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Encyclopedia > Lincoln, Lincolnshire
City of Lincoln
Lincoln
Shown within Lincolnshire
Geography
Status: City
Region: East Midlands
Admin. County: Lincolnshire
Historic County: Lincolnshire
Area:
- Total
Ranked 328th
35.69 km²
Admin. HQ: Lincoln
Grid reference: SK9771
ONS code: 32UD
Town Shell: Queen Conch (Strombus Gigas)
Demographics
Population:
- Total(2006 est.)
- Density
Ranked 270th
87,600
2454 / km²
Ethnicity: 97.8% White
Politics

Arms of
The City of Lincoln Council
Argent on a cross Gules a fleur-de-lis Or
http://www.lincoln.gov.uk/
Leadership: Leader & Cabinet
Executive: Conservative
MP: Gillian Merron

Lincoln (pronounced /lɪŋkən/) is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire, England. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 11 KB) Summary Description: A blank map of the United Kingdom, with country outline and coastline; contact the author for help with modifications or add-ons Source: Reference map provided by Demis Mapper 6 Date: 2006-21-06 Author: User... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... re-upload File links The following pages link to this file: Lincoln Categories: GFDL images ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... The East Midlands is one of the regions of England and consists of most of the eastern half of the traditional region of the Midlands. ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ... The historic counties of England are ancient subdivisions of England. ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ... Area is the measure of how much exposed area any two dimensional object has. ... This is a list of districts of England ordered by area. ... To help compare sizes of different geographic regions, we list here areas between 10 km² (1000 hectares) and 100 km² (10,000 hectares). ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... The Office for National Statistics coding system is a hierarchical code used in the United Kingdom for tabulating census and other statistical data. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The figures are mid-year estimates for 2005, unless otherwise stated, from the Office for National Statistics [1]. See also: List of towns and cities in England by population - List of English counties by population - List of ceremonial counties of England by population - List of English districts by area - List... Arms of Lincoln City Council. ... For a list of words with definitions, see the Heraldic tincture category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In heraldry, tinctures are the colours used to blazon a coat of arms. ... For a list of words with definitions, see the Heraldic tincture category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In heraldry, tinctures are the colours used to blazon a coat of arms. ... Fleurs-de-lys on the flag of Quebec The fleur-de-lis (also spelled fleur-de-lys; plural fleurs-de-lis or -lys) is used in heraldry, where it is particularly associated with the France monarchy (see King of France). ... For a list of words with definitions, see the Heraldic tincture category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In heraldry, tinctures are the colours used to blazon a coat of arms. ... The United Kingdom is divided into four parts, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of Members of Parliament elected to the House of Commons for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom at the 2005 general election, arranged by constituency. ... Gillian Joanna Merron (born 12 April 1959) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... The Fountain of Life in front of the city hall Cathedral City is a city located in Riverside County, California. ... A county town is the capital of a county in the United Kingdom or Republic of Ireland. ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The non-metropolitan district of Lincoln has a population of around 101,000 - the 2001 census gave the entire urban area of Lincoln a population of 120,779. [1]. The council identifies a 'Greater Lincoln' catchment area covering surrounding villages, which has a population of 250,000. [2] Non-metropolitan districts or commonly Shire districts are a type of local government district in England. ...


It has several twin towns [3]: Port Lincoln, South Australia; Radomsko, Poland [4]; Tangshan, China; and — most notably — Neustadt an der Weinstraße, Germany. Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ... Port Lincoln (postcode 5606) is a city in the Australian state of South Australia. ... Radomsko is a town in central Poland with 51,330 inhabitants . ... Tangshan (Chinese: 唐山市; Pinyin: Tángshān shì) is a prefecture-level city in Hebei province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Neustadt an der Weinstraße, otherwise known as Neustadt a. ...

Contents

History

Earliest history: Lindon

The Brayford Pool
The Brayford Pool

The earliest origins of Lincoln can be traced to the remains of an Iron Age settlement of round wooden dwellings (which were discovered by archaeologists in 1972) that have been dated to the 1st century BC. This settlement was built by a deep pool (the modern Brayford Pool) in the River Witham at the foot of a large hill (on which the Normans later built Lincoln Cathedral and Lincoln Castle). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 124 KB) Summary A view of the East side of the pool, overlooking the Sea Cadets. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 124 KB) Summary A view of the East side of the pool, overlooking the Sea Cadets. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Brayford Pool. ... The River Witham is a river in the east of England. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... A view of the East Gate of Lincoln Castle. ...


The origins of the name Lincoln probably come from this period, when the settlement is speculated to have been named in the Brythonic language of the Celtic people as either Lindu, Lindo or Lindun, (or possibly Lindon or Lindunon), a name believed to describe either the Brayford Pool itself, 'dark pool' (Lindu) or possibly an early settlement nearby, 'fort on a hill by a pool' (Lindun) [5]. Whatever the origin of this early name it is known that it was subsequently Latinised in the Roman period to Lindum (or Lindum Colonia), which in Anglo-Saxon became Lincoln, the modern name of the city. The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of most of the island of Great Britain, and their cultures and languages, the Brythonic languages. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


It is not possible to know how big this original settlement was as its remains are now buried deep beneath the later Roman and medieval ruins, as well as the modern city of Lincoln.


