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Encyclopedia > Limburgish
Limburgish
Limburgs
Spoken in: Netherlands (Limburg), Belgium (Limburg and some villages in Wallonia), a small part of Germany 
Region: Limburg
Total speakers: 1,600,000 (est.)
Language family: Indo-European
 Germanic
  West Germanic
   Meuse-Rhenish
    Limburgish 
Official status
Official language of: the Netherlands (as a regional language); no official status in Belgium
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: li
ISO 639-2: lim
ISO 639-3: lim 
Position of Limburgish (Blue) among the other Dutch dialects.

Limburgish, or Limburgian or Limburgic (Dutch: Limburgs, German: Limburgisch, French: Limbourgeois) is a group of Franconian varieties, spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, near the common Dutch / Belgian / German border. The area in which it is spoken roughly fits within a wide circle from Venlo to Düsseldorf to Aachen to Maastricht to Hasselt and back to Venlo. Limburgish is recognised as a regional language (Dutch: streektaal) in the Netherlands and as such it receives moderate protection under chapter 2 of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Germanic languages in Europe are divided into North (blue) and West Germanic (green and orange) Languages  Low Saxon-Low Franconian (Dutch)  High German (standard German, Schwyzerdütsch)  Insular Anglo-Frisian (English, Scots)  Continental Anglo-Frisian (Frisian)  East North Germanic (Danish, BokmÃ¥l Norwegian, Swedish)  West North Germanic (Nynorsk Norwegian... Meuse-Rhenish is a modern, superordinating term in the geography of the southeastern Low Franconian dialects spoken in the greater Meuse-Rhine area. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links LIMBURGS2. ... Image File history File links LIMBURGS2. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Low Franconian is any of several West Germanic languages spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium, and South Africa. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Venlo ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Duesseldorf. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province Limburg Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... Hasselt municipality and district in the province Limburg Hasselt is a Belgian city and municipality, and capital of the Flemish province of Limburg. ... Venlo ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ...

Contents

Meuse-Rhenish

In Germany, it is common to consider the Limburgish varieties as belonging to the Low Franconian languages; in the Netherlands and Belgium however all these are tradionally seen as West Central German, part of High German. This difference is caused by a difference in definition: the linguists of the Low Countries define a High German variety as one that has taken part in any of the first three phases of the High German consonant shift. In German sources, the dialects linguistically counting as Limburgish spoken east from the river Rhine are often called "Bergisch". West of the river Rhine they are called "Low Rhenish", "Limburgish" or "Ripuarian". Limburgish is not recognised by the German government as an official language. Both Limburgish and Low Rhenish belong to the greater Meuse-Rhine area, a large group of southeastern Low Franconian dialects, including areas in Belgium, the Netherlands and the German Northern Rhineland. The northwestern part of this triangle became under the influence of the Dutch standard language, especially since the founding of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815. The southeastern part became a part of the Kingdom of Prussia at the same time, and from then it was subject to High German language domination. At the dialectal level however, mutual understanding is still possible far beyond both sides of the national borders. This superordinating group is called Meuse-Rhenish (Dutch: Maas-Rijnlands, German: Rheinmaasländisch), as suggested by the Amsterdam linguist Ad Welschen. It can be divided into Northern and Southern varieties. Hence, Limburgish is Southern Meuse-Rhenish as spoken in the Netherlands and Belgium. Low Franconian is any of several West Germanic languages spoken in The Netherlands, northern Belgium, and South Africa. ... West Central German (Westmitteldeutsch) is a High German dialect family in the German language. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... High German subdivides into Upper German (green) and Central German (blue), and is distinguished from Low German (yellow). ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... Low Franconian language area with West Meuse-Rhenish: ([5] and [6]) Low Rhenish is the German name for the regional Low Franconian language varieties of the Low Germanic language spoken alongside the so-called Lower Rhine in the west of Germany and the adjacent regions in the Netherlands. ... Meuse is a département in northeast France, named after the Meuse River. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 1839 1, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830) 1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830) 2 Duchy of Limburg (In the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg) 3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Subdivisions Central German Upper German High German (in German, Hochdeutsch) is any of several German dialects spoken in Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg (as well as in neighbouring portions of Belgium, France (Alsace), Italy, Poland, and Romania (Transylvania) and in some areas of former colonial settlement, for example in... Meuse-Rhenish is a modern, superordinating term in the geography of the southeastern Low Franconian dialects spoken in the greater Meuse-Rhine area. ... Southern Meuse-Rhenish, or <more obsolete> Zuidrijnmaasfrankisch, also to be defined as South-east Low Franconian, is a subdivision of what recently has been named Meuse-Rhenish. ...


