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Encyclopedia > Lin Biao
An artistic rendition of Mao Zedong and Lin Biao as his heir apparent in the style of socialist realism in the prime of the Cultural Revolution. The Chinese caption reads "Advance along the victorious revolutionary line of Chairman Mao!"
An artistic rendition of Mao Zedong and Lin Biao as his heir apparent in the style of socialist realism in the prime of the Cultural Revolution. The Chinese caption reads "Advance along the victorious revolutionary line of Chairman Mao!"

Lin Biao (Chinese: 林彪; Pinyin: Lín Biāo; Wade-Giles: Lin Piao) (December 5, 1907 - September 13, 1971) was a Chinese Communist military and political leader, once known as Mao Zedong's comrade-in-arms, but later condemned as a traitor. Image File history File links Lb01. ... Image File history File links Lb01. ...   (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976) (also Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles transliteration) was a Chinese Marxist military and political leader, who led the Chinese Communist Party to victory against the Kuomintang (KMT) in the Chinese Civil War, leading to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 Socialist realism is a teleologically-oriented style of realistic art which has as its purpose the furtherance of the goals of socialism and communism. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: WúchÇŽn JiÄ“jí Wénhuà Dà Gémìng; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the People... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976) (also Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles transliteration) was a Chinese Marxist military and political leader, who led the Chinese Communist Party to victory against the Kuomintang (KMT) in the Chinese Civil War, leading to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China...

Contents

Revolutionary

The son of a small landlord and a native of Huanggang, Hubei province, Lin joined the Socialist Youth League (1925) and matriculated at Whampoa Military Academy when he was 18. While at Whampoa he became the protégé of both Zhou Enlai and the Soviet General Vasily Blyukher. Less than a year later, he was ordered to participate in the Northern Expedition, rising from deputy platoon leader to battalion commander in the National Revolutionary Army within a few months. Lin graduated from Whampoa in 1925 and by 1927 was a colonel. Huanggang City (黃冈) is a major municipality (known as a Prefecture until 1995) in eastern Hubei Province, China. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Communist Youth League of China (中国共产主义青年团; abbr. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Nationalist Party of China Army Officer Academy (Chinese: 中國國民黨陸軍軍官學校; pinyin: ), commonly known as the Whampoa Military Academy (Chinese: 黃埔軍校; pinyin: ), was a military academy in China that produced many prestigious commanders who fought in the Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War. ... This is a Chinese name, Zhou is the surname. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem(s): The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev... Marshal of the Soviet Union Vasily Blyukher Vasily Konstantinovich Blyukher (also spelled Blücher, Blukher, Bliukher etc, Russian: Василий Константинович Блюхер) (November 19, 1889 - November 9... The Northern Expedition (北伐) was a military campaign led by the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) and the Communist Party of China from 1926 to 1927. ... The National Revolutionary Army (NRA) (Chinese: 國民革命軍; pinyin: guo2 min2 ge2 ming4 jun1) was the national army of the Republic of China. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ...


