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Encyclopedia > Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial
IUCN Category V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)
Location Washington, D.C., USA
Coordinates 38°53′22″N 77°3′1″W / 38.88944, -77.05028
Area 107.43 acres (0.43 km²)
Established May 30, 1922
Visitors 3,638,806 (in 2005)
Governing body National Park Service

The Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. The architect was Henry Bacon, the sculptor was Daniel Chester French, and the painter of the interior murals was Jules Guerin. The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 2049 KB) Summary Lincoln Memorial, Washington, DC on October 11, 2004. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Washington Monument in Washington DC. The Presidential memorials in the United States honor the various Presidents of the United States and seek to perpetuate their legacies. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Lincoln Memorial Henry Bacon (November 28, 1866 – February 17, 1924) an American Beaux-Arts architect, is best remembered for his severe Greek Doric Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. (built 1915–1922), which was his final project. ... Daniel Chester French Signature, Daniel Chester French (April 20, 1850 – October 7, 1931) was an American sculptor. ... Jules Guerin (1866-1946), American muralist, painter and illustrator. ...


The building is in the form of a Greek Doric temple and contains a large seated sculpture of Abraham Lincoln and inscriptions of two well-known speeches by Lincoln. The memorial has been the site of many famous speeches, including Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech, delivered on August 28, 1963, during the rally at the end of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. The Doric order was one of the orginal pokersthree orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. ...


Like the other monuments on the National Mall, including the nearby Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Korean War Veterans Memorial, and National World War II Memorial, the Lincoln Memorial is administered by the National Park Service under its National Mall and Memorial Parks group. The National Memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. It is open to the public 24 hours a day. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is a national war memorial located in Washington, D.C., that honors members of the U.S. armed forces who had died in service or are unaccounted for during the Vietnam War. ... The Korean War Veterans Memorial is located in Washington, D.C.s West Potomac Park, southeast of the Lincoln Memorial and just south of the Reflecting Pool on the National Mall. ... The Memorial at dusk The National World War II Memorial is a National Memorial to all Americans that served in the armed forces and on the home front during World War II. It is located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., on the former site of the Rainbow... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... National Mall and Memorial Parks (also known as National Capital Parks-Central) is an administrative unit of the National Park Service encompassing many national memorials and other areas in Washington, D.C. They include: African American Civil War Memorial Constitution Gardens East Potomac Park Fords Theatre National Historic Site... In the United States, National Memorial is a designation for a protected area that is commemorative of an historic person or episode. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Design and construction

Aerial view of the Lincoln Memorial
Aerial view of the Lincoln Memorial
The memorial and the reflecting pool
The memorial and the reflecting pool

The Lincoln Monument Association was incorporated by the United States Congress in March 1867 to build a memorial to Lincoln. A site was not chosen until 1901, in an area that was then swampland. Congress formally authorized the memorial on February 9, 1911, and the first stone was put into place on Lincoln's birthday, February 12, 1914. The monument was dedicated by Chief Justice William Howard Taft on May 30, 1922, a ceremony attended by Lincoln's only surviving child, Robert Todd Lincoln. The stone for the building is Indiana limestone and Yule marble, quarried at the town of Marble, Colorado. The Lincoln sculpture within is made of Georgian marble. In 1923, designer Henry Bacon received the Gold Medal of the American Institute of Architects, his profession's highest honor, for the design of the memorial. Originally under the care of the Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks, it was transferred to the National Park Service on August 10, 1933. Download high resolution version (1200x782, 262 KB) 030926-F-2828D-157 Washington D.C. (Sep. ... Download high resolution version (1200x782, 262 KB) 030926-F-2828D-157 Washington D.C. (Sep. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 549 pixel Image in higher resolution (1140 × 782 pixel, file size: 686 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lincoln Memorial User... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 549 pixel Image in higher resolution (1140 × 782 pixel, file size: 686 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lincoln Memorial User... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Todd Lincoln (August 1, 1843 – July 26, 1926) was the first son of Abraham Lincoln and Mary Ann Todd. ... Indiana limestone is a common term for Salem limestone, a geological formation primarily found in southern Indiana. ... The Lincoln Memorial, constructed primarily of Yule marble and Indiana limestone Yule Marble is found in the US state of Colorado, and was declared the official state rock in 2004. ... Blocks of cut marble at the historic quarry in Marble Marble is a town located in Gunnison County, Colorado. ... Lincoln Memorial Henry Bacon (November 28, 1866 – February 17, 1924) an American Beaux-Arts architect, is best remembered for his severe Greek Doric Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. (built 1915–1922), which was his final project. ... The American Institute of Architects (AIA) is a professional organization for architects in the United States. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Standing apart from the somewhat triumphal and Roman manner of most of Washington, the memorial takes the severe form of a Greek Doric temple. It is 'peripteral,' with 36 massive columns, each 37 feet (10 m) high, surrounding the cella of the building itself, which rises above the porticos. As an afterthought, the 36 columns required for the design were seen to represent the 36 U.S. states at the time of Lincoln's death, and their names were inscribed in the entablature above each column. The names of the 48 states of the Union when the memorial was completed are carved on the exterior attic walls, and a later plaque commemorates the admission of Alaska and Hawaii. The Doric order was one of the orginal pokersthree orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... Temple layout with cella highlighted A cella (from Latin for small chamber) or naos (from the Greek for temple), is the inner chamber of a temple in classical architecture, or a shop facing the street in domestic Roman architecture (see domus). ... Categories: Architectural elements | Stub ... A U.S. state is any one of the 50 states which have membership of the federation known as the United States of America (USA or U.S.). The separate state governments and the U.S. federal government share sovereignty. ... An entablature is a classical architectural element, the superstructure which lies horizontally above the columns, resting on their capitals. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ...