Dutch and Belgian Limburgish

This article is a part of the
Dutch dialects series.

Limburgish is spoken by approximately 1,600,000 people in the Low Countries and by many hundreds of thousands in Germany, depending on definition. The varieties of Limburgish spoken within Flemish (Belgian) territory are more influenced by French than those spoken on Dutch and German soil. The language has similarities with both German and Dutch and Hendrik van Veldeke, a medieval writer from the region, is referred to as both one of the earlier writers in German and one the earliest writers in Dutch. Dutch (  ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... Image File history File links Dutchdialectpic. ... Brabantian or Brabantic (Dutch: Brabants) is a dialect of the Dutch language spoken in Noord-Brabant and in the Belgian provinces of Antwerpen and Vlaams-Brabant and small parts in the west of Limburg. ... Hollandic (Dutch: Hollands) is, together with Brabantic, the most frequently used dialect of the Dutch language. ... West Flemish (in West Flemish, Vlaemsch) is a group of dialects, spoken in parts of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. ... Position of West Flemish/Zealandic within the Dutch speaking area (Islands only) Zeelandic (Zeêuws in Zeelandic, Zeeuws in Dutch) is a regional language spoken in the Dutch province of Zeeland and on the South Holland island of Goeree-Overflakkee. ... East Flemish is a dialect of the Dutch language, which is a Low Franconian language. ... Position of Zuid-Gelders (Marked dark Blue) within the Dutch speaking area Zuid-Gelders (Kleverlands) is the dialect of the Dutch language that is spoken in the Veluwezoom, around Nijmegen, in the Bommelerwaard, other areas of the Netherlands, and traditionally parts of Germany including Duisburg and partly Wuppertal up to... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Limburgish, or Limburgian or Limburgic (Dutch: Limburgs, German: Limburgisch, French: Limbourgeois) is a group of Franconian varieties, spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, near the common Dutch / Belgian / German border. ... It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Hendrik van Veldeke (Dutch) or Heinrich von Veldeke (German; b. ...


Unlike most European languages, Limburgish is a tonal language having two tones. Other European languages known to be marginally tonal are Lithuanian, Slovenian, Swedish, Norwegian and the Yugoslav languages, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...


Limburgish also shows signs of a possible Celtic substrate which is indicated by a larger number of words that have Celtic origins in Limburgish than in other West Germanic dialects. The area originally was inhabited by Celtic tribes. The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Subdivisions of the Limburgish

Noord-Limburgs (ik-Limburgs) from Venlo upward to the North in the Netherlands is the form of Limburgish, which has features of the Zuid-Gelders dialect. Venlo ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. ... Position of Zuid-Gelders (Marked dark Blue) within the Dutch speaking area Zuid-Gelders (Kleverlands) is the dialect of the Dutch language that is spoken in the Veluwezoom, around Nijmegen, in the Bommelerwaard, other areas of the Netherlands, and traditionally parts of Germany including Duisburg and partly Wuppertal up to...