After the KMT-CCP split, Lin escaped to the remote Communist base areas and joined Mao Zedong and Zhu De in Jiangxi in 1928. Lin proved to be a brilliant guerrilla commander and during the 1934 breakout he commanded the First Corps of the Red Army, which fought a two-year running battle with the Kuomintang, which culminated in the occupation of Yan'an in December 1936. Combatants Chinese Nationalists Chinese Communists Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese... Zhu De Zhū Dé (朱德, Wade-Giles: Chu Teh, zi: Yùjiē 玉阶) (December 1, 1886 – July 6, 1976) was a Chinese Communist military leader and statesman. ... Jiangxi (Chinese: 江西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: 中國國民黨; Simplified Chinese: 中国国民党; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting Legislative... Yanan (Chinese: 延安; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yen-an), is a city in Shaanxi province, China. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Lin and Peng Dehuai were generally reckoned to be the Red Army's best battlefield commanders. They do not seem to have been rivals during the Long March. Both of them had supported Mao's rise to de facto leadership at Zunyi in January 1934. According to Harrison E. Salisbury's The Long March, by May 1935 Lin Biao was dissatisfied with Mao's strategy. He says of Mao's circlings to evade the armies of Chiang Kai-shek: "the campaign had begun to look like one of Walt Disney's early cartoons in which Mickey Mouse again and again escaped the clutches of the huge, stupid cat."[1] According to Salisbury, Lin Biao in May 1934 tried to persuade Mao to turn over active command to Peng Dehuai. Peng Dehuai . Péng Déhuái (T. Chinese: 彭德懷, S. Chinese: 彭德怀, Wade-Giles: Peng Te-huai) (October 24, 1898 - November 29, 1974) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader. ... Alternate meaning: Shining Path The Peoples Liberation Army (PLA); Traditional Chinese: 人民解放軍, Simplified Chinese: 人民解放军, pinyin: Rénmín Jiěfàng Jūn), including strategic nuclear forces, an army, navy and air force, serves as the military of... Overview map of the course of the Long March The Long March (Chinese: 長征; Pinyin: ChángzhÄ“ng) was a massive military retreat undertaken by the armies of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the Peoples Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang army. ... Zunyi is a city in Guizhou province in south west China. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887–April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ...

"Lin Biao did not present the bluff, lusty face of Peng Dehuai. He was ten years younger, rather slight, oval-faced, dark, handsome. Peng talked with his men. Lin kept his distance. To many he seemed shy and reserved. There are no stories reflecting warmth and affection for his men. His fellow Red Army commanders respected Lin, but when he spoke it was all business... "The contrast between Mao's top field commanders could hardly have been more sharp, but on the Long March they worked well together, Lin specializing in feints, masked strategy, surprises, ambushes, flank attacks, pounces from the rear, and stratagems. Peng met the enemy head-on in frontal assaults and fought with such fury that again and again he wiped them out. Peng did not believe a battle well fought unless he managed to replenish--and more than replenish--any losses by seizure of enemy guns and converting prisoners of war to new and loyal recruits to the Red Army."[2]

Edgar Snow in Red Star Over China focuses more on the role of Peng than Lin, evidently having long conversations with, and devoting two whole chapters to, Peng (more than any individual apart from Mao). But he says of Lin: Edgar Snow (b. ... Mao Zedong in 1931. ...

"With Mao Zedong, Lin Biao shared the distinction of being one of the few Red commanders never wounded. Engaged on the front in more than a hundred battles, in field command for more than 10 years, exposed to every hardship that his men have known, with a reward of $100,000 on his head, he miraculously remained unhurt and in good health. "In 1932, Lin Biao was given command of the 1st Red Army Corps, which then numbered about 20,000 rifles. It became the most dreaded section of the Red Army. Chielfly due to Lin's extraordinary talent as a tactician, it destroyed, defeated or outmanoeuvred every Government force sent against it and was never broken in battle... "Like many able Red commanders, Lin has never been outside China, speaks and reads no language but Chinese. Before the age of 30, however, he has already won recognition beyond Red circles. His articles in the Chinese Reds' military magazines... have been republished, studied and criticised in Nanking military journals, and also in Japan and Soviet Russia. [3] Nanjing (南京, Pinyin: Nánjīng, Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. ...

Red Star Over China also has an interesting indication that Lin and Mao were close personally. "Between acts at the Anti-Japanese Theatre, there was a general demand for a duet by Mao Zedong and Lin Biao, the twenty-eight year old president of the Red Academy, and formerly a famed young cadet on Chiang Kai-shek's staff. Lin blushed like a schoolboy, and got them out of the 'command performance' by a graceful speech, calling on the women Communist for a song instead."[4] Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887–April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ...