Roman history: Lindum Colonia

Main article: Lindum Colonia

The Romans conquered this part of Britain in AD 48 and shortly afterwards built a legionary fortress high on a hill overlooking the natural lake formed by the widening of the River Witham (the modern day Brayford Pool) and at the northern end of the Fosse Way Roman road (A46). The Celtic name Lindu was subsequently Latinized to Lindum and given the title Colonia when it was converted into a settlement for army veterans. Lindum Colonia was shortened on the tongues of the later, English speakers, to become 'Lincoln'. Image File history File links Newport_Arch2. ... Image File history File links Newport_Arch2. ... Newport Arch from the south Newport Arch is the name given to the remains of a 3rd century Roman gate in the city of Lincoln, Lincolnshire. ... Lindum Colonia (otherwise simply Lindum or, more formally, Colonia Domitiana Lindensium) was a town in the Roman province of Britannia. ... The Brayford Pool. ... The Fosse Way was a Roman road in England which linked Exeter (Isca Dumnoniorum) in South West England, to Lincoln (Lindum) in the East Midlands, via Bath (Aquae Sulis), Cirencester (Corinium) and Leicester (Ratae Coritanorum). ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


The conversion to a colonia was made when the legion moved on to York (Eboracum) in AD 71. Lindum colonia or more fully, Colonia Domitiana Lindensium, after its founder Domitian, was established within the walls of the hilltop fortress with the addition of an extension of about equal area, down the hillside to the waterside below. York shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state Constituent country Region Yorkshire and the Humber Ceremonial county North Yorkshire Admin HQ York City Centre Founded 71 City Status 71 Government  - Type Unitary Authority, City  - Governing body City of York Council  - Leadership: Leader & Executive  - Executive: Liberal Democrat  - MPs: Hugh Bayley (L) John... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 66 67 68 69 70 - 71 - 72 73 74 75 76 Events The Romans establish a fortress at York (Eboracum), as a base for their northern forces. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ...


It became a major flourishing settlement, accessible from the sea both through the River Trent and through the River Witham, and was even the provincial capital of Flavia Caesariensis when the province of Britannia Inferior was subdivided in the early 4th century, but then it and its waterways fell into decline. By the close of the 5th century the city was largely deserted, although some occupation continued under a Praefectus Civitatis for Saint Paulinus visited a man of this office in Lincoln in AD 629. For other uses see Trent River. ... The River Witham is a river in the east of England. ... Flavia Caesariensis was one of the provinces of Roman Britain. ... Britannia Inferior (Lower Britain) was one of the regions of Roman Britain created in the early third century AD by the Roman Emperor Septimus Severus. ... Saint Paulinus, (?-October 10, 644), was the first bishop of York. ...


AD 410 - 1066

Lincoln Cathedral, as seen from across the Brayford Pool
Lincoln Cathedral, as seen from across the Brayford Pool
The Norman West Front of Lincoln Cathedral
The Norman West Front of Lincoln Cathedral
Main article: Lincoln Castle

After the first destructive Viking raids the city once again rose to some importance. In Viking times Lincoln was a trading centre important enough to issue coins from its own mint. After the establishment of Dane Law in 886, Lincoln became one of The Five Boroughs in the East Midlands. Over the next few centuries, Lincoln once again rose to prominence. In 1068, two years after the Norman Conquest, William I ordered Lincoln Castle to be built on the site of the former Roman settlement, for the same strategic reasons and using the same road. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 262 KB) Lincoln Cathedral viewed from the Brayford Pool area of the city, where the Foss Dyke meets the River Whitham. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 262 KB) Lincoln Cathedral viewed from the Brayford Pool area of the city, where the Foss Dyke meets the River Whitham. ... The Brayford Pool. ... lincoln cathedral File links The following pages link to this file: Lincoln ... lincoln cathedral File links The following pages link to this file: Lincoln ... The nave of Durham Cathedral demonstrates the characteristic round arched style, though use of shallow pointed arches above the nave is a forerunner of the Gothic style. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... A view of the East Gate of Lincoln Castle. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... Gold: Danelaw The Danelaw, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as the Danelagh, (Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: Danelagen), is a name given to a part of Great Britain, now northern and eastern England, in which the laws of the Danes[1] held predominance over those of the Anglo... The Five Burghs or more usually The Five Boroughs or The Five Boroughs of the Danelaw were the five main towns of Danish Mercia. ... The East Midlands is one of the regions of England and consists of most of the eastern half of the traditional region of the Midlands. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... William I of England (c. ... A view of the East Gate of Lincoln Castle. ...


Cathedral

Main article: Lincoln Cathedral
.

The first Lincoln Cathedral, within its close or walled precinct facing the castle, was commenced when the see was removed from Dorchester and completed in 1092; it was rebuilt after a fire but was destroyed by an unusual earthquake in 1185. The rebuilt Lincoln Minster, enlarged to the east at each rebuilding, was on a magnificent scale, its crossing tower crowned by a spire reputed to have been 160 m (525 feet) high, the highest in Europe. When completed the central of the three spires is widely accepted to have succeeded the Great Pyramids of Egypt as the tallest man-made structure in the world. Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... Dorchester-on-Thames is a village on the River Thames in Oxfordshire, England. ... Cathedral floor plan (crossing is shaded) A crossing, in ecclesiastical architecture, is the junction of the four arms of a cruciform (cross-shaped) church. ...

Main article: Bishop of Lincoln
.

The bishops of Lincoln were among the magnates of medieval England: Lincolnshire, the largest diocese, had more monasteries than the rest of England put together, and the diocese was supported by large estates outside the county. Arms of the Bishop of Lincoln The Bishop of Lincoln heads the Anglican Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury. ...


When the Magna Carta was drawn up in 1215, one of the witnesses was Hugh of Wells, Bishop of Lincoln. One of only four surviving orginals is now preserved in Lincoln Castle. This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ... Hugh de Wells (or Hugh of Wells) was a medieval Bishop of Lincoln. ... Arms of the Bishop of Lincoln The Bishop of Lincoln heads the Anglican Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury. ... A view of the East Gate of Lincoln Castle. ...