Centraal-Limburgs is a concept used in Germany, which includes the area around Maastricht, Sittard, Roermond, the eastern half of Belgian Limburg, and the Belgian Voeren area, and stretches further Northeast. Belgian linguists use a more refined classification. They use the term Oost-Limburgs for the form of Limburgish spoken in an area from Belgian Voeren south of Maastricht in the Netherlands to the German border. For them, West-Limburgs is the variety of Limburgish spoken around Hasselt, Veldeke and Tongeren in Belgium. It includes areas in Dutch Limburg and Dutch Brabant. The border of West-Limburgs and Oost-Limburgs starts a little south of the area between the villages of 's-Gravenvoeren and Sint-Martens-Voeren in the Belgian municipality of Voeren. Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province Limburg Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... Sittard-Geleen is a municipality in the southeastern Netherlands. ... Country Netherlands Province Limburg Area (2006)  - Municipality 46. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Limburg Arrondissement Tongeren Coordinates , , Area 50. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Limburg Arrondissement Tongeren Coordinates , , Area 50. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province Limburg Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... Hasselt municipality and district in the province Limburg Hasselt is a Belgian city and municipality, and capital of the Flemish province of Limburg. ... Van Veldeke monument in Hasselt. ... Tongeren is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg near Hasselt. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Limburg Arrondissement Tongeren Coordinates , , Area 50. ...


Südostniederfränkisch is a concept used in Germany to describe the linguistic situation in a large area in Germany around Heinsberg, Viersen, Mönchengladbach and Krefeld. An area close to Westphalia is considered as being the area where Bergisch is spoken. This area is limited roughly by a line Düsseldorf-Mettmann-Solingen-Remscheid. For a more encompassing view, see the article on Low Rhenish. Heinsberg is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, capital of the district Heinsberg. ... Viersen is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Mönchengladbach is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Krefeld is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Westphalia (German: Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Bielefeld, Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster, and Osnabrück and included in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. ... Berg was a medieval territory in todays North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Duesseldorf. ... Mettmann is a North-Rhine-Westphalian (Germany) town and the administrative centre of the District of Mettmann, Germanys most densely populated rural district. ... Müngstener Brücke, a railroad bridge between Solingen and Remscheid. ... Remscheid is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Low Franconian language area with West Meuse-Rhenish: ([5] and [6]) Low Rhenish is the German name for the regional Low Franconian language varieties of the Low Germanic language spoken alongside the so-called Lower Rhine in the west of Germany and the adjacent regions in the Netherlands. ...


Southeast Limburgish (Zuidoost-Limburgs) is spoken around Kerkrade, Bocholtz and Vaals in the Netherlands, Aachen in Germany and Raeren and Eynatten in Belgium, in Germany considered as Ripuarian, not always as Limburgish. According to a contemporary vision, all varieties in a wider half circle some 15 to 20 KM around Aachen, including 2/3 of Dutch South Limburg and also the so-called Low Dietsch area between Voeren and Eupen in Belgium can be taken as a group of its own, which recently has been named Limburgish of the Three Countries Area (Dutch: Drielandenlimburgs, German: Dreiländerplatt), referring to the place where the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany meet. Its concept was introduced by Ad Welschen, mainly based on research by Jean Frins (2005, 2006). This variety still possesses interesting syntactic idiosyncrasies, probably dating from the period in which the old Duchy of Limburg existed. Kerkrade is a municipality and a town in the southeastern Netherlands. ... Bocholtz () is a town in the Dutch province of Limburg. ... Vaals is a town in the southeastern Netherlands, in the province of Limburg. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... Geography Country Belgium Region Walloon Region Community German-speaking Community Province Liège Arrondissement Verviers Coordinates Area 74. ... Eynatten is a village in the Belgian municipality of Raeren. ... Ripuarian, Rhinish, or Middle Franconian is a western Germanic dialect group in Rhineland, eastern Belgium and southern Dutch Limburg from northwest of Düsseldorf and Cologne to Aachen in the west, and Siegen in the east. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Limburg Arrondissement Tongeren Coordinates , , Area 50. ... St Nikolaus church in Eupen Eupen is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège, 15 km from the German border (Aachen), from the Dutch border (Maastricht) and from the nature reservation Hohes Venn (Ardennes). ... The Duchy of Limburg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, located between the river Meuse and the city of Aachen. ...