A different view is taken by Jung Chang and Jon Halliday in Mao: The Untold Story, Knopf, 2005), which covers the Mao-Lin relationship in depth: Jung Chang Jung Chang, (Traditional Chinese: 張戎, Simplified Chinese: 张戎, Wade-Giles: Chang Jung, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhāng Róng), (born Er-hong Chang in 1952), is a Chinese-born British writer, best known for her autobiography Wild Swans, selling over 10 million copies worldwide, except in mainland China, where it is... Jon Halliday is a historian of Russia who was a former Senior Visiting Research Fellow at Kings College, University of London. ...

"Lin lauded Mao to the skies in public, although he felt no true devotion to Mao, and at home he would often make disparaging and even disdainful remarks about him, some of which entered his diary. It was out of pure ambition that Lin stood by Mao and boosted him — the ambition to be Mao's No. 2 and successor. He told his wife that he wanted to be 'Engels to Marx, Stalin to Lenin, and Chiang Kai-shek to Sun Yat-sen.'"[5]

According to Chang and Halliday, Lin remained valuable to Mao because, like the Chairman, he continued to put personal power above the interests of the country. In contrast, Peng, who was purged with Lin's help after challenging Mao over the famine in 1959. Peng Dehuai . Péng Déhuái (T. Chinese: 彭德懷, S. Chinese: 彭德怀, Wade-Giles: Peng Te-huai) (October 24, 1898 - November 29, 1974) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader. ... The Three Years of Natural Disasters (Simplified:三年自然灾害; Traditional:三年自然災害; pinyin: sān nián zì rán zāi hài) refers to the period in the Peoples Republic of China between 1959 and 1961, in which a combination of poor economic policies and rounds of natural disasters caused widespread...


Sino-Japanese War

As commander of the 115th Division of the Communist 8th Route Army, Lin orchestrated the ambush at Pingxingguan in September 1937, which was one of the few battlefield successes for the Chinese in the Second Sino-Japanese War (which began before World War II, though it merged into it). After the Battle of Pingxingguan, the Chinese troops captured many of the personal items that belonged to Imperial Japanese Army personnel. Among them is a cloak and a katana which was favored by Lin. He tried the cloak on and took the katana by his side, jumped onto a horse and went for a small "drive". He was then spotted alone by one of the sharpshooters from Fu Zuoyi's troops, who later became the mayor of Beijing after surrendering the city of Beijing to the Communists. The soldier was surprised to see a Japanese official riding a horse in the desolated hills all by himself. He took an aim at Lin Biao in the head and severely injured him. Lin was then given the post of commandant of the Military Academy at Yan'an in 1938. He spent the next three years (1939-1942) in Moscow. After returning to Yan'an, Lin was involved in troop training and indoctrination assignments. The Eighth Route Army (八路軍 Pinyin: bālù-jūn) was one of the main military forces of the Communist Party of China, active during the Chinese Civil War and Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). ... The Battle of Pingxingguan, commonly called the Great Victory of Pingxingguan (平型关大捷) in Mainland China, was an engagement fought between the 8th Route Army of the Chinese Communist Party and the Imperial Japanese Army on September 25, 1937. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Tse-Tung, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The Battle of Pingxingguan, commonly called the Great Victory of Pingxingguan (平型关大捷) in Mainland China, was an engagement fought between the 8th Route Army of the Chinese Communist Party and the Imperial Japanese Army on September 25, 1937. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945 when it was Imperial Japan. ... Katana (刀) is the word for sword in the Japanese language. ... Fu Zuoyi (傅作义, Wades-Giles: Fu Tso-yi) (June 2, 1895-April 19, 1974) was a Chinese military leader. ... Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a city in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Commandant is a military or police title or rank and can mean any of the following: The commander of certain military corps and services, such as the Commandant of the Marine Corps and the Commandant of the Coast Guard in the United States or the Commandant of the (now obsolete... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ...