Among the most famous bishops of Lincoln were Robert Bloet, the magnificent justiciar to Henry I; Hugh of Avalon, the cathedral builder canonised as St Hugh of Lincoln; Robert Grosseteste, the 13th century intellectual; Henry, Cardinal Beaufort, a politician deeply involved in the Wars of the Roses; Philip Repyngdon, chaplain to Henry IV of England and defender of Wycliffe; Thomas Cardinal Wolsey. Robert Bloet (d. ... In medieval England and Scotland, the Chief Justiciar (latterly known simply as the Justiciar) was a rough equivalent to that of the modern Prime Minister: the Monarchs chief minister. ... Henry I (c. ... Hugh of Avalon (also known as Hugh of Burgundy), was born in 1140 at Avalon Castle, Burgundy, France, the son of William, Lord of Avalon. ... Saint Hugh of Lincoln redirects here. ... A 13th century portrait of Grosseteste. ... Henry Beaufort (c. ... Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ... Philip Repyngdon (or Repington) (d. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Insert non-formatted text here Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity... Thomas Cardinal Wolsey, (c. ...

The iconic view of Lincoln Cathedral
The iconic view of Lincoln Cathedral

The administrative centre was the Bishop's Palace, the third element in the central complex. When it was built in the late 12th century, the Bishop's Palace was one of the most important buildings in England. Built by the canonised bishop Hugh of Lincoln, the palace's East Hall range over a vaulted under-croft is the earliest surviving example of a roofed domestic hall. The chapel range and entrance tower were built by Bishop William of Alnwick, who modernised the palace in the 1430s. Both Henry VIII and James I were guests of bishops here; the palace was sacked by royalist troops during the Civil War in 1648. Image File history File linksMetadata Lincolncath. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lincolncath. ... Hugh of Avalon or Hugh of Burgundy, best known as Saint Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, (1135/1140 – London, November 16, 1200) was at the time of the Reformation the best-known English saint after Thomas Becket. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary...


Medieval town

By 1150, Lincoln was amongst the wealthiest towns in England. The basis of the economy was cloth and wool, exported to Flanders; Lincoln weavers had set up a guild in 1130 to produce Lincoln Cloth, especially the fine dyed "scarlet" and "green" the reputation of which was later enhanced by Robin Hood wearing "Lincoln Green". In the Guildhall that surmounts a city gate, the ancient Council Chamber contains Lincoln's civic insignia, probably the finest collection of civic regalia outside London. It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... For other uses, see Robin Hood (disambiguation). ...


Outside the precincts of cathedral and castle, the old quarter clustered around the Bailgate, and down Steep Hill to the High Bridge, which bears half-timbered housing, with the upper stories jutting out over the river, as London Bridge once had. There are three ancient churches: St Mary le Wigford and St Peter at Gowts are both 11th century in origin and St Mary Magdalene, built in the late 13th century, is an unusual English dedication to the saint whose cult was coming greatly into vogue on the European continent at that time. Timber framing is the modern term for the traditional half-timbered construction in which timber provides a visible skeletal frame that supports the whole building. ... For other uses, see London Bridge (disambiguation). ... This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ...

Lincoln was home to one of the five most important Jewish communities in England, well established before it was officially noted in 1154. In 1190, anti-semitic riots that started in King's Lynn, Norfolk, spread to Lincoln; the Jewish community took refuge with royal officials, but their habitations were plundered. The so-called "House of Aaron" has a two-storey street frontage that is essentially 12th century and a nearby Jew's House likewise bears witness to the Jewish population. In 1255, the affair called “The Libel of Lincoln” in which prominent Jews of Lincoln, accused of the ritual murder of a Christian boy ("Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln" in medieval folklore) were sent to the Tower of London and 18 were executed. The Jews were expelled en masse in 1290. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1552x1164, 654 KB) Summary Jews House in High Street, Lincoln (England) own work Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Lincoln, Lincolnshire Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1552x1164, 654 KB) Summary Jews House in High Street, Lincoln (England) own work Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Lincoln, Lincolnshire Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Frontage of the Jews House For the building formerly known as Aaron the Jews House, see the Norman House. ... Frontage of the Jews House For the building formerly known as Aaron the Jews House, see the Norman House. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... Hugh of Lincoln (1247 - August, 1255) was an English boy, whose disappearance prompted a blood libel with ramifications that reach until today. ...


During the 13th century, Lincoln was the third largest city in England and was a favourite of more than one king. It also became caught up in the strife between the king and the rebel barons who had allied with the French, which was an ongoing result on the baron rebellion against King John. It was here and at Dover that the French and Rebel army was defeated.


However, during the 14th century, the city's fortunes began to decline. The lower city was prone to flooding, becoming increasingly isolated, and plagues were common. In 1409, the city was made a county corporate. Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... A county corporate or corporate county was a form of local government in England and Wales. ...


16th century

The Dissolution of the Monasteries further exacerbated Lincoln's problems, cutting off the main source of diocesan income and drying up the network of patronage controlled by the bishop, with no less than seven monasteries within the city alone closed down. This was accompanied by closure of a number of nearby parliamentary abbeys which led to a further diminishment of the region's political power. When the cathedral's great spire rotted and collapsed in 1549 and was not replaced, it was a significant symbol of Lincoln's economic and political decline. However, the comparative poverty of post-medieval Lincoln preserved pre-medieval structures that would probably have been lost in more prosperous contexts. For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ...


The Civil War

The west front of Lincoln Cathedral viewed through the Exchequer Gate, one of a number of surviving gates in the Cathedral Close walls.
The west front of Lincoln Cathedral viewed through the Exchequer Gate, one of a number of surviving gates in the Cathedral Close walls.

