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Limbo (from the latin limbus meaning edge or boundary) refers to a state after death in Roman Catholic theology, and may refer to two concepts. The Limbo of the Fathers refers to a temporary state of the souls of ancient righteous people before Jesus Christ made it possible for them to enter Heaven. Image File history File links Information_icon. ... Shortcut: WP:WIN Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia and, as a means to that end, also an online community. ... Shortcut: WP:CU Marking articles for cleanup This page is undergoing a transition to an easier-to-maintain format. ... This Manual of Style has the simple purpose of making things easy to read by following a consistent format — it is a style guide. ... Image File history File links Current_event_marker. ... Limbo may refer to the following: Limbo, the Catholic theological concept of limbo. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christ is the English translation of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ...


The Limbo of Children refers to a permanent status of the unbaptized who die in infancy, without having committed any personal sins, but without having been freed from original sin. The Limbo of Children is a theological speculation that has never been defined as official Church dogma. In writings before his election as Pope Benedict XVI in 2005, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger expressed doubts about the concept of limbo as it was "only a theological hypothesis" and "never a defined truth of faith."[1] In 2007, the International Theological Commission called limbo an "unduly restricted view of salvation"[2] Although this report is interpreted as "closing Limbo",[3] the ITC acts as an advisory board and its documents are not considered expressions of Church teaching.[2] They may indicate upcoming official Vatican announcements.[2] Baptism in early Christian art. ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule or the state of having committed such a violation. ... According to Christian tradition, original sin is the general condition of sinfulness (lack of holiness) into which human beings are born (Psalm 51:5). ... This article is becoming very long. ... The International Theological Commission (ITC) is a dicastery of the Roman Curia consisting of 30 Catholic theologians from around the world. ...

Contents

Limbo of the Fathers

"Jesus in Limbo" by Domenico Beccafumi
"Jesus in Limbo" by Domenico Beccafumi

The concept of the limbo of the fathers (limbus patrum), also called Abraham's bosom, refers to people who had lived good lives, but died before Jesus' Resurrection and did not go to heaven, but rather had to wait for Christ to open heaven's gates. This concept of limbo affirms that one can get into heaven only through Jesus Christ but does not portray Moses, etc., as being punished eternally in hell. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x2473, 280 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Limbo Domenico di Pace Beccafumi ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x2473, 280 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Limbo Domenico di Pace Beccafumi ... Domenico di Pace Beccafumi (1486 - 1551), Italian painter, of the school of Siena. ... Abrahams bosom (Luke 16:22,23) refers to the custom of reclining on couches at the dining table, which was prevalent among the Jews, an arrangement which brought the head of one person almost into the bosom of the one who sat or reclined above him. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


The term Limbo does not appear in the Bible, nor is the concept spelled out. Roman Catholics take the term bosom of Abraham, which appears in Luke's story of Lazarus and Dives, to refer to limbo. The bosom of Abraham represents the blissful state where the righteous dead await Judgment Day. As such, this concept corresponds closely to the concept of limbo of the fathers in that it is neither Heaven nor Hell and the people there are waiting to enter paradise. The phrase the Bosom of Abraham is used in the Christian Bible. ... Dives and Lazarus or Lazarus and Dives is a parable spoken by Jesus in the New Testament Book of Luke 16:19-31. ... This article or section should be merged with End times and Last judgment The Last Judgement - Tympanum sculpture at the Abbey Church of Ste-Foy, Conques-en-Rouergue, France In Christian eschatology, the Last Judgement is the ethical-judicial trial, judgement, and punishment/reward of individual humans (assignment to heaven... Paradise, by Jan Bruegel The word paradise is derived from the Avestan word pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek peri-, and -diz (to create, make), a cognate of the English dough. ...