If only tonality is to be taken as to define this variety, it stretches several dozen KM into Germany. In Germany, it is consensus to class it as belonging to High German varieties. But this is a little over-simplified. In order to include this variety properly a more encompassing concept is needed. Meuse-Rhenish will do. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Meuse-Rhenish is a modern, superordinating term in the geography of the southeastern Low Franconian dialects spoken in the greater Meuse-Rhine area. ...


Phonology

The phonology below is based on the variety of West-Limburgs spoken in Hasselt. Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ...


Consonants

Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k
Approximant β̞ j
Affricate
Fricative f v s z ʃ x ɣ h
Trill r
Lateral approximant l

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ...

Vowels

Monophthongs

Front Central Back
Close i iː y yː u uː
Near-close ɪ
Close-mid eː ø øː
Mid ə ɔ
Open-mid ɛ ɛː œ œː œ̃ː ɔː ɔ̃ː
Near-open æ æ̃ː
Open ɑ ɑː ɑ̃ː

/ə/ only occurs in unstressed syllables. /oː/ occurs only in loanwords from Standard Dutch or from English. The nasalised vowels /œ̃ː æ̃ː ɑ̃ː ɔ̃ː/ only in loanwords from French. Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A close-mid vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A mid vowel is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... The open-mid vowels make a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that air escapes partially or wholly through the nose during the production of the sound. ...


/øː œː uː/ are realised as [øə œə uə] before alveolar consonants.


Diphthongs

The diphthongs /iə øɪ eɪ uɪ ɔɪ aɪ ou/ occur, as well as combinations of /uː ɔː ɑː/ + /j/. /aɪ/ only occurs in French loanwords and interjections. An interjection is a part of speech that usually has no grammatical connection to the rest of the sentence and simply expresses emotion on the part of the speaker, although most interjections have clear definitions. ...


/ou/ is realized as [oə] before alveolar consonants, and /eɪ/ is realized as [eə] or [ejə] before


Tone

Limburgish distinguishes two tones on stressed syllables, traditionally known as stoottoon ("push tone") and sleeptoon ("dragging tone"). Different words can be distinguished by tone alone, as well as different forms of a single word. For example, [daːx] with sleeptoon is "day", while [daːx] with stoottoon is "days". Another example is bie with stoottoon means "bee", while bie with sleeptoon means "with". It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ...


Umlaut

Limburgish uses for some nouns Umlaut to form the plural. This use of Umlaut is also known in English : man - men ; goose - geese. In most dialects of Limburgish, you will find Umlaut for some nouns. The more you go to the east, towards Germany, the more you will find plural nouns based on Umlaut.

  • broor - breer (brother - brothers)
  • sjoon - sjeen (shoe - shoes)

See also

This article is a part of the
Dutch dialects series.
  • Meuse-Rhenish
  • Low Rhenish
  • Southern Meuse-Rhenish
  • Zuidoost Limburgs on the Dutch Wikipedia