Between 1642 and 1651, during the English Civil War, Lincoln was on the frontier between the Royalist and Parliamentary forces. Military control of the city therefore changed hands numerous times. Many buildings were badly damaged. Lincoln now had no major industry, no easy access to the sea and was poorly placed. As a consequence of this, while the rest of the country was beginning to prosper in the beginning of the 1700s, Lincoln suffered immensely, travellers often commenting on the state of what had essentially become a "one street" town. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 428 KB) From Flickr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 428 KB) From Flickr. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Prince Rupert of the Rhine Cavaliers was the name used by Parliamentarians for the Royalist supporters of King Charles I during the English Civil War (1642–1651). ... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ... Events and trends The Bonneville Slide blocks the Columbia River near the site of present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon with a land bridge 200 feet (60 m) high. ...

The Georgian Age

By the Georgian era, Lincoln's fortunes began to pick up, thanks in part to the Agricultural Revolution. The re-opening of the Foss Dyke allowed coal and other raw materials vital to industry to be more easily brought into the city. As well as the economic growth of Lincoln during this era, the city boundaries expanded to include the West Common founded by Edward and George of WestEnd. To this day an annual 'Beat the Boundaries' walk takes place along the perimeter of the common. The Georgian architecture of The Circus, Bath, built between 1754 and 1768 The Georgian era is a period of British history, normally defined as including the reigns of the kings George I, George II, George III and George IV, i. ... The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century, which saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. ... The Foss Dyke, or Fosse Dyke is the oldest canal in England, constructed by the Romans around 120 AD and still in use. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


The Industrial Revolution

Coupled with the arrival of the railway links, Lincoln boomed again during the Industrial Revolution, and several world-famous companies arose, such as Ruston's, Smith-Clayton's, Proctor's, and William Foster's. Lincoln began to excel in heavy engineering, building diesel engine trains, steam shovels, and all manner of heavy machinery. Ruston was a industrial equipment manufacturer in Lincoln, England, UK. They built narrow and standard gauge diesel locomotives, cars and steam shovels. ... For other uses, see Proctor (disambiguation). ... William Foster & Co Ltd was an agricultural machinery company based at Lincoln, UK and usually just called Fosters of Lincoln. The company was known for producing threshing machines, regarded as among the best available. ...


The 20th century

Lincoln was hit by a major typhoid epidemic between November 1904 and August 1905, caused by polluted drinking water from Hartsholme Lake and the River Witham. Over 1000 people contracted the disease and fatalities totalled 113, ironically including the very man responsible for the city's water supply, Matthew Robinson of Baker Crescent. Westgate Water Tower was constructed to provide new water supplies to the city. The River Witham is a river in the east of England. ...


In the world wars Lincoln naturally switched to war production. The first ever tanks were invented, designed and built in Lincoln by William Foster & Co. Ltd during the First World War and population growth provided more workers for even greater expansion. The tanks were tested on land which is now Tritton Road. During the Second World War, Lincoln produced a vast array of war goods, from tanks, aircraft, munitions, and military vehicles. Ruston and Hornsby produced diesel engines for ships and locomotives, then by teaming up with former colleagues of Frank Whittle and Power Jets Ltd, in the early 1950s, R & H (which became RGT) opened the first ever production line to build gas turbine engines for land-based & sea-based energy production. Hugely successful, it has become the largest single employer in the city providing over 5,000 jobs in its factory and research facilities making it a rich takeover target for industrial conglomerates. They were taken over by GEC in the late 1960s (diesel engine production was transferred to a division of GEC in Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire), merged with Alstom of France in the late 1980s, then in 2003 were bought out by Siemens AG of Germany, now being called Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery. In the post-war years after 1945, new suburbs were built, but heavy industry has declined towards the end of the 20th century mimicking the wider economic profile of the United Kingdom. More people are still employed today in Lincoln however building gas turbines than anything else.
William Foster & Co Ltd was an agricultural machinery company based at Lincoln, UK and usually just called Fosters of Lincoln. The company was known for producing threshing machines, regarded as among the best available. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Frank Whittle speaking to employees of the Flight Propulsion Research Laboratory (Now known as the NASA Glenn Research Center), USA, in 1946 Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, OM, KBE, FRS, Hon FRAeS (1 June 1907–9 August 1996) was an English Royal Air Force officer and is seen as the... For the village, see Newton-le-Willows, North Yorkshire. ... Alstom (formerly GEC-Alsthom) (Euronext: ALO) is a large French company whose businesses are power generation, railway signalling; and manufacturing trains (e. ... Siemens redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “Suburbia” redirects here. ...


The large Ruston Gas Turbines plant at the bottom of Canwick Hill has been known as "Rusting Gas Turbines" to generations of Lincoln schoolchildren.


Economy

Lincoln's economy is based mainly on public administration, commerce, arable farming and tourism, with industrial relics like Rustons (now Siemens) still in existence. However, many other of Lincoln's industrial giants have long ceased production in the city, leaving large empty industrial warehouse-like buildings. More recently, these buildings have become multi-occupant units, with the likes of Lincs FM radio station and LA Fitness gym taking up space. Like many other cities in Britain, Lincoln has developed a growing IT economy, with many e-commerce mail order companies setting up in or around the city, including RecycledShop.com, TopToners.com and Attitude.uk.com. A plethora of other, more conventional small industrial businesses are located in and around Lincoln. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group . ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Tourist redirects here. ...


Over the last few years Lincoln has also seen rapid development in its retail sector, in an attempt to keep people shopping in the city and to compete with the likes of Nottingham and Sheffield. Around the Tritton Road trading estate many new businesses have began trading, notably large units with car parking have been created for NEXT, Freemans and ASDA Living. Lincoln has a choice of supermarkets including 2 Tescos, ASDA, Morrisons, Waitrose and a Sainsbury's store with a second due to open in early 2008.