Jesus told the "good thief" that the two of them would be together "this day" in "paradise," (Luke 23:43) but between the Resurrection and the Ascension, Jesus told his followers that he had "not yet ascended to the Father" (John 20:17). A possible resolution to this apparent contradiction lies in the fact that Jesus' statement to the thief can be understood in two different ways, depending on where you place the comma (which was not present in the original manuscripts): either "Truly I say to you, today you shall be with Me in Paradise" or "Truly I say to you today, you shall be with Me in Paradise" (Luke 23:43, NASB). The latter interpretation would be consistent with Jesus' subsequent statement to his followers. By this reading, the good thief waited in limbo until the Resurrection made it possible for him to enter heaven. The Greek Fathers however, who did not accept the concept of limbo, did not see a contradiction in these two statements, and read John 20:17 as a reference to the Ascension of Jesus.


Jesus is also described as preaching to "the spirits in prison" (1 Pet 3:19). Medieval drama sometimes portrayed Christ leading a dramatic assault — The Harrowing of Hell — during the three days between the Crucifixion and the resurrection. In this assault, Jesus freed the souls of the just and escorted them triumphantly into heaven. This imagery is still used in the Eastern Orthodox Church's Holy Saturday liturgy (between Good Friday and Pascha). Medieval theatre refers to the theatre of Europe between the fall of the Roman Empire and the beginning of the Renaissance. ... The Harrowing of Hell is a doctrine in Christian theology referenced in the Apostles Creed, which states that Jesus descended into hell. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... Holy Saturday is the day before Easter in the Christian calendar. ... The word leitourgia is derived from the two Greek words, leos and ergon. Leos, meaning the people of God and Ergon meaning the work. ... Good Friday is the Friday before Easter (Easter always falls on a Sunday). ... Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two...


Limbo of Children

Many Roman Catholic theologians believe that unbaptized children, as well as others lacking the use of reason, go to "the limbo of children" (limbus infantium or limbus puerorum) after death. The Church has never defined this concept dogmatically. The International Theological Commission, which serves in an advisory role to the Vatican and whose "documents are not considered expressions of authoritative church teaching", noted the theory's limitations in a document published April 20, 2007.[2] April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ...


If heaven is a state of supernatural happiness and a union with God, and hell is a state of torture and a separation from God, then limbo is a sort of intermediate state, in which souls are denied the beatific vision, but saved from the torment of hell, according to speculations by many eminent Roman Catholic theologians. Saint Thomas Aquinas described the limbo of children as an eternal state of natural joy, untempered by any sense of loss at how much greater their joy might have been had they been baptized. He argued that this was a reward of natural happiness for natural virtue; a reward of supernatural happiness for merely natural virtue would be inappropriate since, due to original sin, unbaptized children lack the necessary supernatural grace. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... In Roman Catholic theology, the beatific vision is the direct perception of God enjoyed by those who are in Heaven, imparting supreme happiness or blessedness. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... According to Christian tradition, original sin is the general condition of sinfulness (lack of holiness) into which human beings are born (Psalm 51:5). ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ...


The foundational importance of the sacrament of baptism (using water) or the non-sacramental baptism of desire or baptism of blood in Roman Catholic theology gives rise to the argument that the unbaptized are not eligible for entry into heaven, because the original sin of human nature precludes the unbaptized from the beatific vision enjoyed by the souls in heaven. Sacraments in the Roman Catholic Church or preferably, the Catholic Church are efficacious signs, perceptible to the senses, of grace. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... Baptism by desire (Latin Baptismus Flaminis) is a Roman Catholic teaching explaining that those who desire baptism, but are not baptized with water through the Christian ritual, because of death, nevertheless bring about the fruits of Baptism, if their grace of conversion included an internal act of perfect love and... Baptism in early Christian art. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... According to Christian tradition, original sin is the general condition of sinfulness (lack of holiness) into which human beings are born (Psalm 51:5). ... In Roman Catholic theology, the beatific vision is the direct perception of God enjoyed by those who are in Heaven, imparting supreme happiness or blessedness. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Since infants are incapable of either professing their faith or performing acts of Christian charity, the only known means through which they might receive the grace of justification required for salvation is through water baptism (or baptism of blood, as in the case of the martyred Holy Innocents). If, for whatever reason, an infant dies unbaptized (see infant baptism), there is a question about whether such children can be saved. Early Church writers, notably St. Augustine, considered that unbaptized infants were excluded from heaven, and thus went to hell.[4] As noted above, later theologians suggested that such children, being innocent of any personal sins, might go to a state of limbo outside heaven, but without the suffering of hell, enjoying a state of perfect natural happiness. The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ...


