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Encyclopedia > Lincoln Cathedral
Lincoln Cathedral
Lincoln Cathedral was the world's tallest building from ~1300 to 1549.*
Preceded by Great Pyramid of Giza, Egypt
Surpassed by St Olav Tallinn
Information
Location Lincoln, England
Status Complete
Constructed 1092-1311
Height
Antenna/Spire Original: 160 m (525 ft.)
Current: 82.6 m (271 ft.)

*Fully habitable, self-supported, from main entrance to highest structural or architectural top; see the list of tallest buildings in the world for other listings.

Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. Mary's Cathedral) is a historic cathedral in Lincoln in England and seat of the Diocese of Lincoln in the Church of England. It was the tallest building in the world for over 200 years, but the central spire collapsed in the sixteenth century and was not rebuilt. It is highly regarded by architectural scholars; the eminent Victorian writer John Ruskin declared, "I have always held... that the cathedral of Lincoln is out and out the most precious piece of architecture in the British Isles and roughly speaking worth any two other cathedrals we have." Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1552x1164, 584 KB) Lincoln Cathedral as seen from the Castle Hill, Lincoln (England) own work File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lincoln Cathedral Metadata This file contains... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ... St. ... Lincoln (pronounced Lin-kun) is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire, England, a bridging point over the River Witham that flows to Boston. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Events May 9 - Lincoln Cathedral is consecrated. ... Events Bolingbroke Castle passes to the House of Lancaster. ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest completed building, is located in Taipei City, Taiwan These are lists of skyscrapers, ranked by: structural height (vertical elevation from the base to the highest architectural or integral structural element of the building). ... Lincoln (pronounced //) is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire, England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Diocese of Lincoln forms part of the Province of Canterbury in England. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ...

Contents

History

William the Conqueror ordered the first cathedral to be built in Lincoln, in 1072. Before that, St. Mary's Church in Lincoln was a mother church but not a cathedral, and the seat of the diocese was at Dorchester Abbey in Dorchester-on-Thames, Oxfordshire. Lincoln was more central to a diocese that stretched from the Thames to the Humber. Bishop Remigius built the first Lincoln Cathedral on the present site, finishing it in 1092 and then dying two days before it was to be consecrated on May 9 of that year. About fifty years later, most of that building was destroyed in a fire. Bishop Alexander rebuilt and expanded the cathedral, but it was destroyed by an earthquake about forty years later, in 1185. William I of England (c. ... Events William I of England invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Hereward the Wake. ... A motherchurch or mother church in Christianity is used in three forms. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... Dorchester-on-Thames is a village on the River Thames in Oxfordshire, England. ... Remigius de Fécamp, bishop of Dorchester 1070-1072, who then became the first bishop of Lincoln when in 1072 he and the king moved the seat of that bishopric to Lincoln, reconstituting it as the diocese of Lincoln. ... Events May 9 - Lincoln Cathedral is consecrated. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alexander of Lincoln (Latin: Alexander Lincolniensis) (died 1147), bishop of Lincoln, one of the most magnificent prelates of his day, was born in Blois, France, and was nephew to the famous Roger, bishop of Salisbury. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ...

Norman West front
Norman West front

After the earthquake, a new bishop was appointed. The new bishop was St Hugh of Lincoln, originally from Avalon, France; he began a massive rebuilding and expansion programme. Rebuilding began at the east end of the cathedral, with an apse and five small radiating chapels. The central nave was then built in the Early English Gothic style. Lincoln Cathedral soon followed other architectural advances of the time - pointed arches, flying buttresses and ribbed vaulting were added to the cathedral. This allowed the creation and support of larger windows. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 877 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lincoln Cathedral Cathedral architecture of Western Europe Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 877 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lincoln Cathedral Cathedral architecture of Western Europe Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Hugh of Avalon or Hugh of Burgundy, best known as Saint Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, (1135/1140 – London, November 16, 1200) was at the time of the Reformation the best-known English saint after Thomas Becket. ... For other uses, see Avalon (disambiguation). ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... A buttress (and mostly concealed, a flying buttress) supporting walls at the Palace of Westminster Three different types of buttress: diagonal, on the statues plinth; an ordinary buttress supporting a flying buttress, to the right of the statue; a small ordinary buttress to the right side of the picture... In architecture, a vault is an arched structure of masonry, forming a ceiling or canopy. ...


The cathedral is the 3rd largest in Britain (in floor space) after St Paul's and York Minster, being 484ft by 271ft. It is Lincolnshire's largest building and until 1549 the tower was the tallest medieval tower in Europe. Accompanying the cathedral's large bell, Great Tom of Lincoln, is a quarter-hour striking clock. The clock was installed in the early 19th century. This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... York Minster is the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe and is situated in the city of York in Northern England. ...