Tourism

The city is a tourist centre and those who come do so to visit the numerous historic buildings including, of course, the Cathedral and the Castle and the specialist shops of Steep Hill and Bailgate. The Collection, of which the Usher Gallery is now a part, is an important attraction. Housed partly in a recently opened, purpose-built venue, it currently contains over 2,000,000 objects. Any material from official archaeological excavations in Lincolnshire is eventually deposited at in The Collection so it is growing all the time. Tourist redirects here. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... A view of the East Gate of Lincoln Castle. ... Steep Hill is a popular tourist street in the historic city of Lincoln, UK. A view up Steep Hill towards the historic quarter of Bailgate. ... The Collection is the Lincolnshire county museum and gallery. ...

A view up 'Steep Hill' towards the historic quarter of Bailgate.
A view up 'Steep Hill' towards the historic quarter of Bailgate.

Other attractions include the Museum of Lincolnshire Life and The Sir Joseph Banks Conservatory at The Lawn, adjacent to Lincoln Castle. Tranquil destinations close by include Whisby Nature Reserve and Hartsholme Park, whilst noisier entertainment can be found at Waddington airfield, Scampton airfield (base of the RAF's "Red Arrows" jet aerobatic team), the County Showground or the Cadwell Park motor racing circuit near Louth. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x864, 448 KB) Uploaded from flickr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x864, 448 KB) Uploaded from flickr. ... The Sir Joseph Banks Conservatory in Lincoln, UK is named after the British explorer and naturalist who, as long-time president of the Royal Society, became known for his promotion of science. ... The West Lawn in snow, 1914. ... A view of the East Gate of Lincoln Castle. ... Waddington-based Hawker-Siddeley (now BAE Systems) Nimrod R.1 RAF Waddington is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire England. ... RAF Scampton is a Royal Air Force station situated north of Lincoln in England. ... RAF redirects here. ... Red Arrows Hawk at speed during a display The Red Arrows, officially known as the Royal Air Force Aerobatic Team, is the aerobatics display team of the Royal Air Force, based at RAF Scampton, United Kingdom. ... Soon after aircraft were invented, pilots realised that they could be used as part of a flying circus to entertain people or impress others in what was termed aerobatics. ... Cadwell Park is a large motor racing circuit in Lincolnshire, north of Louth. ... A Peugeot 206 World Rally Car Motor racing and Motorsports redirect here. ... , Louth is a market town within the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. ...


Because of its climate Lincoln attracts many of its tourists in the summer, but also during the second weekend of December when the Bailgate area of the city holds its annual Christmas Market in and around the Castle grounds. The market is based upon the traditional German-style "Weihnachtsmarkt" as found in several German cities, including Lincoln's "twin", Neustadt an der Weinstrasse. Lincoln Christmas Market, held in Lincoln, England, is one of the largest Christmas markets in Europe, attracting up to 250,000 visitors a year over the four day event. ...


Topography: 'Uphill' and 'Downhill'

The city of Lincoln is built at the point where there is a gap in the Lincoln Cliff (a limestone escarpment running north-south and rising to 200ft/60m in height, also sometimes called the 'Lincoln(shire) Edge' or 'Lincoln Heath'). The River Witham flows through this gap. Lincoln is thus divided informally into two zones, known locally as 'uphill' and 'downhill'. Lincoln Cliff, April 2005 The Lincoln Cliff is the portion of a major escarpment that run north-south through central Lincolnshire and a prominent landscape feature in a generally flat portion of the county. ... The River Witham is a river in the east of England. ...


The uphill area comprises the northern part of the city, on top of the Lincoln Cliff (to the north of the gap). This area includes the historical quarter, including the cathedral and castle, known locally as 'The Bail' (although described in tourist promotional literature as 'The Cathedral Quarter') and including the 'Bailgate', a road that runs from Newport Arch to Castle Square and housing several public houses, restaurants and up-market shops. Also uphill is the popular shopping area for locals located on Burton Road; this has local shops such as a bakery, a mini-supermarket, many takeaways, a newsagents, off-licence, a bedding shop, a pet shop and a post office. Some of the employees and owners for these shops live locally thus adding to the sense of community in the area. Also on Burton road is the Museum of Lincolnshire Life (known locally as Lincs Life Museum). This Museum is the largest and most diverse Community Museum in the County and reflects the culture of the people of Lincolnshire. There are residential suburbs to the north and north-east. The downhill area comprises the city centre (located in the gap) and the suburbs to the south and south-west. The aptly named street 'Steep Hill' connects the two (although it is too steep for vehicular traffic, which must take a more circuitous route).


This divide marks out Lincoln from other historic cities in England and elsewhere in Europe. Whereas in most such cities, the chief historical buildings (cathedrals and castles) tend to be centrally located and intermingled with the present-day city centre, in Lincoln they are separate. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The divide was also once an important class distinction, with 'uphill' more affluent and 'downhill' less so. This distinction dates from the time of the Norman Conquest, when the religious and military elite occupied the hilltop. The construction and expansion of suburbs in both parts of the city since the mid-nineteenth century has diluted this distinction, nevertheless 'uphill' residential property continues to fetch a premium. Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ...