Subsequent development on the lot of unbaptized children

The necessity of baptism was defined by a general council of the church, the Council of Florence, Session 11 (Bull Cantate Domino), Feb 4, 1442, and had earlier been affirmed at the local Council of Carthage 417 AD. John Wyclif's attack on the necessity of infant baptism had been condemned by another general council, the Council of Constance, Session 15, July 6, 1415 AD. However, the Council of Trent, Session 6, 1547[5] taught that either baptism or desire for baptism is necessary for salvation, so it is possible to be saved without receiving the actual sacrament of baptism. A decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. ... Synods of Carthage During the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries the town of Carthage in Africa served as the meeting-place of a large number of church synods, of which, however, only the most important can be treated here. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Baptism by desire (Latin Baptismus Flaminis) is a Roman Catholic teaching explaining that those who desire baptism, but are not baptized with water through the Christian ritual, because of death, nevertheless bring about the fruits of Baptism, if their grace of conversion included an internal act of perfect love and...


If adults could effectively be baptised through a desire for the sacrament when prevented from actually receiving it, perhaps sacramentally unbaptised infants too might be saved by some waterless equivalent of ordinary baptism when prevented. Cajetan, a major 16th-century theologian, suggested that infants dying in the womb before birth, and so before ordinary sacramental baptism could be administered, might be saved through their mother's wish for their baptism. Thus, there was no consensus that the Council of Florence had excluded salvation of infants by such an extra-sacramental equivalents of baptism; and attempts to have Cajetan's theory (that infants dead in the womb can be saved without the sacrament of baptism) condemned as heretical were rejected by the Council of Trent.[6] Thomas Cajetan (cajê-tan or caje-tan) was an Italian cardinal who was born at Gaeta on February 20, 1469; died at Rome on August 9, 1534. ...


Through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries individual theologians (Bianchi in 1768, H. Klee in 1835, Caron in 1855, H. Schell in 1893) continued to formulate theories of how children who died unbaptised might still be saved. By 1952 a theologian such as Ludwig Ott could, in a widely used and well-regarded manual, openly teach the possibility that children who die unbaptised might be saved for heaven[7] — though he still represented their going to limbo as the commonly taught opinion. Even before Vatican II, theologians were widely and freely investigating alternatives to limbo, even if ordinary Catholics had not yet heard of such theories. When in 1984, Joseph Ratzinger, then Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith, announced in The Ratzinger Report that as a private theologian he rejected the claim that children who die unbaptised cannot attain salvation, he was speaking for many academic theologians of his background and pre-conciliar training. Thus by 1992 the Catechism of the Catholic Church could express the hope that children who die unbaptised might still be saved: 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (b. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference...

As regards children who have died without baptism, the Church can only entrust them to the mercy of God, as she does in her funeral rites for them. Indeed, the great mercy of God, who desires that all men should be saved, and Jesus' tenderness toward children, which caused him to say, 'Let the children come to me, do not hinder them' [Mark 10:14, cf. 1 Tim. 2:4], allow us to hope that there is a way of salvation for children who have died without baptism. All the more urgent is the Church's call not to prevent little children coming to Christ through the gift of holy baptism.[8]

On April 22, 2007, the Roman Catholic Church has released a document which said that "limbo reflected a very restrictive view of salvation". The 41 page document, which was published on 20 April 2007 has been authorized by the Pope.[2] April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ...