There are thirteen bells in the south-west tower, two in the north west tower, and five in the central tower (including Great Tom).


The matching Dean's Eye and Bishop’s Eye were added to the cathedral during the late Middle Ages. The former, the Dean's Eye in the north transept dates from the 1192 rebuild begun by St Hugh, it was finally completed in 1235. The latter, the Bishop’s eye, in the south transept was re-constructed 100 years later in 1330. A contemporary record, “The Metrical Life of St Hugh”, refers to the meaning of these two windows (one on the dark, north, side and the other on the light, south, side of the building): // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... Events The Bulgars under Michael III are beaten by the Serbs at Velbuzhd, and large parts of Bulgaria fall to Serbia. ...

“For north represents the devil, and south the Holy Spirit and it is in these directions that the two eyes look. The bishop faces the south in order to invite in and the dean the north in order to shun; the one takes care to be saved, the other takes care not to perish. With these Eyes the cathedral’s face is on watch for the candelabra of Heaven and the darkness of Lethe (oblivion).”

After the additions of the Dean’s eye and other major Gothic additions it is believed some mistakes in the support of the tower occurred, for in either in 1237 or 1239 the main tower collapsed. A new tower was soon started and in 1255 the Cathedral petitioned Henry III to allow them to take down part of the town wall to enlarge and expand the Cathedral, including the rebuilding of the central tower and spire. They replaced the small rounded chapels (built at the time of St Hugh) with a larger east end to the cathedral. This was to handle the increasing number of pilgrims to the Cathedral, who came to worship at the shrine of Hugh of Lincoln. // Events Thomas II of Savoy becomes count of Flanders. ... // Events Births June 17 - King Edward I of England (died 1307) December 17 - Kujo Yoritsugu, Japanese shogun (died 1256) Peter III of Aragon (died 1285) John II, Duke of Brittany (died 1305) Ippen, Japanese monk (died 1289) Deaths March 3 - Vladimir III Rurikovich, Grand Prince of Kiev (born 1187) March... Events Königsberg was founded Births Emperor Albert I of Germany, in July Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Categories: 1255 ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Hugh of Avalon or Hugh of Burgundy, best known as Saint Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, (1135/1140 – London, November 16, 1200) was at the time of the Reformation the best-known English saint after Thomas Becket. ...


Between the years 1307 and 1311 the central tower was raised to its present height of 83 m (271 feet). The western towers and front of the cathedral were also improved and heightened. At this time, a tall lead-encased wooden spire topped the central tower but was blown down in a storm in 1549. With its spire, the tower reputedly reached a height of 525 feet (which would have made it the world's tallest structure, surpassing the Great Pyramid of Giza, which held the record for almost 4000 years). Other additions to the cathedral at this time included its elaborate carved screen and the 14th century misericords, as was the Angel choir. For a large part of the length of the cathedral, the walls have arches in relief with a second layer in front giving the illusion of a passageway along the wall. However the illusion does not work, as the stonemason, copying techniques from France, did not make the arches the correct length needed for the illusion effect. January 18 - German king Albrecht I makes his son Rudolf king of Bohemia. ... Events Bolingbroke Castle passes to the House of Lancaster. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... For many millennia the record holder for worlds tallest structure was clearly defined (see table below. ... The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ...


In 1290 Eleanor of Castile died. As his Queen Consort of England, King Edward I decided to honour her with an elegant funeral procession. After embalming, which in the thirteenth century involved evisceration, Eleanor's viscera were buried in Lincoln cathedral, and Edward placed a duplicate of the Westminster tomb there. The Lincoln tomb's original stone chest survives; its effigy was destroyed in the 17th century and replaced with a 19th-century copy. On the outside of Lincoln Cathedral are two prominent statues often identified as Edward and Eleanor, but these images were heavily restored in the 19th century and probably were not originally intended to depict the couple. For other Eleanors of England, see Eleanor of England (disambiguation) Eleanor of Castile (1241 – 28 November 1290) was the first Queen consort of Edward I of England. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... This article is about the act of disembowelment. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ...

Further information: Eleanor cross

In 1398 John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford founded a chantry there to pray for their souls, and in the 15th century the building of the cathedral turned to chantry or memorial chapels. The chapels next to the Angel Choir were built in the Perpendicular style, with an emphasis on strong vertical lines, which survive today in the window tracery and wall panelling. The Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross The Eleanor crosses are lavishly decorated stone monuments in the shape of a cross that Edward I of England erected in memory of his wife Eleanor of Castile. ... John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (June 24, 1340 - February 3, 1399), the third surviving son of King Edward III of England, gained his name because he was born at Ghent in 1340. ... Coat of arms designed for Katherine Swynford: three gold Catherine wheels (roet means wheel) on a red background. ... Chantry is a term for the English establishment of a shrine or chapel on private land where monks or priests would say (or chant) prayers on a fixed schedule, usually for someone who had died. ...