Dutch (  ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... Image File history File links Dutchdialectpic. ... Brabantian or Brabantic (Dutch: Brabants) is a dialect of the Dutch language spoken in Noord-Brabant and in the Belgian provinces of Antwerpen and Vlaams-Brabant and small parts in the west of Limburg. ... Hollandic (Dutch: Hollands) is, together with Brabantic, the most frequently used dialect of the Dutch language. ... West Flemish (in West Flemish, Vlaemsch) is a group of dialects, spoken in parts of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. ... Position of West Flemish/Zealandic within the Dutch speaking area (Islands only) Zeelandic (Zeêuws in Zeelandic, Zeeuws in Dutch) is a regional language spoken in the Dutch province of Zeeland and on the South Holland island of Goeree-Overflakkee. ... East Flemish is a dialect of the Dutch language, which is a Low Franconian language. ... Position of Zuid-Gelders (Marked dark Blue) within the Dutch speaking area Zuid-Gelders (Kleverlands) is the dialect of the Dutch language that is spoken in the Veluwezoom, around Nijmegen, in the Bommelerwaard, other areas of the Netherlands, and traditionally parts of Germany including Duisburg and partly Wuppertal up to... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Limburgish, or Limburgian or Limburgic (Dutch: Limburgs, German: Limburgisch, French: Limbourgeois) is a group of Franconian varieties, spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, near the common Dutch / Belgian / German border. ... Meuse-Rhenish is a modern, superordinating term in the geography of the southeastern Low Franconian dialects spoken in the greater Meuse-Rhine area. ... Low Franconian language area with West Meuse-Rhenish: ([5] and [6]) Low Rhenish is the German name for the regional Low Franconian language varieties of the Low Germanic language spoken alongside the so-called Lower Rhine in the west of Germany and the adjacent regions in the Netherlands. ... Southern Meuse-Rhenish, or <more obsolete> Zuidrijnmaasfrankisch, also to be defined as South-east Low Franconian, is a subdivision of what recently has been named Meuse-Rhenish. ...

Source

  • Ad Welschen 2000-2005: Course Dutch Society and Culture, International School for Humanities and Social Studies ISHSS, Universiteit van Amsterdam (permission granted)

References

  • Cornelissen, Georg (2003). Kleine niederrheinische Sprachgeschichte (1300-1900) : eine regionale Sprachgeschichte für das deutsch-niederländische Grenzgebiet zwischen Arnheim und Krefeld : met een Nederlandstalige inleiding. Geldern / Venray: Stichting Historie Peel-Maas-Niersgebied.  (German)
  • Frins, Jean (2005): Syntaktische Besonderheiten im Aachener Dreilãndereck. Eine Übersicht begleitet von einer Analyse aus politisch-gesellschaftlicher Sicht. Groningen: RUG Repro [Undergraduate Thesis, Groningen University] (German)
  • Frins, Jean (2006): Karolingisch-Fränkisch. Die plattdůtsche Volkssprache im Aachener Dreiländereck. Groningen: RUG Repro [Master's Thesis, Groningen University] (German)
  • Grootaers, L.; Grauls, J. (1930). Klankleer van het Hasselt dialect. Leuven: de Vlaamsche Drukkerij.  (Dutch)
  • Gussenhoven, C.; Aarts, F. (1999). "The dialect of Maastricht". Journal of the International Phonetic Association 29: 155–166.  (English)
  • Gussenhoven, C.; van der Vliet, P. (1999). "The phonology of tone and intonation in the Dutch dialect of Venlo". Journal of Linguistics 35: 99–135.  (English)
  • Peters, Jörg (2006). "The dialect of Hasselt". Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (1): 117–124.  (English)
  • Staelens, X. (1989). Dieksjneèèr van 't (H)essels. Nederlands-Hasselts Woordenboek. Hasselt: de Langeman.  (Dutch)

External links

Wikipedia
Limburgish edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Modern Germanic languages
Afrikaans | Alemannic | Danish | Dutch | English | Faroese | Frisian | German | Icelandic |
Limburgish | Low German | Luxembourgish | Norwegian | Scots | Swedish | Yiddish

  Results from FactBites:
 
Language in the Netherlands (811 words)
Limburgish is spoken in the two provinces of Limburg (Netherlands and Belgium), and in a few border villages in a small neighbouring part of Germany (the Selfkant area).
Generally speaking, the Limburgish language shares its ancestry with both Dutch and German, and it represents a transition between the Low Franconian dialects in the west (Netherlands) and the Central Franconian (German) dialects in the east.
Limburgish is in many cases the everyday speech of municipal and provincial governments, and it is also used in social intercourse between the government and the people in an endeavor to bridge the gap between administration and citizenry.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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