FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Limestone" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Limestone
Limestone cropping at São Pedro de Moel beach, Marinha Grande, Portugal.
Limestone cropping at São Pedro de Moel beach, Marinha Grande, Portugal.
Iron impregnations in limestone
Iron impregnations in limestone
A stratigraphic section of Ordovician limestone exposed in central Kentucky, USA. The less-resistant and thinner beds are composed of shale
Thin-section view of a Middle Jurassic limestone in southern Utah. The round grains are ooids; the largest is 1.2 mm in diameter. This limestone is an oosparite.

Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the mineral calcite (calcium carbonate: CaCO3). Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed of the mineral calcite (calcium carbonate). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,488 × 1,984 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,488 × 1,984 pixels, file size: 1. ... São Pedro de Moel is a small village near Leiria, well-known as a beach-holiday destination on the west coast of Portugal. ... Marinha Grande is a city in Portugal with a population of 30,000 inhabitants. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 513 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 818 pixel, file size: 279 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photograph. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 513 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 818 pixel, file size: 279 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photograph. ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... Thin-section of calcitic ooids from the Carmel Formation, Middle Jurassic, of southern Utah, USA. The largest is 1. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ...

Contents

Description

Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or flint, as well as varying amounts of clay, silt and sand as disseminations, nodules, or layers within the rock. The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. These organisms secrete shells that settle out of the water column and are deposited on ocean floors as pelagic ooze or alternatively is conglomerated in a coral reef (see lysocline for information on calcite dissolution). Secondary calcite may also be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves). This produces speleothems such as stalagmites and stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is that of oolites (oolitic limestone) which can be recognized by its granular appearance. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks [citation needed]. The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... Chert Chert (IPA: ) is a fine-grained silica-rich cryptocrystalline sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. ... This article is about the sedimentary rock. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Scale diagram of the layers of the pelagic zone. ... The lysocline is a term used in geology, geochemistry and marine biology to denote the depth in the ocean below which the rate of dissolution of calcite increases dramatically. ... The term supersaturation refers to a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Missing main definition------ someone add if you know it please. ... For other uses, see Cave (disambiguation). ... A speleothem (from the Greek for cave deposit) is a formal term for what is also known as a cave formation, or amongst cavers, collectively known as pretties. ... The Witchs Finger in the Carlsbad Caverns A stalagmite (from the Greek stalagma (Σταλαγμίτης), drop or drip) is a type of speleothem that rises from the floor of a limestone cave due to the dripping of mineralized solutions and the deposition of calcium carbonate. ... Water droplet coming out of the central canal of a stalactite A stalactite (Greek stalaktites, (Σταλακτίτης), from the word for drip and meaning that which drips) is a type of speleothem(secondary mineral) that hangs from the ceiling or wall of limestone caves. ... For other uses, see Oolite (disambiguation). ...


Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Solvation is the attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. ... Acidity is a controversial novelette written for the popular South Asian website Chowk. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ...


When conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures.


Karst topography and caves develop in carbonate rocks due to their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation. Karst topography occurs when a landscape is marked by underground drainage patterns. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... For other uses, see Cave (disambiguation). ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Missing main definition------ someone add if you know it please. ...


Coastal limestones are often eroded by organisms which bore into the rock by various means. This process is known as bioerosion. It is most common in the tropics, and it is known throughout the fossil record (see Taylor and Wilson, 2003). Bioerosion describes the erosion of hard ocean substrates by living organisms by a number of mechanisms. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ...


Pure limestone is almost white. Because of impurities, such as clay, sand, organic remains, iron oxide and other materials, many limestones exhibit different colors, especially on weathered surfaces. Limestone may be crystalline, clastic, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, quartz, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. Folk and Dunham classifications are used to describe limestones more precisely. For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ... Weathering is the decomposition of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the Earths atmosphere. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dolomite (disambiguation). ... Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. ... Folk Classification, devised by Folk in 1959, describes the application of Folk taxonomy in describing calcareous rocks. ... The Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks was devised by Dunham in 1964, and refined by Embry and Klovan in 1971 to include sediments that were organically bound during deposition. ...


Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly where there are waterfalls and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution that is supersaturated with chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. Travertine Travertine terraces at Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park A carving in travertine Travertine is a sedimentary rock. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... Tufa is the name for an unusual geological formation. ... Categories: Stub ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ...


During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny) limestone recrystallizes into marble. Metamorphism can be defined as the solid state recrystallisation of pre-existing rocks due to changes in heat and/or pressure and/or introduction of fluids i. ... // Orogeny (Greek for mountain generating) is the process of mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ...


Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Parent material, in soil science, means the underlying bedrock from which soil horizons form. ... Mollisols are a soil order in USA soil taxonomy. ... SOiL was originally a five piece rock band from Chicago, Illinois, United States, founded by Shaun Glass, Tim King, Tom Schofield, and Adam Zadel. ...


Limestone landscape

Main article: Karst topography

Limestone is partially soluble, especially in acid, and therefore forms many erosional landforms. These include limestone pavements, pot holes, cenotes, caves and gorges. Such erosion landscapes are known as karsts. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks, but more resistant than most other sedimentary rocks. Limestone is therefore usually associated with hills and downland and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks, typically clays. Karst topography is a three-dimensional landscape shaped by the dissolution of a soluble layer or layers of bedrock, usually carbonate rock such as limestone or dolomite. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... A landform comprises a geomorphological unit, and is largely defined by its surface form and location in the landscape, as part of the terrain, and as such, is typically an element of topography. ... Limestone pavement above Malham Cove A limestone pavement is a natural karst landform consisting of a flat, incised surface of exposed limestone that resembles artificial pavement. ... The city of Los Angeles is famous for its large potholes. ... Sacred Cenote, Chichén Itzá Cenote in Quintana Roo, Mexico Cenote (pronounced in Spanish seh-no-teh and in English say-no-tay, plural: cenotes) is the name given in Central America and southern Mexico to a type of freshwater-filled limestone sinkhole. ... For other uses, see Cave (disambiguation). ... A gorge is a narrow passage between steep mountains or hills. ... Resistance can mean one of: electrical resistance antibiotic resistance resistance to a disease (see related subject immunology) a political resistance movement military resistance against foreign occupation geological resistance fluid resistance thermal resistance This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ...


Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth's surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. Examples include the Burren in Co. Clare, Ireland; the Verdon Gorge in France; Malham Cove in North Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight[1], England; on Fårö near the Swedish island of Gotland, the Niagara Escarpment in Canada/USA, Notch Peak in Utah, and the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Burren landscape The Burren (from Irish: , meaning great rock; Boirinn is the modern form used by the Ordnance Survey) is a unique karst-landscape region in northwest County Clare, in the Republic of Ireland. ... Grand Canyon du Verdon, view from north rim The Verdon Gorge (in French: Gorges du Verdon or Grand canyon du Verdon), in south-eastern France (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence), is a river canyon that is considered by many to be Europes most beautiful. ... Malham Cove and Malham Beck Malham Cove is a natural limestone formation, known as a national beauty spot, near Malham, North Yorkshire, England. ... North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county, located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county in that region and also partly in North East England. ... For other uses, see Isle of Wight (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Map of Sweden highlighting Gotlands location. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ... Rattlesnake Point near Milton, Ontario. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Halong Bay is a body of water of approximately 1,500 square kilometres in north Vietnam with a 120 kilometre coastline, in the Gulf of Tonkin near the border with China, and 170 kilometres east of Hanoi. ...