Railway station and crossing

Lincoln Central Station

The station has five platforms and has a steady flow of trains and passengers passing through. Trains run to a range of destinations including Newark-on-Trent, Grimsby, Nottingham, Leicester, and Sheffield. Unfortunately the electrification of the East Coast Mainline in the late 1980s saw the demise of direct services into London, King's Cross forcing a change at Newark for GNER services to London Kings Cross or Nottingham for Midland Mainline trains to London St Pancras. However, under the new East Midlands Trains franchise which starts in November 2007, there are plans to provide a direct service from Lincoln Central to London St Pancras International. Also, the new National Express East Coast franchise from 2010 will provide a two-hourly service to London Kings Cross. The main entrance to the station Lincoln Central railway station serves Lincoln in Lincolnshire, England. ... Newark (also Newark-on-Trent) is a town in Nottinghamshire, located on the River Trent. ... For other uses, see Grimsby (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... This article discusses Leicester in England. ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... GNER White Rose train at Kings Cross railway station The East Coast Main Line (ECML) is a major railway line in the United Kingdom which links London to Aberdeen, via Stevenage, Peterborough, Grantham, Doncaster, York, Durham, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Dunbar, Edinburgh, Leuchars, Dundee and Arbroath. ... Kings Cross station (often spelt Kings Cross on platform signs) is a railway station in the district of the same name in northeast central London. ... GNER White Rose train at Kings Cross railway station Great North Eastern Railways (GNER) is a British train operating company (TOC) owned by Sea Containers Ltd. ... ... This article is about the train operating company Midland Mainline Railway. ... The Gothic Revival facade and clock tower of the disused Midland Hotel are the most visible part of St Pancras station. ... Norwich will be at the eastern tip of the franchise area. ... National Express East Coast is the name under which the new train operating company NXEC Trains Ltd has stated it will operate the InterCity East Coast rail franchise, which includes services in England and Scotland. ...


Road crossing controversy

The railway crossing on the High Street.
The railway crossing on the High Street.

Electrification of the East Coast Main Line prompted an increase in traffic that has led to many of the goods trains running between Doncaster and Peterborough being diverted through Lincoln. This coupled with goods traffic between the Midlands and the ports and oil refineries in the Grimsby, Immingham and Killingholme area and local passenger services operating in and out of Lincoln Central railway station, has led to the High Street level crossing (which cuts the central shopping area in two) being closed for up to forty minutes every hour. The city's MP and the Chamber of Commerce have suggested that this may be deterring inward investment by new employers [6]. This has been an issue in Lincoln since the 1860s according to Hansard records. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2088x1146, 1005 KB) Summary Author: Redvers. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2088x1146, 1005 KB) Summary Author: Redvers. ... The East Coast Main Line viaduct at Durham. ... For other places with the same name, see Doncaster (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Transportation ... View of the Shell/Valero Martinez oil refinery An oil refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into useful petroleum products. ... For other uses, see Grimsby (disambiguation). ... Immingham (informally referred to as Ming or Ming Ming) is a town in North East Lincolnshire, located on south bank of the Humber Estuary. ... Killingholme is an area of Lincolnshire, comprising the villages of North Killingholme and South Killingholme. ... The main entrance to the station Lincoln Central railway station serves Lincoln in Lincolnshire, England. ... The term level crossing (also called a railroad crossing, railway crossing, train crossing or grade crossing) is a crossing on one level (at-grade intersection) — without recourse to a bridge or tunnel — of a railway line by a road, path, or another railroad. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Chambers of commerce are business advocacy groups which are usually not associated with government. ... Hansard is the traditional name for the printed transcripts of parliamentary debates in the Westminster system of government. ...


Education

Lincoln has two higher education institutions, the older being Bishop Grosseteste University College, which started life as a teacher training college linked to the Anglican Church in 1862. During the 1990s, the college branched out into new subject areas with a focus on the arts and drama. Bishop Grosseteste College, is an education institution in Lincoln, England is a provider of higher education by degree and initial teacher training. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ...


The larger University of Lincoln started life as the University of Lincolnshire and Humberside in 1996, when the University of Humberside opened a Lincoln campus next to Brayford Pool attracting additional students to the city and giving it a refreshing youthful appearance. Lincoln Art College and Riseholme Agricultural College, which had previously been part of De Montfort University in Leicester, were absorbed into the university in 2001, and subsequently the Lincoln campus took priority over the Hull campus. The university changed its name to the University of Lincoln in 2002. In the 2005/6 academic year, 8,292 full time undergraduates were studying at the university [7]. This page is about the British university. ... The University of Lincolnshire and Humberside was the name between 1996 and 2001 of the higher education institution previously known as the University of Humberside and now known as the University of Lincoln. ... The University of Humberside was a university created in 1992 from the Humberside Polytechnic. ... The Brayford Pool. ... De Montfort University (DMU) is a British university situated in Leicester, England. ... This article discusses Leicester in England. ... Hull shown within England The unitary authorities of the Ceremonial East Riding. ...


Further education courses in Lincoln are provided by Lincoln College, which is the largest education institution in Lincolnshire, with 18,500 students, of whom 2,300 are full time [8]. Lincoln College is a predominantly further education college based in the City of Lincoln, England. ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ...


Media

The local newspaper is the Lincolnshire Echo, and the local radio stations are BBC Radio Lincolnshire on 94.9FM and its commercial rival Lincs FM on 102.2 FM. The newest addition to the local airwaves is Siren FM, which broadcasts on 107.3 FM from the University of Lincoln. BBC Look North have a bureau in Lincoln as an integral part of their coverage of Lincolnshire and East Yorkshire. There are three TV reporters based in Lincoln serving both BBC Look North and East Midlands Today. The Lincolnshire Echo is a daily British regional newspaper for Lincolnshire, found in 1894. ... BBC Radio Lincolnshire is the BBC Local Radio service for the English county of Lincolnshire—apart from the northern parts of the county, which are covered by BBC Radio Humberside. ... Lincs FM is an Independent Local Radio station serving Lincolnshire and Newark, from the Humber to The Wash. ... Siren FM, sometimes known simply as Siren, is a community radio station based at the University of Lincoln in the United Kingdom. ... This page is about the British university. ... Look North is the BBC local television news programme that covers Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. ...