Chinese Civil War (1945-49)

With the resumption of Civil War after World War II, Lin was made Secretary of the Northeast China Bureau and commanded the Red Army forces that conquered the Manchurian provinces and then swept into North China. In achieving victory, he abandoned the cities and employed Mao's strategy of guerrilla warfare and winning peasant support in the countryside. Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ...


"Within a year he entrapped the core of Chiang Kai-shek's American-armed and American-trained armies, capturing or killing a total of thirty-six generals. Following victory in Manchuria, Lin encircles Chiang's main forces in northern China. Peking [Beijing] surrendered to him without a battle."[6] Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887–April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ...


During this period, several separate Red Armies fought on different fronts. Including Deng Xiaoping's achievements in Central China, which were important to his subsequent power. But Lin Biao's achievements have generally been rated as the decisive breakthrough.


Politician

Lin Biao's exact role in the 1950s is unclear. It seems he was frequently ill, and so had less of a role that his achievements might have entitled him to.


In his autobiography, Dr. Li Zhisui, Mao's personal physician, writes that Lin was mentally unbalanced rather than suffering from any chronic physical illness. Li's account of Lin's condition is quite a bit different from the official Chinese version, both before and after Lin's fall. Dr. Li Zhisui (b. ...


Although Snow writes that Lin led Chinese forces in Korea, this is incorrect. Lin, the rest of the Politburo, initially opposed China's entry into the Korean War.[7] In early October 1950, Peng Dehuai was named commander of the Chinese forces bound for Korea, and Lin went to the Soviet Union for medical treatment. Lin flew to the Soviet Union with Zhou Enlai and participated in negotiations with Stalin concerning Soviet support for China's intervention, suggesting that Mao still trusted Lin despite his opposition to joining the war.


Due to periods of ill health and physical rehabilitation in the USSR, Lin was slow in his rise to power. In 1958 he was named to the Politburo Standing Committee. In 1959, after the Lushan Conference, Peng Dehuai was removed from his position as Minister of Defence and replaced by Lin Biao. As Defence Minister, Lin's policies differed from that of his predecessor. "Lin Biao's reforms aimed at 'de-Russification'. 'Professional-officer-cast' mentality was fought, titles and insignia of rank were abolished, special officer privileges ended, the Yenan type of soldier-peasant-worker combination was restored, and the Thought of Mao Tse-tung superseded all other ideological texts..."[8] 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú Chángwù WÄ›iyuánhuì) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 and includes the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. ... The Lushan Conference otherwise known as the Lushan Plenum or the Eighth Plenum of the Eighth Central Committee began on July 23, 1959 and was an informal discussion about the Great Leap Forward. ... Yanan (延安, pinyin Yánān, or Yen-an in Wade-Giles), is a city in Shaanxi province, China. ...


In 1965 an article on revolution in developing countries, entitled Long Live the Victory of the People's War!, was published in Lin's name. The article likened the 'emerging forces' of the poor in Asia, Africa, and Latin America to the 'rural areas of the world', while the affluent countries of the West were likened to the 'cities of the world'. Eventually the 'cities' would be encircled by revolutions in the 'rural areas', following the Thought of Mao Tse-tung. Lin made no promise that China would fight other people's wars, however. They were advised to depend mainly on 'self-reliance'. Lin worked closely with Mao, creating a cult of personality for him. Lin compiled some of Chairman Mao's writings into handbook, the Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong, which became known simply as "the Little Red Book." Billboard of Joseph Stalin. ... Cover of Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong with Chinese words Supreme Directives Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong (毛主席语录 Pinyin: Máo Zhǔxí Yǔlù), better known in the West as The Little Red Book, has been published by the Government of the Peoples Republic of China since 1966. ...


Lin Biao's military reforms and the success of the Sino-Indian War (1962) impressed Mao. A propaganda campaigned called "learn from the People's Liberation Army" followed. In 1966, this campaigned widen into the Cultural Revolution. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Wúchǎn Jiējí Wénhuà Dà Gémìng; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the People...