Limbo in other denominations and religions

The Limbo of Children is a Roman Catholic concept; Protestant and Orthodox denominations do not accept it.[9] Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ...


Martin Luther, [[Jehovah's Witnesses]Regarding Jehovah's witnesses, this is not what they believe because the Bible teaches (See Ecclesiastes 9:5,6 and Psalms 146: 3,4.) that any person that dies, child or adult, goes to Sheol or Hades(the Hebrew and Greek words for the common grave of mankind), until the ressurection of them takes place, some to heaven and others to everlasting life on earth. Jehovah God does the choosing.]the article states,(according to speculations by many eminent Roman Catholic theologians. Saint Thomas Aquinas described the limbo of children as an eternal state of natural joy, untempered by any sense of loss at how much greater their joy might have been had they been baptized.) This theory does not agree in anyway with the teachings of the Bible. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ...


Christadelphians, and others have taught that the dead are unconscious (or even nonexistent), awaiting their destiny on Judgment Day. Since the dead, in this view, are neither rewarded nor punished (yet), that state is similar to limbo. The Christadelphians (From the Greek Brothers in Christ) are a Christian denomination who are nontrinitarian in their beliefs. ... Soul sleep is a belief held by some Christians claiming that between death and the resurrection of the dead, the body and soul rest together in unconsciousness. ... This article or section should be merged with End times and Last judgment The Last Judgement - Tympanum sculpture at the Abbey Church of Ste-Foy, Conques-en-Rouergue, France In Christian eschatology, the Last Judgement is the ethical-judicial trial, judgement, and punishment/reward of individual humans (assignment to heaven...


The Zoroastrian concept of hamistagan is similar to limbo. Hamistagan is a neutral state in which a soul that was neither good nor evil awaits Judgment Day. Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... As described in the 9th century Zoroastrian text Dadestan-i Denig (Religious Decisions)[1], hamistagan is a neutral place or state for the departed souls of those whose good deeds and bad deeds were equal in life. ... This article or section should be merged with End times and Last judgment The Last Judgement - Tympanum sculpture at the Abbey Church of Ste-Foy, Conques-en-Rouergue, France In Christian eschatology, the Last Judgement is the ethical-judicial trial, judgement, and punishment/reward of individual humans (assignment to heaven...


Discordianism considers Limbo to be the dwelling place of the goddess Eris. Discordianism is a modern, chaos-centered religion founded circa 1958–1959 by Malaclypse the Younger with the publication of its principal text, the Principia Discordia. ... Eris (ca. ...


Limbo in literature

In the Divine Comedy, Dante depicts Limbo as the first circle of Hell, located beyond the river Acheron but before the judgment seat of Minos. The virtuous pagans of classical history and mythology inhabit a brightly lit and beautiful — but somber — castle which is seemingly a medieval version of Elysium. In the same work, a semi-infernal region, above Limbo on the other side of Acheron, but inside the Gate of Hell, also exists — it is the "vestibule" of Hell and houses so-called "neutralists" or "opportunists," who devoted their lives neither to good nor to evil; its residents include those angels who did not fight at all in the war that resulted in the expulsion of Lucifer from Heaven, and also Celestine V, one of the few Popes in Vatican history to have abdicated (interestingly, however, Celestine was later canonized and is now known as St. Peter Celestine). Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, in Michelinos fresco. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... The Acheron is located in the Epirus region of northwest Greece. ... In Greek mythology, Elysium (Greek: ) was a section of the Underworld (the spelling Elysium is a Latinization of the Greek word Elysion). ... Lucifer, as depicted in Collin de Plancys Dictionnaire Infernal (1863). ... Celestine V, né Pietro di Morrone (1215 - May 19, 1296) was pope in the year 1294. ... The Pope (or Pope of Rome) (from Latin: papa, Papa, father; from Greek: papas / = priest originating from πατήρ = father )[1] is the Bishop of Rome and the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Limbo as a colloquialism

Taken from the original meaning, in colloquial speech, "limbo" is any status where a person or project is held up, and nothing can be done until another action happens. For example, a construction project might be described as "in limbo" if political considerations delay its permit. A colloquialism is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... In large construction projects, such as skyscrapers, cranes are essential. ... A Construction permit is a permit needed in many jurisdictions for new construction, or adding onto pre-existing structures. ...


