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Encyclopedia > Lima
Lima
Flag of Lima
Flag
Official seal of Lima
Seal
Nickname: City of the Kings
Motto: Hoc signum vere regum est
Lima Province and Lima within Peru
Lima Province and Lima within Peru
Coordinates: 12°02.6′S 77°1.7′W / -12.0433, -77.0283
Country Flag of Peru Peru
Region Lima Region
Province Lima Province
Settled January 18, 1535
Government
 - Mayor Luis Castañeda Lossio
Area
 - City 804.3 km² (310.5 sq mi)
 - Water 75.7 km² (29.2 sq mi)  5.8%
 - Urban 4,319.9 km² (1,667.9 sq mi)
Elevation 0 - 1,548 m (0 - 5,079 ft)
Population (2006)[1][2]
 - City 7,819,436
 - Density 8,544/km² (22,128.9/sq mi)
 - Urban 7,629,407
 - Metro 9,241,961
Time zone PET (UTC-5)
Website: www.munlima.gob.pe

Lima is the capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, on a coast overlooking the Pacific Ocean. It forms a contiguous urban area with the seaport of Callao. Lima is the name of several places: Paraguay Lima District, Paraguay Peru Lima, capital of the country Lima Region Lima Province Lima District, the downtown district of Lima Portugal Lima is a designated wine region in the Vinho Verde region including the towns of Arcos-de-Valdevez, Ponte de Barca... Flag of Lima, Peru The flag of Lima consists of a gold background. ... Image File history File links Escudolima. ... EXAMPLE:Laughbox,Blondie,BamBam,Pinkie,etc. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Lima Province is located in the central coast of Peru and is the only province in the country not belonging to any of the twenty-five regions. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... The Subdivisions of Peru have changed from time to time, since the nation gained independence from Spain in the early 19th century. ... The Lima Region, also known as Lima Provincias, is one of twenty-five regions in Peru. ... Map of the Peruvian provinces The provinces of Peru, known in Spanish as provincias, are the second-level administrative subdivisions of the country. ... Lima Province is located in the central coast of Peru and is the only province in the country not belonging to any of the twenty-five regions. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... pie is nice Year 1535 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The following is a list of Limas mayors through the 20th and 21st centuries. ... Luis Castañeda Lossio is the current mayor of Lima, Peru. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Not to be confused with capitol. ... The Chillón River is a river located in western Peru. ... Rímac river valley The Rímac river is a river in Peru. ... Lima and Callao from space The Lima Metropolitan Area (Spanish: Área Metropolitana de Lima, also known as Gran Lima (Greater Lima) or Lima Metropolitana), is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian cities of Lima (the nations capital) and Callao. ... Callao (Spanish: El Callao) is the largest and most important port in Peru. ...


Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535, as the City of the Kings. It became the most important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru and, after the Peruvian War of Independence, the capital of the Republic of Peru. Today around one-third of the Peruvian population lives in its metropolitan area. A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro González should not be confused with another Francisco Pizarro who joined Hernán Cortés to conquer the Aztecs. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... pie is nice Year 1535 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) contained most of Spanish-ruled South America until the creation of the separate viceroyalties of New Granada (now Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela, the last-named previously in the Viceroyalty of New Spain) in 1717 and Río... The economic crisis favored the indigenous rebellion from 1780 to 1781. ...

Contents

Etymology

The first name of the city was City of the Kings (Spanish: Ciudad de los Reyes) because its foundation was decided on January 6, date of the feast of the Epiphany. However, Lima, the original native name, persisted. It is uncertain where this name originated; it may derive either from the Aymara word lima–limaq, (yellow flower) or from Quechuan rimaq (talking), pronounced IPA: ['li-ma:] in the ancient local variety. In the oldest Spanish maps of Peru, Lima and Ciudad de los Reyes can be seen together as names of the city. The river that feeds Lima is still called Rimac, Quechua for "Talking river". The Wise Men (Magi) adoring the infant Jesus. ... The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ... Quechua (Runa Simi in Quechua; Runa, human + Simi, speech, literally mouth; i. ...


History

Main article: History of Lima
Pachacamac temple.
Pachacamac temple.