Interior

Daniel Chester French sculpture inside the Lincoln Memorial
Daniel Chester French sculpture inside the Lincoln Memorial

The main influence on the style of the Lincoln Memorial was the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, Greece. The focus of the memorial is Daniel Chester French's sculpture of Lincoln, seated. French studied many of Mathew Brady's photographs of Lincoln and depicted the President as worn and pensive, gazing eastwards down the Reflecting Pool toward the capital's starkest emblem of the Union, the Washington Monument. Beneath his hands, the Roman fasces, symbols of the authority of the Republic, are sculpted in relief on the seat. The statue stands 19 feet 9 inches (6 m) tall and 19 feet (6 m) wide, and was carved from 28 blocks of white Georgia marble. Image File history File links Lincoln_Memorial_(Lincoln_tall_thumb). ... Image File history File links Lincoln_Memorial_(Lincoln_tall_thumb). ... Daniel Chester French Signature, Daniel Chester French (April 20, 1850 – October 7, 1931) was an American sculptor. ... A 1908 illustration of the temple as it might have looked in the 5th century BCE Ruins of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, Greece Metope showing Hercules and the Cretan Bull The Temple of Zeus at Olympia, Greece was built between 470 BCE and completed by 456 BCE to... Daniel Chester French Signature, Daniel Chester French (April 20, 1850 – October 7, 1931) was an American sculptor. ... Mathew B. Brady, circa 1875 For other persons named Matthew Brady, see Matthew Brady (disambiguation). ... One famous reflecting pool lies between the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C.. A reflecting pool is a structure often used in memorials. ... The Washington Monument at dusk For other Washington Monuments, see Washington Monuments (world). ... Roman fasces. ...


The central cella is flanked by two others. In one, Lincoln's Gettysburg Address is inscribed on the south wall, and in the other, Lincoln's second inaugural address is inscribed on the north wall. Above the texts are a series of murals by Jules Guerin that depict an angel (representing truth), the freeing of a slave (on the south wall, above the Gettysburg Address) and the unity of the American North and South (above the Second Inaugural Address). There is also a book shop to the right of the entrance. On the wall behind the statue, visible over the statue's head, is this dedication: The only known photo of Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg (seated, center), taken about noon, just after Lincoln arrived and some three hours before he spoke. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jules Guerin (1866-1946), American muralist, painter and illustrator. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two documents issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion...