After the purging of Liu Shaoqi during the Cultural Revolution, on April 1, 1969, at the CCP's Ninth Congress, Lin Biao emerged as primary military power and second in ranking behind Mao Zedong in the party. Even the party constitution was modified to name Lin as Mao's special successor. Liu Shaoqi Liu Shaoqi (Simplified Chinese: 刘少奇 Traditional Chinese: 劉少奇 pinyin: Liú Shàoqí; Wade-Giles: Liu Shao-chi) (November 24, 1898 – November 12, 1969) was a leader of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Peoples Republic of China. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... The National Congress of the Communist Party of China (中国共产党全国代表大会 Pinyin: Zhōnguó Gòngchǎndǎng Quánguó Dàibiǎo Dàhuì) is a party congress that is held about once every five years. ...


As the Cultural Revolution spun out of control, the People's Liberation Army, under Lin's command, effectively took over the country from the party.


Attempted Coup and Downfall

Lin disappeared in 1971, after the failure of an attempted coup. The circumstances surrounding Lin's death remain clouded. He became China's second-in-charge on April 1, 1969, and advocated the restoration of the position of State President, held by Liu Shaoqi until his disgrace. The purpose of the restoration was to ensure a legal transition to power in the event of Mao's death. On August 23, 1970, the CCP held the second plenum of its Ninth Congress in Lushan, where Lin would speak for restoration of the position of President along with his supporter Chen Boda. Liu Shaoqi Liu Shaoqi (Simplified Chinese: 刘少奇 Traditional Chinese: 劉少奇 pinyin: Liú Shàoqí; Wade-Giles: Liu Shao-chi) (November 24, 1898 – November 12, 1969) was a leader of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Peoples Republic of China. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... Lushan is famous for its villas. ... Chén Bódá (陈伯达) was born 1904 in Huian (China) and died September 20, 1989 in Beijing. ...


Some historians believe Mao had become uncomfortable with Lin's power and had planned to purge him and Lin planned a pre-emptive coup. The Chinese government explanation was that Lin, with the help of his son Lin Liguo, had planned to assassinate Mao sometime between September 8 and 10, 1971. According to the memoir of Dr. Li Zhisui, then Mao's personal physician, Lin's own daughter, Lin Liheng (Doudou), inadvertently exposed her father's plot. Doudou had become estranged from her mother Ye Qun and incorrectly believed that her mother was plotting against her father. September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... Dr. Li Zhisui (b. ... Lin Liheng (Chinese character: 林立衡; Pinyin: Lín Lìhéng; born 1944) was the daughter of Lin Biao. ... Ye Qun (叶群), wife of Lin Biao (林彪), mostly known taking care of politics for her (assumed) drug-addicted husband. ...


As his plans failed, Lin and his family (his wife Ye Qun and his son) and several personal aides attempted to flee to the Soviet Union. They were chased to the airport by armed PLA officers and guards. According to the PRC account of Lin's death, their prearranged plane did not take onboard enough fuel before taking off and the plane is said to have crashed in Mongolia on September 13, 1971 after running out of fuel, and all on board were killed. After the crash, the Soviets sent a number of field scientists to inspect the scene. The most surprising and mysterious fact is that the scientists concluded that the plane was on its way back to China when it crashed. Ye Qun (叶群), wife of Lin Biao (林彪), mostly known taking care of politics for her (assumed) drug-addicted husband. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ...


Li Zhisui writes that there was a feeling of relief in the Chinese government when word came from Mongolia that there were no survivors. Zhou Enlai reportedly said, "死得好, 死得好" (it's good that they're dead).[citation needed] Dr. Li Zhisui (b. ... This is a Chinese name, Zhou is the surname. ...