During the early 16th century, the location of what is now the city of Lima was inhabited by several amerindian groups under the domination of the Inca Empire. In 1532, a group of Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated the Inca ruler and took over his empire. Pizarro initially chose the city of Jauja as his capital but found a better site in the valley of the Rímac River. There he founded his new capital on January 18, 1535 as Ciudad de los Reyes. The city gained prestige as it was designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. Its first university, Saint Mark University was established in 1551 and its first printing press in 1584. It also became an important religious center, a Roman Catholic diocese was established in 1541 and converted to an archdiocese five years later. Jirón de la Unión was the main street of Lima in the 1930s. ... Pachacamac empire The ancient city of Pachacamac is a ruin 40 km southeast of Lima, Peru in the Valley of the Lurín River. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro González should not be confused with another Francisco Pizarro who joined Hernán Cortés to conquer the Aztecs. ... The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was a process through which a group of Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro succeeded in toppling the Inca Empire in the early 16th-century. ... Jauja is a town of 25,000 people in central Peru, capital of a province with a population of 105,000. ... Rímac river valley The Rímac river is a river in Peru. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... pie is nice Year 1535 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) contained most of Spanish-ruled South America until the creation of the separate viceroyalties of New Granada (now Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela, the last-named previously in the Viceroyalty of New Spain) in 1717 and Río... An Real Audiencia (Spanish: Royal Audiency) was a Judicial District that functioned as an Appeals Court. ... National University of San Marcos or University of Saint Mark [1] (Spanish: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (UNMSM), or simply San Marcos) is a public university in Lima, Peru. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Lima Cathedral is the Cathedral seat of the Archbishop of Lima The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lima is part of the Roman Catholic Church in Peru which enjoys full communion with the Holy See. ...


The city flourished during the 17th century as the center of an extensive trade network which extended as far as Europe and the Philippines.[3] However, it also suffered considerable damage from two earthquakes in 1630 and 1687. Another danger was the presence of pirates and privateers in the Pacific Ocean. To protect the city against them, Viceroy Melchor de Navarra y Rocafull built a wall around it between 1684 and 1687. In the 18th century, Lima had to be rebuilt after being almost completely destroyed by an earthquake on October 28, 1746. This natural disaster led to the appearance of an intense devotion for the Lord of the Miracles, which has endured until today. This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... Melchor de Navarra y Rocafull, duque de de la Palata, príncipe de Massa (sometimes Melchor de Navarra y Rocaful) (1626, Aragon—April 13, 1691, Portobelo, Panama) was a Spanish politician. ... Lima City Walls are complex of walls, towers and cannons built during the Spanish colonial regime to ensure protection of the town against rally attacks from pirates of the 16th and 17th centuries. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ...

Map of Lima surrounded by its city walls in 1750.
Map of Lima surrounded by its city walls in 1750.

On July 28, 1821, José de San Martín declared the independence of Peru. After the war, endemic political turmoil and lack of economic resources slowed Lima's recovery. In the mid 19th century, an economic boom sustained on guano exports allowed several improvements to the city. In 1872, the city walls were torn down to make way for the expansion of the city. During the 1879–1883 War of the Pacific, Chilean troops occupied Lima after defeating Peruvian resistance in the battles of San Juan and Miraflores destroying and burning some parts of the city. The city went through a process of urban renewal and expansion from the 1890s up to the 1920s. In the 1940s, the city started a period of rapid growth spurred by immigration from the Andean regions of Peru. Population, estimated at 600,000 in 1940, doubled by 1960 and again by 1980. Growth far outstripped public services development, giving rise to large shanty towns, known as pueblos jóvenes. Lima City Walls are complex of walls, towers and cannons built during the Spanish colonial regime to ensure protection of the town against rally attacks from pirates of the 16th and 17th centuries. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... José Francisco de San Martín Matorras, also known as José de San Martín (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850), was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South Americas successful struggle for independence from Spain. ... The economic crisis favored the indigenous rebellion from 1780 to 1781. ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ... For the conflict between Japan and the Allied powers in Asia and the Pacific Ocean from 1937 to 1945, which included World War II campaigns, see Pacific War. ... Combatants Spain United States Commanders Unknown William T. Sampson Strength 3 gunboats 7 battleships 1 torpedo boat 4 support vessels Casualties 7 dead (5 civilian) 57 wounded 2 dead 7 wounded The Battle of San Juan, not to be confused with the Battle of San Juan Hill, refers to an... Combatants  Chile  Peru Commanders Manuel Baquedano Patricio Lynch Emilio Sotomayor Baeza Pedro Lagos Nicolás de Piérola Andrés Avelino Cáceres Belisario Suárez Justo Pastor Dávila Strength ~ 10,000 - 13,000 soldiers 88 cannons 8000 soldiers Casualties 2,124 killed 3,000 killed The Battle of... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Geography

The Rímac River runs through the city.
The Rímac River runs through the city.