IN THIS TEMPLE


AS IN THE HEARTS OF THE PEOPLE


FOR WHOM HE SAVED THE UNION


THE MEMORY OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN


IS ENSHRINED FOREVER

Events

Civil Rights March on Washington, August 28, 1963
Civil Rights March on Washington, August 28, 1963

In 1939, singer Marian Anderson was refused permission by the Daughters of the American Revolution to perform at Constitution Hall in Washington because of her skin color. At the suggestion of Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Harold L. Ickes, the Secretary of the Interior, arranged for Anderson to perform from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, to a live audience of 70,000, and a nationwide radio audience. Image File history File links 1963_march_lincoln_memorial. ... Image File history File links 1963_march_lincoln_memorial. ... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marian Anderson (February 27, 1897 – April 8, 1993),[1] was an American contralto, perhaps best remembered for her performance on Easter Sunday, 1939 on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. // Anderson was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... The Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) is a lineage membership organization[1] dedicated to promoting historic preservation, education, and patriotism. ... DAR Constitution Hall DAR Constitution Hall is a concert hall located in Washington, D.C. It was built in 1929 by the Daughters of the American Revolution, which still owns the theater. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt known as Eleanor (IPA: ; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political leader who used her influence as an active First Lady from 1933 to 1945 to promote the New Deal policies of her husband, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, as well as taking a prominent... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Harold LeClair Ickes (March 15, 1874–February 3, 1952) was a U.S. administrator and political figure. ...


On August 28, 1963, the memorial grounds were the site of one of the greatest political rallies in American history, the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which proved to be a high point of the American Civil Rights Movement. It is estimated that approximately 250,000 people came to the event, where they heard Martin Luther King, Jr., deliver his memorable speech, "I Have a Dream," before the memorial honoring the president who had issued the Emancipation Proclamation 100 years earlier. D.C. police also appreciated the location because it was surrounded on three sides by water, so that any incident could be easily contained.[1] A marked tile on the memorial's steps shows where Dr. King stood. is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. ... The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two documents issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ...


On August 28, 1983, crowds gathered again to mark the 20th Anniversary Mobilization for Jobs, Peace and Freedom, to reflect on progress in gaining civil rights for African Americans, and to commit to correcting continuing injustices. is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...


The site has had its share of unusual events. On May 9, 1970, President Richard Nixon made a remarkable middle-of-the-night impromptu visit during a time of protests against the Vietnam War. For President Bush's 2001 inauguration celebration, the Rockettes dance troupe kicked their legs in the air while marching down the monument's steps. is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Rockettes are the best known precision dance company in the world, stationed out of the Radio City Music Hall. ...


On November 27, 2006, the memorial was partially closed when a suspicious liquid was found in a bathroom. Also found was an "anthrax threat letter", according to authorities. is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Lincoln Memorial on U.S. currency

The Lincoln Memorial in twilight.
Lincoln Memorial on reverse of U.S. one cent coin
Lincoln Memorial on reverse of U.S. one cent coin
The Lincoln Memorial on a $5 bill
The Lincoln Memorial on a $5 bill

The Lincoln Memorial is shown on the reverse of the United States one cent coin, which bears Lincoln's portrait on the front, and will remain there until the design is changed in 2009. The memorial also appears on the back of the U.S. five dollar bill, the front of which carries Lincoln's portrait. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (4096x1760, 2777 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (4096x1760, 2777 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (746x742, 988 KB) Source United States Mint Date 2006-04-06 Author United States Mint Permission File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cent (United States coin) Portal... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (746x742, 988 KB) Source United States Mint Date 2006-04-06 Author United States Mint Permission File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cent (United States coin) Portal... Image File history File linksMetadata US_$5_reverse. ... Image File history File linksMetadata US_$5_reverse. ... Obverse of a Lincoln cent The Lincoln cent is the current one cent coin used in the United States. ... The U.S. five dollar bill ($5) is a denomination of United States currency. ...


External links

Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

References

  1. ^ Jennings, Peter; Brewster, Todd. The Century. Doubleday, 1998

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lincoln Memorial - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1495 words)
The Lincoln Memorial, on the extended axis of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial built for United States President Abraham Lincoln.
The focus of the memorial is Daniel Chester French's sculpture of Lincoln, seated.
The Lincoln Memorial is shown on the reverse of the United States penny.
Lincoln Memorial - MSN Encarta (360 words)
Construction began in 1914 and the memorial was dedicated in 1922 on Memorial Day (May 30).
Lincoln’s only surviving son, Robert Todd Lincoln, was the guest of honor at the dedication.
In 1939 famed fl singer Marian Anderson performed at the memorial after being denied the use of Constitution Hall by the Daughters of the American Revolution.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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