Sport

Lincoln has a professional football team, Lincoln City F.C., nicknamed "The Imps" who play at the Sincil Bank stadium on the southern edge of the city. The collapse of ITV Digital who owed Lincoln City FC more than £100,000 in 2002 saw the team faced with bankruptcy but the team was saved after a massive fundraising venture by the fans that returned ownership of the club to them where it has remained since. The club was famously the first team to be relegated from the English Football League, when automatic relegation to the Football Conference was introduced from the 1986-87 season. Lincoln City regained their league place at the first attempt and have held onto it since. Lincoln City has a female counterpart, Lincoln City L.F.C. ("The Lady Imps") A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... Lincoln City F.C. are an English football team currently playing in Football League Two (the fourth tier of the English football league system). ... Sincil Bank Stadium. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Football League is an organisation representing 72 professional football clubs in England and Wales, and runs the oldest professional football league competition in the world. ... The Football Conference is a football league at the top of the National League System of non-League football in England. ... Association football is the unofficial national sport of England. ... Lincoln City Ladies are amazing and will also be amazing ...


Lincoln is also home to Lincoln United F.C, Lincoln Moorlands F.C., Lincoln Griffins Ladies F.C. and Lincoln Railway F.C. Lincoln United F.C. is an English football team which plays in the Northern Premier League. ... Lincoln Moorlands F.C. are a football club based in Lincoln, England. ...


Famous citizens

Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... A Poet Laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government and often expected to compose poems for State occasions and other government events. ... Wordsworth redirects here. ... Poets who wrote or write much of their poetry in the English language. ... Not to be confused with George Boolos. ... Boolean algebra is the finitary algebra of two values. ... In mathematics, computer science, telecommunication etc. ... The tower of a personal computer. ... James Broadbent (born May 24, 1949) is an Academy Award-winning English theatre, film and television actor. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... James Fenton (born April 25, 1949, Lincoln, England) has been, at various times, a journalist, poet, literary critic, and professor. ... Sir Neville Marriner (born April 15, 1924) is a conductor and violinist. ... Amadeus is a 1984 film directed by Miloš Forman. ... Jonathan Kerrigan (born 14 October 1972/1977 in Lincolnshire) is an English actor well known for his portrayal of gay nurse Sam Colloby in the BBC medical dramas Casualty and Holby City, and as police officers in the series Merseybeat and Heartbeat. ... Steve Race, OBE (born April 1, 1921), is a British composer, musician and radio and television presenter. ... My Music was a radio panel show which premiered on the BBC Home Service on January 3, 1967. ... Paul Palmer (born October 18, 1974 in Lincoln, Lincolnshire) is a former international topswimmer from Great Britain, who won the silver medal in the 400 metres Freestyle at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia. ... (Redirected from 1996 Olympics) Categories: 1996 Summer Olympics ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Jane Eaglen (born April 4, 1960) is an English operatic soprano. ... Darrell Bruce Hair, (born 30 September 1952 in Mudgee, New South Wales[1]), is a controversial former Australian Test cricket match umpire, from New South Wales, currently residing in Lincoln, Lincolnshire[1]. He stood on the Emirates International panel of umpires from 2002 to 2003, before he, along with fellow... This article is about the sport. ... A sample cricket ball. ... Jason Bradbury Jason Bradbury is the UKs best known face of technology and presenter of The Gadget Show which airs on five television. ... The Gadget Show is a British television series focusing on the world of technology. ... For other uses, see William Byrd (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Wesley, see John Wesley (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... , Epworth is a small town and civil parish in the Isle of Axholme, North Lincolnshire, England. ... Bob Evans was a Formula One driver from Britain. ... Waddington (population approx. ...

Twin towns

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Port Lincoln is a town at the southern extremity of the Eyre Peninsula, which is a wheat growing area of South Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Tangshan (Chinese: 唐山市; Pinyin: Tángshān shì) is a prefecture-level city in Hebei province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... position in Rhineland-Palatinate Neustadt an der Weinstrasse (formerly known as Neustadt an der Haardt) is a city in the Rhineland-Palatinate state in southwestern Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Radomsko is a town in central Poland with 51,330 inhabitants . ...

See also

Attractions

Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... The Lincoln Imp is the symbol of the City of Lincoln, the county town of Lincolnshire, England. ... A view of the East Gate of Lincoln Castle. ... The Sir Joseph Banks Conservatory in Lincoln, UK is named after the British explorer and naturalist who, as long-time president of the Royal Society, became known for his promotion of science. ... Empowerment is a public sculpture in the centre of the city of Lincoln in England. ... Lincoln City F.C. are an English football team currently playing in Football League Two (the fourth tier of the English football league system). ... Steep Hill is a popular tourist street in the historic city of Lincoln, UK. A view up Steep Hill towards the historic quarter of Bailgate. ... Frontage of the Jews House For the building formerly known as Aaron the Jews House, see the Norman House. ... Newport Arch from the south Newport Arch is the name given to the remains of a 3rd century Roman gate in the city of Lincoln, Lincolnshire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Places

ʁ This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Steep Hill is a popular tourist street in the historic city of Lincoln, UK. A view up Steep Hill towards the historic quarter of Bailgate. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Boultham, is an area to the southwest of Lincoln, United Kingdom. ... St. ... This page is about the British university. ... This article refers to the Engine Shed theatre. ... Lincoln Drill Hall is recently refurbished and modernised entertainment venue in the British city of Lincoln. ... Lincoln Medieval Bishops Palace is an historic visitors attraction in the city of Lincoln, Lincolnshire, UK. Categories: | ... Lincoln Racecourse is a former horse racing venue to the west of the city of Lincoln, Lincolnshire. ...