Magna Carta

The Bishop of Lincoln was one of the signatories to the Magna Carta and for hundreds of years the Cathedral has held one of the four remaining copies of the original. It now resides in the nearby Lincoln Castle, where it is on permanent display. There are three other surviving copies, two at the British Library and one at Salisbury Cathedral. This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ... A view of the East Gate of Lincoln Castle. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishops Grounds by John Constable c. ...


The Lincoln Imp

Main article: Lincoln Imp
The View from the Tower of Lincoln Cathedral towards Lincoln Castle
The View from the Tower of Lincoln Cathedral towards Lincoln Castle
The View from Lincoln Castle

One of the stone carvings within the Cathedral is the Lincoln Imp. There are several variations of the legend surrounding the figure. The Lincoln Imp is the symbol of the City of Lincoln, the county town of Lincolnshire, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1423 KB) Own Personal Photography, taken August 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1423 KB) Own Personal Photography, taken August 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Lincoln Imp is the symbol of the City of Lincoln, the county town of Lincolnshire, England. ...


According to 14th-century legend, two mischievous creatures called imps were sent by Satan to do evil work on Earth. After causing mayhem elsewhere in Northern England the two imps headed to Lincoln Cathedral where they smashed tables and chairs and tripped up the Bishop. An angel appeared in the Angel Choir and ordered them to stop. One of the imps sat atop a stone pillar started throwing rocks at the angel whilst the other imp cowered under the broken tables and chairs. The angel turned the first imp to stone allowing the second imp to escape. The imp that turned to stone, the Lincoln Imp, can still be found, frozen in stone, sitting atop his stone column in the Angel Choir.


Wren library

The Wren Library houses a rare collection of over 277 manuscripts, including the text of the Bede. Bede, commonly known as the Venerable Bede, (c. ...

Library at Lincoln Cathedral // Collections The finest rare book library in the East Midlands and among the top five cathedral library collections in England. ...

Today

Floor plan of Lincoln Cathedral
Floor plan of Lincoln Cathedral
Interior view, at the eastern end of St. Hugh's Choir.
Interior view, at the eastern end of St. Hugh's Choir.

According to the cathedral website, over £1 million a year is spent on keeping the cathedral in shape; the most recent project completed has been the restoration of the West Front in 2000. About 10 years ago it was discovered that the Flying Buttresses on the east end were no longer connected to the adjoining stonework and repairs were made to prevent collapse. The most recent problem was the discovery that the stonework of the Dean's Eye window in the transept was crumbling, meaning that a complete recontrsuction of the window was had to be carried out according to the conservation criteria set out by the International Council on Monuments and Sites. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1565x850, 544 KB) Summary A plan of Lincoln Cathedral in England by G Dehio (died 1932). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1565x850, 544 KB) Summary A plan of Lincoln Cathedral in England by G Dehio (died 1932). ... Image File history File links Inside_Lincoln. ... Image File history File links Inside_Lincoln. ... Flying buttresses at Bath Abbey, Bath, England. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) was founded in 1965 as a result of the Venice Charter of 1964 and offers advice to UNESCO on World Heritage Sites. ...


There was a period of great angst when it emerged that the stonework only needed to shift 5mm for the entire window to collapse. Specialist engineers removed the window's tracery before installing a strengthened, more stable replacement. In addition to this the original stained glass was cleaned and set behind a new clear isothermal glass which offers better protection from the elements. By April 2006 the renovation project was completed at a cost of £2 million.


Recently, concerns have been growing once more about the state of the West Front, as there has been some stonework falling, which has raised questions as to the effectiveness of the repairs carried out in 2000.


Lincoln Cathedral is at present, a very popular destination and is visited by over 250,000 tourists a year. The cathedral offers tours of the cathedral, the tower and the roof. The peak of its season is the Lincoln Christmas Market, accompanied by a massive annual production of Handel's Messiah. The current Bishop of Lincoln is Dr John Saxbee. Lincoln Cathedral has a new Dean, as the previous, Alan Knight, retired, to be replaced by Phillip Buckler, who was previously working in London. Lincoln Christmas Market, held in Lincoln, England, is one of the largest Christmas markets in Europe, attracting up to 250,000 visitors a year over the four day event. ... “Handel” redirects here. ... Messiah (HWV 56) is an oratorio by George Frideric Handel based on a libretto by Charles Jennens. ...


Choir

The Choir is currently formed of 11 Lay Vicars (three of whom are choral scholars), a team of some 20 boys and a team of some 20 girls who alternate services.