A "legal limbo" may occur when varying laws or court rulings leave a person without recourse. For example, a person may earn "too much" to receive public assistance from the government, but not enough to actually pay for basic necessities. Likewise, various parties in a dispute may be pointing blame at each other, rather than fixing the problem, and leaving the person or group suffering from the problem to continue to suffer in limbo. Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... Look up rule in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Welfare is financial assistance paid by taxpayers to groups of people who are unable to support themselves, and determined to be able to function more effectively with financial assistance. ... To Blame is to hold another person or group responsible for perceived faults, be those faults real, imagined, or merely invented for perjorative purposes. ...


The Amstrad PCW's bundled word processing software, LocoScript, used the term "in limbo" to refer to files which had been deleted but which could still be restored, a concept similar to that later implemented by the Trash in the Apple Macintosh and the Recycle Bin in Microsoft Windows 95. On the PCW, the files "in limbo" were marked as belonging to CP/M Plus users 8 to 15. These files were deleted automatically when the space they occupied was needed. It could therefore be dangerous to access a disk containing files created with CP/M Plus using LocoScript, since LocoScript could decide to delete anything in users 8 to 15. Amstrad PCW8512 Schneider Joyce The Amstrad PCW series (Personal Computer Word processor) was British company Amstrads versatile line of home/personal microcomputers pitched as a complete, integrated home/office solution. ... The opening Disc Management screen in LocoScript 1. ... Look up trash in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... In the Microsoft Windows operating systems, the recycle bin is a holding area for files that are to be deleted from a storage device. ... The Start button made its debut in Windows 95. ...


In the licensing of houses in multiple occupation (HMOs), properties registered under a previous scheme, but would not be licensable under mandatory arrangements, would go into a state of limbo when they expire, until the status of any potential additional licensing scheme is fully resolved. Houses in multiple occupation is a British English term which refers to residential property where ‘common areas’ exist and are shared by more than one household. ...


See also

Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré. Dante described purgatory as having seven terraces, each to purge a different sin. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180) Hell, according to many religious beliefs, is an afterlife of suffering where the wicked or unrighteous dead are punished. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Pullella, Philip. Catholic Church buries limbo after centuries. Reuters. News.Yahoo.com. Retrieved 2007-04-20.
  2. ^ a b c d e Catholic News Service (April 20, 2007). "Vatican commission: Limbo reflects 'restrictive view of salvation'". Retrieved 2007-04-20.
  3. ^ New York Times (April 21, 2007) "Vatican City: Pope Closes Limbo". Retrieved 2007-04-21
  4. ^ On Merit and the Forgiveness of Sins, and the Baptism of Infants, by St. Augustine
  5. ^ Council of Trent, Session 6
  6. ^ Dictionnaire de Théologie Catholique, Volume 2, 'Baptême', columns 305-6.
  7. ^ "Other emergency means of baptism for children dying without sacramental baptism, such as prayer and the desire of the parents or the Church (vicarious baptism of desire - Cajetan), or the attainment of the use of reason in the moment of death, so that the dying child can decide for or against God (baptism of desire - H. Klee), or suffering and death of the child as quasi-Sacrament (baptism of suffering - H. Schell), are indeed possible, but their actuality cannot be proved from Revelation. Cf. D 712." Ludwig Ott, Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma, Book 2, Section 2, § 25 (p. 114 of the 1963 edition)
  8. ^ CCC #1261
  9. ^ Limbo: Recent statements by the Catholic church; Protestant views on Limbo at Religioustolerance.org

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ...

References

This article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913. (Limbo)

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