Don Pendletons Mack Bolan series. ...


Examples of irregularities include:


The eyewitnesses

Many of those who identified Hauptmann as involved in the crime have been criticized as unreliable.

  • As noted above, one Lindbergh neighbor who reported Hauptmann surveilling the Lindbergh property was legally blind.
  • Cab Driver Joseph Perrone (who delivered a note to Condon from Cemetery John in 1932) first insisted he was unable to identify the man who'd given him the note. Colonel Schwartzkopf described Perrone as "a totally unreliable witness." Yet by 1934, when he testified in court, Perrone firmly declared, without doubt, that Hauptmann had paid him to deliver the note.
  • For more than two years, Condon insisted he had never caught more than the faintest glimpse of Cemetery John's face, and even then, the man kept to the shadows. Condon at first refused to identify Hauptmann's voice as matching Cemetery John's. However, after he was threatened with facing charges himself in connection to the crime, Condon made a quick turnaround, and asserted that Hauptmann and Cemetery John were one and the same.
  • In his first interview after his encounter with Cemetery John, Lindbergh said he never got a good look at the man and that he heard the man speak only two words ("Hey, doctor!") from about 200 feet away. Yet when he testified at trial, Lindbergh's story had changed dramatically, and he identified Hauptmann as Cemetery John.

Condom's telephone number in Hauptmann's house

The presence of Dr. Condon's address and telephone number written in pencil on a closet door in Hauptmann's house was considered a strong piece of evidence in favor of Hauptmann's guilt. Later developments cast doubt on this evidence. Friends and coworkers of Tom Cassidy, a New York City newspaper reporter, insisted that he had bragged often that he'd scrawled Condon's telephone number on the closet door in Hauptmann's house so that he'd have a hot story for his newspaper. Cassidy judged Hauptmann obviously guilty and considered his action only a minor indiscretion.


Questions about the toddler's corpse

Some have argued that the body was not in fact Lindbergh III. As noted above, the baby's own doctor was unable to identify the corpse. One other such critic was Ellis Parker, a self-taught private detective. Unlike the bumbling "Jafsie", Parker was a seasoned professional, respected by law enforcement: he aided both New York City and State police on several murder investigations, and had delivered guest lectures to both the University of Pennsylvania and Columbia University. A private investigator, or PI, is a person who undertakes investigations. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States and a member of the prestigious Ivy League. ...


Not long after the little corpse was discovered, Parker noted several irregularities about the supposed Lindbergh Baby's remains:

  • The area where the corpse was found had reportedly been thoroughly searched by state police. This raised several possibilities: perhaps the area had not been searched as thoroughly as the police insisted, or perhaps the baby had been placed there some time after the search.
  • Parker thought the body was far more decomposed than it should have been even if Lindbergh III was killed on the night he was abducted.
  • When measured at his last examination just a few weeks before his kidnapping, Lindbergh III had been 29 inches long. Allowing for the corpse's missing foot, it had been over 33 inches long, in Parker's opinion. It was unlikely, said Parker, that the Lindbergh child had grown four inches so quickly.

Parker speculated that rum-running bootleggers had been tired of the perpetual attention from police since the kidnapping, and had procured an infant's corpse of roughly the same age as the Lindbergh baby, then placed it in the woods near the home in an effort to put an end to the search for the baby. His suggestions seem to have been ignored by police and Lindbergh. One of the leading online mafia games Located at http://www. ...


Many people have claimed to be the kidnapped child. As late as 2000, a man claimed to have been the Lindbergh baby, raised by a different family and returning in his old age.[3] Although no paternal DNA testing has been performed, he claims that DNA swab analysis of his saliva and saliva lifted from a postage stamp licked by Reeve Lindbergh indicated that they shared the same maternal DNA.[4] Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


Alternate scenarios

Given that many doubt Hauptmann's guilt, some have proposed other scenarios for the crime. Most of these are highly speculative, with little or no corroborative evidence.