The urban area of Lima covers about 800 km². It is located on mostly flat terrain in the Peruvian coastal plain, within the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers. The city slopes gently from the shores of the Pacific Ocean into valleys and mountain slopes located as high as 500 meters above mean sea level. Within the city exist isolated hills which are not connected to the surrounding hill chains, such as El Agustino, San Cosme, El Pino, La Milla, Muleria and Pro hills. The San Cristobal hill, which directly faces north of the downtown area, is the local extreme of an Andean hill outgrowth. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Rímac river valley The Rímac river is a river in Peru. ... The Sechura desert is a desert ecoregion of coastal Peru. ... The Chillón River is a river located in western Peru. ... Rímac river valley The Rímac river is a river in Peru. ...


Metropolitan Lima has an area of 2672.28 km², of which 825.88 km² (31%) comprise the actual city and 1846.40 km² (69%) the city outskirts. The urban area extends around 60 km from north to south and around 30 km from west to east. The city center is located 15 km inland at the shore of the Rimac river, a vital resource for the city, since it carries what will become drinking water for its inhabitants and fuels the hydroelectrical dams that provide electricity to the area. While no official administrative definition for the city exists, it is usually considered to be composed of the central 30 out of the 43 districts of Lima Province, corresponding to an urban area centered on the historic Cercado de Lima district. The city is the core of the Lima Metropolitan Area, one of the ten largest metropolitan areas in the Americas. Lima Province is located in the central coast of Peru and is the only province in the country not belonging to any of the twenty-five regions. ... Lima is the downtown district of the city of Lima, Peru. ... Lima and Callao from space The Lima Metropolitan Area (Spanish: Área Metropolitana de Lima, also known as Gran Lima (Greater Lima) or Lima Metropolitana), is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian cities of Lima (the nations capital) and Callao. ... This is a list of the largest metropolitan areas in the Americas. ...


Climate

Weather averages for Lima International Airport.
Weather averages for Lima International Airport.

Lima's climate is quite mild, despite being located in the Tropics. Lima has a subtropical and desert climate, yet the microclimate also makes it very humid. The temperatures vary from mild to warm (neither very cold or hot).The average temperature is 18 °C to 19 °C (60–65 °F). The lowest temperatures vary from 12 °C (50 °F) to around 20 °C (68 °F) and the high average is around 25 °C (78 °F), with 30 °C (86 °F) in the warmest of days. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... This article is about arid terrain. ...


Relative humidity is very high, and produces brief morning fog from June to December and persistent low clouds from May to November. Sunny, less moist and warm summers follow from December to April and are followed by cloudy, damp and cool winters (June to October). Rainfall is almost unknown. The yearly average of 0.7 cm (0.3in) reported at the airport is the lowest of any large metropolitan area in the world. Inland locations receive 1 to 6 cm of rainfall, which accumulates mainly during the winter months. Summer rain occurs in the form of isolated light and brief afternoon or evening events, leftover from afternoon storms that generate over the Andes. The peak of the 'rainy season,' which really does not apply, occurs during winter when late-night/morning drizzle events (locally called 'garúa','llovizna' or 'camanchacas') become frequent. All these climatic phenomena arise from the combination of semi-permanent coastal upwelling and the presence of the cold Humboldt Current just offshore. camanchacas: a cloud bank that forms in some parts of S. America along the east coast of S. America. ... ...


One thing to take into consideration is that because of the coast, hills and valleys, there is no single climate for all of Lima. For example, in winter the Surco area of Lima, which is closer to the coast, will be cool and damp. In contrast, the more elevated next district, La Molina, will be warmer and drier. The Cieneguilla area, about 30 minutes drive to the east of La Molina, provides sunshine and spring-like weather seemingly year round. Lima is described as having micro-climates: while winter is generally winter in all of Lima, a 30 minute drive in any direction can result in a slightly warmer, drier, wetter or colder area depending on the elevation and distance to the coast. The same is true for the other seasons.


