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Encyclopedia > Limbic system
Brain: Limbic system
The limbic system within the brain.
NeuroNames ancil-247
Dorlands/Elsevier s_33/12787580

The limbic system is a historically defined set of brain structures that support a variety of functions including emotion and memory. The term "limbic" comes from Latin limbus, meaning "border" or "edge". Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Brain_limbicsystem. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... NeuroNames is a system of nomenclature for the brain and related structures. ... Elseviers logo. ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Anatomy

The limbic system includes many structures in the cerebral cortex and sub-cortex of the brain. Different books list different sets of structures. However, the following structures are mostly considered to be part of the limbic system: For other uses, see Cortex. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ...


In addition, these structures are sometimes also considered to be part of the limbic system: Look up Amygdala in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The hippocampus is structurally located inside the medial temporal lobe of the brain. ... Long-term memory (LTM) is memory, stored as meaning, that can last as little as 30 seconds or as long as decades. ... The parahippocampal gyrus (or hippocampal gyrus) is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus. ... The hippocampus is structurally located inside the medial temporal lobe of the brain. ... Cingulate gyrus is a gyrus in the medial part of the brain. ... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... This article is about psychological concept of attention. ... The fornix is also the name of part of the cervix. ... The hippocampus is structurally located inside the medial temporal lobe of the brain. ... The mammillary bodies (Latin: corpus mamillare) are a pair of small round bodies in the brain forming part of the limbic system. ... The septal nuclei are structures in the middle anteroventral cerebrum that are composed of medium-sized neurons and which are grouped into medial, lateral, and posterior groups. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold, usually followed by a desire to eat. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Turn on redirects here. ... A circadian rhythm is a roughly-24-hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria. ... The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος = bedroom, chamber, IPA= /ˈθæləməs/) is a pair and symmetric part of the brain. ...

The mammillary bodies (Latin: corpus mamillare) are a pair of small round bodies in the brain forming part of the limbic system. ... The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (sellar diaphragm) at the base of the brain. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system, especially a living organism, which regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition. ... The dentate gyrus is part of the hippocampal formation. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... The entorhinal cortex (EC) is an important memory center in the brain. ... In anatomy of animals, the piriform cortex, or pyriform cortex is a region in the brain. ... The olfactory system is the sensory system used for olfaction. ... The Fornicate Gyrus is connected to the amydala, the mid region of the parietal region of the skull. ... The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors. ... The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the septum), is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... Heroin bottle An addiction is a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity, despite harmful consequences to the individuals health, mental state or social life. ... The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a region of association cortex of the human brain involved in cognitive processes such as decision making. ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ...

Function

The limbic system operates by influencing the endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system. It is highly interconnected with the nucleus accumbens, the brain's pleasure center, which plays a role in sexual arousal and the "high" derived from certain recreational drugs. These responses are heavily modulated by dopaminergic projections from the limbic system. In 1954, Olds and Milner found that rats with metal electrodes implanted into their nucleus accumbens repeatedly pressed a lever activating this region, and did so in preference to eating and drinking, eventually dying of exhaustion.[4] Major endocrine glands. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the septum), is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... The limbic system is a group of brain structures that are involved in various emotions such as aggression, fear, pleasure and also in the formation of memory. ... Turn on redirects here. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ...


The limbic system is also tightly connected to the prefrontal cortex. Some scientists contend that this connection is related to the pleasure obtained from solving problems. To cure severe emotional disorders, this connection was sometimes surgically severed, a procedure of psychosurgery, called a prefrontal lobotomy (this is actually a misnomer). Patients who underwent this procedure often became passive and lacked all motivation. “Prefrontal” redirects here. ... Psychosurgery is a term for surgeries of the brain involving procedures that modulate the performance of the brain, and thus effect changes in cognition, with the intent to treat or alleviate severe mental illness. ... A human brain that had undergone leukotomy. ...


There is circumstantial evidence that the limbic system also provides a custodial function for the maintenance of a healthy conscious state of mind. Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ...


Evolution

The limbic system is embryologically older than other parts of the brain. It developed to manage 'fight' or 'flight' chemicals and is an evolutionary necessity for reptiles as well as humans. Reptilia redirects here. ... This article is about modern humans. ...


Recent studies of the limbic system of tetrapods have challenged some long-held tenets of forebrain evolution. The common ancestors of reptiles and mammals had a well-developed limbic system in which the basic subdivisions and connections of the amygdalar nuclei were established.[5] Classes Synapsida Sauropsida Amphibia A tetrapod (Greek tetrapoda, four-legged) is a vertebrate animal having four feet, legs or leglike appendages. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary...


History

The French physician Paul Broca first called this part of the brain "le grand lobe limbique" in 1878,[6] but most of its putative role in emotion was developed only in 1937 when the American physician James Papez described his anatomical model of emotion, the Papez circuit.[7] Paul D. MacLean expanded these ideas to include additional structures in a more dispersed "limbic system," more on the lines of the system described above.[8] The concept of the limbic system has since been further expanded and developed by Nauta, Heimer and others. Paul Pierre Broca (June 28, 1824 - July 9, 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist. ... Dr. James Papez Dr. James Papez (1883-1958) was a famous American neuroanatomist. ... Papez Circuit Described by James Papez in 1937, the Papez circuit of the brain is one of the major pathways of the limbic system. ... Paul D. MacLean (born in Phelps, New York on May 1, 1913) is the third of four sons of a Presbyterian minister. ...


See also

Emotional memory is an element of the Stanislavski System, an approach to acting. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Normandy
  2. ^ a b c d e stanford.edu
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Biology.about.com
  4. ^ Olds, J., Milner, P. 1954. Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. J.Comp. Physiolo. Psycholo. 47, 419- 427
  5. ^ Bruce LL, Neary TJ (1995). "The limbic system of tetrapods: a comparative analysis of cortical and amygdalar populations". Brain Behav. Evol. 46 (4-5): 224-34. PMID 8564465. 
  6. ^ Broca, P. Anatomie comparée des circonvolutions cérébrales: le grand lobe limbique. Rev. Anthropol. 1878;1:385-498.
  7. ^ Papez JW. A proposed mechanism of emotion. 1937. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1995;7(1):103-12. PMID 7711480
  8. ^ Maclean, PD. Some psychiatric implications of physiological studies on frontotemporal portion of limbic system (visceral brain). Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1952;4(4):407-18. PMID 12998590

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