One view is that Lin opposed the rapprochement with the USA, which Zhou Enlai was organising with Mao's approval. This was contrary to Lin's strategy of 'People's War'. Lin, unlike Mao, did not have a history of making compromises and retreats when it suited him. The French for bring together. Used in English to describe the theory (that) says that children are best able to explore when they have the knowledge of a secure base to return to in times of need. See Attachment theory This article is a stub. ... This is a Chinese name, Zhou is the surname. ...


There was also claims that Lin was secretly negotiating with the Kuomintang on Taiwan to restore the KMT government in China in return for a high position in the new government. These claims were never formally confirmed nor denied by either the Chinese or Taiwanese governments.[citation needed] The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: 中國國民黨; Simplified Chinese: 中国国民党; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting Legislative...


Most of the high military command was purged within a few weeks of Lin's disappearance. The National Day celebrations on October 1, 1971 were cancelled. The news of Lin Biao's plot and disappearance was withheld from the general public for nearly a year. When it did break, the people felt betrayed by Mao's "best pupil." October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ...


In the years after Lin's death, Jiang Qing, Mao's fourth wife and a former political ally of Lin's, started the Criticize Confucius, Criticize Lin Biao campaign, aimed at using Lin's scarred image to attack Zhou Enlai. Like many major proponents of the Cultural Revolution, Lin's image was manipulated after the movement; many negative aspects of the Cultural Revolution were blamed on Lin and later on the so-called Gang of Four. Lin was never politically rehabilitated. Madame Mao Jiang Qing (Chinese: 江青; Pinyin: Jiāng QÄ«ng; Wade-Giles: Chiang Ching) (March 1914 ~ May 14, 1991) stage name Lan Ping 蓝苹 (Blue Apple), wife of Mao Zedong, and also known as Madame Mao. ... Criticize Confucius, Criticize Lin Biao was a campaign started by Maos fourth wife Jiang Qing that lasted from 1972 and 1974, which was an extension of the then-current anti-Lin Biao campaign. ... This is a Chinese name, Zhou is the surname. ... The Gang of Four on trial The Gang of Four (Chinese: 四人帮; pinyin: ) was a group of Communist Party leaders in the Peoples Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong, and were blamed for the...


Quotations

  • "Study Chairman Mao's writings, follow his teachings, act according to his instructions, and be a good soldier of his." - Foreword of The Little Red Book
  • "Sailing the sea needs a helmsman; making a revolution needs Mao Zedong thought."
  • Comrade Mao Zedong is the greatest Marxist and Leninist of our time. Comrade Mao Zedong ingeniously, creatively, and completely inherited, defended and developed Marxism and Leninism, and upgraded Marxism and Leninism to a brand-new stage."

References

  1. ^ Harrison Salisbury The Long March, page 188
  2. ^ Harrison Salisbury, The Long March, pp. 191-192
  3. ^ Edgar Snow, Red Star Over China, Victor Gollancz 1937, pages 109-110.Page 135 in the 1972 Penguin edition, which has a few revisions.
  4. ^ Snow, Red Star Over China, p. 84
  5. ^ Chang and Halliday, Mao: The Untold Story, p. 504
  6. ^ Edgar Snow, Red Star Over China, 1972 Penguin edition p. 548
  7. ^ Chen Jian, China's Road to the Korean War, Goncharov, Lewis and Xue's Uncertain Partners, Shen Zhihua, Mao Zedong, Sidalin, yu Chaoxian Zhanzheng
  8. ^ Edgar Snow, Red Star Over China biographical notes in the 1972 Penguin edition, pp.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Long March Leaders - Marshal Lin Biao (548 words)
Lin was born October 7, 1907, in a Lin Family village in Hubei Province, where his father ran a small factory that was ruined by a Warlord's extortion.
Lin who had opposed China's entry into the Korean War was Mao's first choice to command the Chinese "volunteers" in Korea but Lin pleaded illness and flew off to Moscow for treatment.
Lin was named vice-premier of the state council in 1954, vice-chairman of the party in 1958, and defense minister in 1959, and he was proclaimed the second-ranking member of the party in 1966.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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