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Lima
Slums in the outskirts of Lima.
Slums in the outskirts of Lima.

Lima ranks as the nineteenth most populous city in the world with an estimated population of 7.6 million for the urban area, 7.8 million for the entire province, and 9.2 million for the metropolitan area as of 2005.[4] Its population features a very complex mix of racial and ethnic groups. Traditionally, Mestizos of mixed European (mostly Spanish) and Amerindian descent are the largest contingent. The second group has its origins in Europe, mostly of Spanish descent, but there are significant numbers of Italians, Germans, and Middle Easterners. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 525 pixels Full resolution (1788 × 1173 pixel, file size: 539 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pueblos jóvenes Talk:Lima... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 525 pixels Full resolution (1788 × 1173 pixel, file size: 539 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pueblos jóvenes Talk:Lima... This is a list of the most populous cities of the world defined according to the concept of city proper. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Lima Province is located in the central coast of Peru and is the only province in the country not belonging to any of the twenty-five regions. ... Lima and Callao from space The Lima Metropolitan Area (Spanish: Área Metropolitana de Lima, also known as Gran Lima (Greater Lima) or Lima Metropolitana), is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian cities of Lima (the nations capital) and Callao. ... Mestizo (Brazil Portuguese. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


The first settlement in what would become Lima was made up of only 117 housing blocks. In 1562, another district was built at the other side of the Rimac River and in 1610, the first stone bridge was built. Lima had, at this point in time, around 1600 inhabitants.


In 1861, the amount of inhabitants surpassed 100,000, and by 1927 this amount was doubled.


During the early twenty century thousands of immigrants came to the city especially from Europe a significant number of French, Italians and Germans, many of them had been adpating to the Peruvian society. They organized in social clubs, and they built their own schools; for example, The American Peruvian school which is located in Miraflores, The French Alliance (Alianza Francesa de Lima)and the hospital Maison de Sante. they also has influenced in part of the Peruvian cuisine in the case of italians they founded reataurants called Trattorias they established in the suburbs of Lima especially in Miraflores and San Isidro.


Also a great number of Chinese and Japanese immigrants established themselves in the city, in the Barrios Altos neighborhood near downtown Lima, coming in order to work in farms and domestic services, and built a street called Calle Capon which is full of Chinese food restaurants called Chifas. Today there are two Chinese newspapers in the city, and approximately 10% of the Peruvian population is Chinese.


The 50’s saw the exponential increase of the city inhabitants, most of them Andean immigrants and their descendants, who settled in the northern and southern outskirts. The political and economic instability in Peru during the latter half of the twentieth century created unprecedented poverty and violence in the towns of the countryside or Andean highlands, forcing hundreds of thousands of peasants of full-blooded Amerindian descent to migrate to Lima — thus greatly augmenting Lima's population.[5] In the 70’s, the lacking transportation facilities for the newcomers who had to travel for hours on end to reach the city center became a problem, and it was decided that Lima should not expand any further. The word Andean refers to the geographic area in and around the Andes Mountains of South America, and to the indigenous peoples that inhabit the area, such as the Inca. ...


Unlike other ethnic groups in Lima who speak only Spanish, most of the peasant population that migrated to Lima speaks primarily Quechua or Aymara, rather than Spanish. While a number of Amerindians eventually attain middle class status, others still live in shantytowns, known locally as pueblos jóvenes (young towns). These areas often lack such basic services as electricity and running water. Afro-Peruvians, initially brought to the region as slaves, are yet another part of the city's ethnic quilt, and Asians, an even smaller one. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term Asian can refer to something or someone from Asia. ...


Economy

San Isidro District is the main financial area of the city.
View Skyline of Lima.

Lima is the industrial and financial center of Peru. It concentrates more than two thirds of its industrial production and most of its tertiary sector, and is home to many national companies. High-rise buildings dominate the skyline San Isidro is a district of the Lima Province in Peru, and one of the upscale districts that comprise the city of Lima. ... The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ...