The Cathedral accepted female choristers in 1995. Lincoln was only the second Cathedral in the country to adopt a separate girls' choir, after Salisbury Cathedral, and remains one of few who provide exactly the same musical opportunities and equal weekly singing duties to both girls and boys. All choristers are educated at Lincoln Minster School. Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishops Grounds by John Constable c. ... Lincoln Minster School logo Lincoln Minster School (LMS or Minster) is an independent co-educational day and boarding school in Lincolnshire, England. ...


The Director of Music is Aric Prentice, who conducts the choir of girls and men, and the Assistant Director of Music is Charles Harrison, who conducts the choir of boys and men. The Organist Laureate is Colin Walsh, previously Organist and Master of the Choristers, and the Assistant Organist is Benjamin Chewter. Like any great cathedral, Lincoln has had its share of organists who have achieved international renown: perhaps the most famous is William Byrd, the Renaissance composer. Although it is uncertain whether Byrd was born in Lincoln as has been claimed, he was organist at the Cathedral from 1563 until 1572, and continued to compose works specifically for the cathedral choir after his departure. Charles Yale Harrison (16 June 1898) was an American-Canadian novelist and journalist, best known for his 1930 anti-war novel Generals Die in Bed. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see William Byrd (disambiguation). ...


In popular culture

Literature

D. H. Lawrence David Herbert Lawrence (11 September 1885 - 2 March 1930) was one of the most important, certainly one of the most controversial, English writers of the 20th century, who wrote novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, and letters. ... Ken Follett (born June 5, 1949) is a British author of thrillers and historical novels. ... The cover art of Pillars of the Earth, US edition The Pillars of the Earth is a historical novel by Ken Follett about the building of a cathedral in Kingsbridge (an ancient town located between Plymouth, Torbay, and Dartmoor in Southern England). ...

Film

  • The cathedral was used for the filming of The Da Vinci Code (based on the book of the same name). Filming took place mainly within the cloisters and chapter house of the cathedral, and remained a closed set. The Cathedral took on the role of Westminster Abbey, as the Abbey had refused to permit filming. Although there was protest at the filming, the filming was completed by the end of August 2005. In order to make the Lincoln chapter house appear similar to the Westminster Chapter House, murals were painted on a special layer over the existing wall, and elsewhere polystyrene replicas of Isaac Newton's tomb and other Abbey monuments were set up. For a time these murals and replicas remained in the Chapter House, as part of a Da Vinci Code exhibit for visitors, but in January 2008 they were all sold off in an auction to raise money for the Cathedral.[1]
  • The cathedral also doubled as Westminster Abbey for the film Young Victoria, filmed in September 2007.[2]

This article is about the film. ... The Da Vinci Code is a mystery/detective novel by American author Dan Brown, published in 2003 by Doubleday. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... The Young Victoria is a Jean Marc Vallee film set for 2008 release. ...

See also

A list of the cathedrals, former cathedrals and intended cathedrals in the United Kingdom and its dependencies. ... From the year 1311 until the advent of the skyscraper, Christian churches were among the tallest buildings in the world. ... Durham Cathedral, above the River Wear. ... Westminster Hall and its magnificent hammerbeam roof, pictured in the early 18th century. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ...

References

  • "Lincoln Cathedral: Official Guide", Diocese of Lincoln
  • "Lincoln Cathedral" by Peter B G Binnall, Pitkin Publishing

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
List of Anglican Cathedrals in the United Kingdom and Ireland
Anglican Communion


Coordinates: 53°14′04″N, 0°32′10″W Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Preceded by
Great Pyramid of Giza
World's tallest structure
1300—1549
160 m
Succeeded by
St. Olaf's church, Tallinn
The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ... For many millennia the record holder for worlds tallest structure was clearly defined (see table below. ... St. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lincoln Cathedral - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1162 words)
Mary's Cathedral) is an historic cathedral in Lincoln in England, and seat of the Diocese of Lincoln in the Church of England.
The Bishop of Lincoln was one of the signatories to the Magna Carta and for hundreds of years the Cathedral has held one of the four remaining copies of the original.
Lincoln was only the second Cathedral in the country to adopt a separate girls' choir, after Salisbury Cathedral.
Lincoln, Lincolnshire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2286 words)
The dissolution of the monasteries further exacerbated Lincoln's problems, and between 1642 and 1651, during the English Civil War, Lincoln was on the frontier between the Royalist and Parliamentary forces.
Lincoln was hit by a major typhoid epidemic between November 1904 and August 1905, caused by polluted drinking water from Hartsholme Lake and the River Witham.
Lincoln Art College and Riseholme Agricultural College, which had previously been part of De Montfort University in Leicester were absorbed into the university in 2001, and subsequently the Lincoln campus took priority over the Hull campus, and as such the name changed in 2002 to the University of Lincoln.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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