  • One of the more controversial theories is that Charles Lindbergh, known for playing inappropriate practical jokes on his wife, had accidentally dropped the baby from the infamous ladder during a kidnapping prank that went terribly wrong.
  • One theory claims that Charles Lindbergh himself accidentally killed his son after playing too roughly with him. This explanation points to Lindbergh's supposed refusal of an autopsy on the body and his commandeering of the investigation as evidence of foul play.
  • One theory is that the Purple Gang out of Detroit did the kidnapping.
  • The suicide of Lindbergh's maid Violet Sharpe has been cited by some as proof of her involvement in an "inside job".
  • In his 1994 book Lindbergh: The Crime, Noel Behn proposed that Lindbergh's sister-in-law, Elisabeth Morrow, murdered the child due to jealousy; Lindbergh himself then concocted the kidnapping story to avoid scandal.

The Purple Gang was a notorious mob of (mostly Jewish) bootleggers in the 1920s. ...

Re-examination of evidence

In 2005, the Court TV television program Forensic Files conducted a re-examination of the evidence in the kidnapping. Their investigation focused primarily on the handwriting samples and the infamous side-rail of the kidnap ladder, known as "Rail 16." For the Canadian channel, see CourtTV Canada The Courtroom Television Network, more commonly known as Court TV, is an American cable television network owned by Time Warner that launched on July 1, 1991. ... Current Forensic Files title card Forensic Files is a documentary style show which reveals how forensics and science are used to solve violent crimes, mysterious accidents, and even outbreaks of illness. ...


While certain comparisons of the handwriting used by the prosecution to tie the ransom notes to Hauptmann were proven false, other comparisons between Hauptmann's known handwriting and the ransom notes did apparently bear out the prosecution's claim that Hauptmann had written the notes. The notable characteristics included the tendency to write the letter N backwards, and a very distinctive and unusual capital D.


However, tying Hauptmann to the ransom notes would leave open the possibility that he had seized an opportunity to extort money only once the news was out. To tie him to the actual kidnapping, he would need to be linked to the ladder used in the crime. During the trial, prosecutors and investigators had argued that the portion of the ladder entered into evidence as "Rail 16" was part of a floorboard in Hauptmann's attic which had been cut short. A re-examination of both Rail 16 and the attic floorboard indicated that they were, in fact, part of the same original board.


Additional examination was made of photographs of the kidnap ladder from the crime scene, the day after the kidnapping (and long before Bruno Hauptmann had become involved in the investigation). Several distinctive knots on "Rail 16" are visible in these photographs, which would seem to contradict the claims that the police had swapped out "Rail 16" before the trial.


In the end, the program concluded that Hauptmann had indeed been involved, though noted that this left other unresolved questions. In particular, it is still unclear how Hauptmann — with no connection to the Lindbergh family — could have had any knowledge of their last-minute change in plans, which left them in their Hopewell home that particular night.


Books

There are many books written about the Lindbergh kidnapping. A complete and meticulously researched book on the affair was The Airman and the Carpenter written by Ludovic Kennedy, in 1985. Kennedy was noted for three prior books where he established the innocence of wrongly convicted men. While Kennedy does not clear Hauptmann of some complicity with regard to the ransom money, he explains how some of the evidence against Hauptmann was manipulated and distorted. The most famous "error" was that a New York City detective discovered that a rung from the kidnapper's ladder came from the attic in Hauptmann's home. Various experts had testified that the type of wood and grain from the attic matched the wooden rung in the ladder. Kennedy says that the ladder rung was 1/4 inch thicker than the wood purportedly taken from Hauptmann's attic and claims it could not have been taken from the attic. Kennedy also points out that Hauptmann was given several opportunities to "confess". He was offered to be given life instead of execution and one newspaper offered to give $90,000 to support his wife and child for the rest of their lives, if he would confess to them. In Kennedy's opinion, it appears that Hauptmann was a stubborn German who would rather die than confess to a crime he did not commit. Sir Ludovic Kennedy shown on the cover of his book All In The Mind: A Farewell To God Sir Ludovic Henry Coverley Kennedy (born 3 November 1919) is a British journalist, broadcaster, and author. ...