People

Hugh of Avalon or Hugh of Burgundy, best known as Saint Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, (1135/1140 – London, November 16, 1200) was at the time of the Reformation the best-known English saint after Thomas Becket. ... Hugh of Lincoln (1247 - August, 1255) was an English boy, whose disappearance prompted a blood libel with ramifications that reach until today. ... Not to be confused with George Boolos. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Aaron of Lincoln, English financier; born at Lincoln, England, about 1125; died 1186. ...

External links

Official

  • City of Lincoln Council
  • University of Lincoln
  • Gillian Merron - Member of Parliament for Lincoln

History

  • Florilegium urbanum: provision for electing city officers, ca 1300, and Francis Hill's discussion
  • History of Ruston & Hornsby
  • Jewish communities in Eastern England: Lincoln
  • Lincoln Waites
  • Lindum: Roman Lincoln
  • The Society for Lincolnshire History and Achaeology

Tourism and pictures

  • Britannia.com
  • The Lincoln Book Festival
  • The Inside Out Guide to Lincoln website: Visitor guide publications to the City of Lincoln
  • Digital pictures of Lincoln

Media

  • Siren FM
  • Radio Lincolnshire 94.9FM
  • Lincs FM 102.2
  • Lincoln Today
  • Lincoln Forum

Local business and trade

  • Chamber of Commerce
  • Lincolnshire Echo, the county's best known newspaper is based in Lincoln

Local music and art

  • Lincoln Bands website
  • Lincoln District Scout Band
  • Music-Link

Further reading

  • Francis Hill, 1948. Medieval Lincoln (Cambridge: University Press)

Coordinates: 53.23160° N 0.54080° W This article is about the country. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 372 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (663 × 1069 pixels, file size: 112 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Aberdeen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Scotland. ... Broad Street at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area (called Top of the Town by locals) Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ... This article is about the country. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 372 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (663 × 1069 pixels, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... , Bangor, in north Wales, is one of the smallest cities in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... For other uses, see Newport (disambiguation). ... St Davids (Welsh: Tyddewi) is the smallest city in the United Kingdom, with a population of under 2,000 people. ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 372 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (663 × 1069 pixels, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... For other places with similar names, see Derry (disambiguation) and Londonderry (disambiguation). ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... , Newry (from the Irish: Iúr Cinn Trá meaning The Yew Tree at the Head of the Strand, short form An tIúr, The Yew) is the fourth largest city in Northern Ireland and eighth on the island of Ireland. ... For the council, see Lisburn City Council. ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ... , Boston is a town and small port in Lincolnshire, UK, on the east coast of England. ... , Bourne is a market town on the western edge of The Fens, in southern Lincolnshire, England. ... For other uses, see Cleethorpes (disambiguation). ... Map sources for The Deepings at grid reference TF150094 The Deepings is a collective term used to describe adjoining villages near the River Welland, 8 miles to the North of Peterborough and 10 miles or so to the East of Stamford. ... Gainsborough is a town within the West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. ... Grantham is a medium sized market town in Lincolnshire, England with about 35,000 inhabitants (40,000 including Great Gonerby), situated on the River Witham. ... For other uses, see Grimsby (disambiguation). ... , Louth is a market town within the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. ... For other uses, see Scunthorpe (disambiguation). ... , Skegness is a seaside town and civil parish within the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. ... This article is about Sleaford in Lincolnshire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Lincolnshire_flag. ... The United Kingdom House of Commons is made up of Members of Parliament (MPs). ... Boston and Skegness is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Brigg and Goole is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Cleethorpes is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Gainsborough is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Grantham and Stamford is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Great Grimsby is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Lincoln is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Louth and Horncastle is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Scunthorpe is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Sleaford and North Hykeham is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... South Holland and The Deepings is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Boston is a local government district with borough status in Lincolnshire, England. ... East Lindsey is a local government district in Lincolnshire, England. ... North East Lincolnshire is a unitary authority in the north east of England, bordering onto North Lincolnshire and Lincolnshire. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... North Kesteven is a local government district in Lincolnshire, England. ... St Clements Church, Worlaby North Lincolnshire is a unitary authority in the region of Yorkshire and the Humber in England. ... South Holland is a local government district of Lincolnshire. ... South Kesteven is a local government district in Lincolnshire, England, forming part of the traditional Kesteven division of the county . ... West Lindsey is a local government district in Lincolnshire, England. ... A flag for Lincolnshire was unveiled at five separate ceremonies across the county on October 24, 2005. ... Lincolnshire, England derived from the merging of the territory of the ancient Kingdom of Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough Stamford. ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ... The Diocese of Lincoln forms part of the Province of Canterbury in England. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lincoln Lincolnshire : Shopping Guide - Lincoln (1718 words)
The rebuilt Lincoln Minster, enlarged to the east at each rebuilding, was on magnificent scale, its crossing tower crowned by a spire 160 m (525 feet) high, the highest in Europe.
The dissolution of the monasteries further exacerbated Lincoln's problems, and between 1642 and 1651, during the English Civil War, Lincoln was on the frontier between the Royalist and Parliamentary forces.
Lincoln was hit by a major typhoid epidemic between November 1904 and August 1905, caused by polluted drinking water from Hartsholme Lake and the River Witham.
Lincoln, Lincolnshire - definition of Lincoln, Lincolnshire - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (653 words)
Lincoln (pronounced "Lin-kun") is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire, England, a bridging point over the River Witham that flows to Boston.
By 1150, Lincoln was amongst the wealthiest towns in Britain.
The dissolution of the monasteries further exacerbated Lincoln's problems, and between 1642 and 1651, during the English Civil War, Lincoln was on the frontier between the Royalist and Parliamentary forces.
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