Unique habitats are found on alvars, extremely level expanses of limestone with thin soil mantles. The largest such expanse in Europe is the Stora Alvaret on the island of Oland, Sweden. Alvar on the shoreline of Lake Eries Kelleys Island An alvar or pavement barren is a limestone plain with thin or no soil and, as a result, sparse vegetation. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Stora Alvaret on southeast of Öland with Eketorp Fortress in background. ... Oland (Danish: Øland, Frisian: Ualöönist) is a Hallig, a small island belonging to the North Frisian Islands of Germany. ...


Huge quarries in northwestern Europe, such as those of Mount Saint Peter (Belgium/Netherlands), extend for more than a hundred kilometers.


Uses of limestone

Limestone is especially popular in architecture, and many landmarks around the world, especially in North America and Europe, are made primarily of the material. So many buildings in Kingston, Ontario, Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed the 'Limestone City'. Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. However, it is a very heavy material, making it impractical for tall buildings. It is also quite expensive. This article is about building architecture. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Murney Tower, Kingston The Fort Henry Guard performing an historical demonstration The Prince George Hotel. ...

Courthouse built of limestone in Manhattan, Kansas
Courthouse built of limestone in Manhattan, Kansas
A limestone plate with a negative map of Moosburg in Bavaria is prepared for a lithography print
A limestone plate with a negative map of Moosburg in Bavaria is prepared for a lithography print

Limestone was most popular in the early 20th and late 19th centuries. Train stations, banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone. Limestone is used as a facade on some skyscrapers, but only in thin plates for covering rather than solid blocks. In the United States, Indiana, most notably the Bloomington area, has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone, called Indiana limestone. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1132x1560, 468 KB) Summary Riley County Courthouse in Manhattan, Kansas, USA. Taken October, 2005 modified with the GIMP. Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Manhattan, Kansas User:Kzollman/Images ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1132x1560, 468 KB) Summary Riley County Courthouse in Manhattan, Kansas, USA. Taken October, 2005 modified with the GIMP. Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Manhattan, Kansas User:Kzollman/Images ... Riley County Courthouse, Manhattan Manhattan is a town located in northeastern Kansas at the junction of the Kansas River and Big Blue River. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 403 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Limestone ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 403 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Limestone ... Moosburg-an-der-Isar in Bavaria is the oldest town between south of the Danube river and north of Italy, with a population of 18,000 inhabitants. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Indiana limestone is a common term for Salem limestone, a geological formation primarily found in southern Indiana. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Portland Stone is limestone from the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset. ...


Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred since it is hard, durable, and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. Adit of the Beer Stone wine in the cliffs east of Branscombe, Devon Beer stone is a creamy-white, fine-textured limestone that takes its name from the town of Beer, Devon, where it was quarried and mined from Roman times. ...


Limestone and marble are very reactive to acid solutions, making acid rain a significant problem. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone, which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner. The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ...


Other uses include

Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime or quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... Calcium hydroxide is a chemical compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... Mortar holding weathered bricks. ... Limestone Quarry Construction aggregate, or simply, aggregate, is a broad category of coarse particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, and recycled concrete. ... Interstate road cut through limestone and shale strata in eastern Tennessee In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguishes it from contiguous layers. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - creator of the process of refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... A reagent is a material used to start a {[chemical reaction]}. For example hydrochloric acid is the chemical reagent that would cause calcium carbonate to release carbon dioxide. ... Flue gas desulfurization is technology that employs a sorbent, usually lime or limestone, to remove sulfur dioxide(SO2) from the gases produced by burning fossil fuels. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Isle of Wight, Minerals. Retrieved on 2006-10-08.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Taylor, P.D. and Wilson, M.A., 2003. Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities. Earth-Science Reviews 62: 1-103.[1]

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Limestone

  Results from FactBites:
 
Limestone Information | Business.com (212 words)
View product surfaces, dimensions and prices for limestone and natural stone tiles, slabs and stones from this supply and export company.
Full service quarrier and supplier of limestone to US building projects.
Also includes general information about limestone, its makeup and uses.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m