In 1999, the latest book on the Lindbergh kidnapping was published, The Ghosts Of Hopewell: Setting The Record Straight In The Lindbergh Case, written by Jim Fisher, a former FBI special agent. Fisher is convinced that Hauptmann was guilty of the kidnapping and attempts to dispute the "factual errors" listed by Kennedy. Some of Fisher's points are well taken, but he errs when he notes that Lindbergh claimed to have recognized the voice of Hauptmann during an exchange of ransom money. Kennedy's research notes the ransom taker said "Hey Doc," but at the trial, the same man is said to have called "Hey Doctor" in a German accent. Lindbergh testified that was the voice of Hauptmann (spoken several years earlier). Later, some of the jurors mentioned that Lindbergh's testimony was crucial in their verdict. Fisher states (page 138) that "Colonel Lindbergh, whether you like him or not was not a liar." Fisher says "The case has become legendary and as such has become fodder for conspiracy theorists, sensationalists, and revisionists promoting their own agendas."[1] In his view, many people think Hauptmann was innocent "Because having an innocent man railroaded to his death by a bunch of stupid and corrupt cops is a more interesting story than the police working hard to catch the right man. A lot of people are fascinated, and comforted by, the idea of police misconduct leading to injustice. In an era where what one believes is more important than what one knows, Bruno Hauptmann can be innocent, and the Lindbergh baby alive, selling computers in Connecticut."[2]


See also

Time Magazine, October 12, 1925 Dwight Whitney Morrow (January 11, 1873–October 5, 1931) was an American businessman, politician, and diplomat. ... Anne Morrow Lindbergh (June 22, 1906 – February 7, 2001) was an author and pioneering American aviator. ... Child abduction is the abduction or kidnapping of a child (or baby) by an older person. ... Bruno Hauptmann Bruno Richard Hauptmann (November 26, 1899 – April 3, 1936) was a German carpenter and former criminal, sentenced to death and executed for the abduction and murder of Charles Augustus Lindbergh II, the 20-month old son of famous pilot Charles Lindbergh. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The following is a compilation of people who have mysteriously disappeared, whose death is not substantiated, whose remains have not been recovered, whose current whereabouts are unknown, and who (except for the most recent cases) may be presumed deceased. ...

References

  1. ^ U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer Price Index Inflation Calculator
  2. ^ Although President Roosevelt had issued an executive order on April 5, 1933, calling for all gold certificates to be turned in by May 1, 1933, under the penalty of fine or imprisonment, some members of the public held on to them past the deadline; as of July 31, 1934, $161 million in gold certificates were still in general circulation.
  3. ^ http://www.charlesalindberghjr.com
  4. ^ http://www.coasttocoastam.com
  • Ahlgren, Gregory and Stephen Monier, Crime of the Century:The Lindbergh Kidnapping Hoax, Branden Books, 1993, ISBN 0-8283-1971-5
  • Kurland, Michael, A Gallery of Rogues: Portraits in True Crime, Prentice Hall General Reference, 1994, ISBN 0-671-85011-3
  • Newton, Michael, The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes, Checkmark Books, 2004, ISBN 0-8160-4981-5

External links

Coordinates: 40.4240° N 74.7677° W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lindbergh Kidnapping Index (4632 words)
Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr., twenty-month-old son of the famous aviator and Anne Morrow Lindbergh, was kidnapped about 9:00 p.m., on March 1, 1932, from the nursery on the second floor of the Lindbergh home near Hopewell, New Jersey.
Lindbergh is testifying against John Hughes Curtis, Norfolk shipbuilder, who is accused of hoaxing authorities during the Lindbergh kidnapping case.
The sad story of Charles Lindbergh's baby, kidnapped and murdered at the height of America's love affair with its aviator hero, is common knowledge, as is the scandal and corruption surrounding the conviction and execution of Bruno Hauptmann for that crime.
Lindbergh Baby Kidnapping (486 words)
But a mere two months prior, Charles Lindbergh played a prank on the household where he pretended the child was kidnapped.
The kidnapping we prepared in years so we are prepared for everyding.
Cause of death was apparently a fractured skull, and Lindbergh identified the body though a birth defect of one of the toes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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