The Metropolitan area, with around 7000 factories, spearheads the industrial development of the country, thanks to the quantity and quality of the available workforce, cheap infrastructure and the mostly developed routes and highways in the city. The most relevant industrial sectors are textiles, clothing and food. Chemicals, fish, leather and oil derivatives are also manufactured and/or processed there. Unlike most other metropolitan areas, its financial district is not located downtown, but in the upscale district of San Isidro. The workforce is the labour pool in employment. ... San Isidro is the name of a number of places: The town of San Isidro, Davao Oriental, Philippines the district of San Isidro, in Lima, Peru the district of San Isidro, in Buenos Aires, Argentina This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise...


The Callao seaport is one of the main fishing and commerce ports in South America, with 75% of the country's imports and exports using it as their entry/departure point. The main export goods leaving the country through Callao are oil, steel, silver, zinc, cotton, sugar and coffee. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ...


In 2004, Lima's GDP represented 45% of the country's GDP (5% more than the previous year). The GDP per capita was also higher in Lima (3525 dollars) than in the rest of the country (2625 dollars). Most of the foreign companies operating in the country have settled in Lima, which has led to the previously mentioned concentration of economic and financial activity on the city. GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ...


Districts

Main article: List of districts of Lima
Church in the Magdalena del Mar district
Church in the Magdalena del Mar district

Lima is made up of thirty densely-populated districts, each headed by a local mayor and the Mayor of Lima, whose authority extends to these and the thirteen outer districts of the Lima province. The Lima Province is divided into forty three districts (Spanish: ) that are administered by the Metropolitan Lima Municipal Council. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ...


The city's historic centre is located in the Cercado de Lima district, locally known as Lima district or "Centro" ("Downtown"), and it is home to most of the vestiges of Lima's colonial past, the Presidential Palace (Spanish: Palacio de Gobierno) and the metropolitan municipal council (Spanish: Consejo municipal metropolitano de Lima). Under Cunstruction!!!! PLEASE DO NOT EDIT!!! The Historic Center of Lima is one of the most important touristical destinations in Peru, and is located principally in the downtown or Cercado de Lima and Rimac areas. ... Lima is the downtown district of the city of Lima, Peru. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Central business district. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ...


The upscale San Isidro district is the city's financial center, there have been living people of recognized social life like politicians, councelors, in these district is located the Lima World Trade center with the principal banks of Peru and the world, there are many parks the most important is the Olivar Park with its olives plantations which were brought from Spain during the seventeenth century. San Isidro is the name of a number of places: The town of San Isidro, Davao Oriental, Philippines the district of San Isidro, in Lima, Peru the district of San Isidro, in Buenos Aires, Argentina This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise...


Other upscale district is Miraflores, with its expensive hotels and restaurants, it is the neighborhood with more parks and green areas in the south of Lima, the luxury hotels of Lima are located in this district and a shopping mall as Larcomar where there are a cinema movie, cafes, restaurants, its across from the Pacific Ocean. Miraflores is an affluent district of Lima, Peru. ...


La Molina and Santiago de Surco, home to the American Embassy and the exclusive Club Polo Lima, are the wealthiests districts in Lima. La Molina is a district of the Lima Province in Peru, and one of the upscale districts that comprise the city of Lima. ... Santiago de Surco, commonly known simply as Surco, is a district of Lima, Peru. ...


The most densely-populated districts of Lima lie in the northern and southern ends of the city (Spanish: Cono Norte and Cono Sur, respectively), and they are mostly composed of Andean immigrants who arrived during the mid and late 20th century looking for better living standards and economic opportunities, or as refugees of the country's internal conflict. in the case of Cono Norte(North Lima) in the last years some shopping malls like Megaplaza and Royal Plaza were built in the district of Los Olivos which is the most residential neighborhood in these part of Lima. Location of the Cono Norte in the Lima Metropolitan Area The Cono Norte is one of the six areas that make up the Lima Metropolitan Area. ... The term Southern Cone (Cono Sur) refers to the southernmost countries of South America. ...


Barranco is the city's bohemian district, home of many Peruvian writers and intellectuals like Mario Vargas Llosa, Chabuca Granda, Alfredo Bryce Echenique, in these district there are many restaurants of five stars specialized in Peruvian cuisine, some discos called peñas where people still listen peruvian vals, and afroperuvian music. Also there are beautiful chalets of Victorian style. It is located across from the Pacific Ocean.


Education

The city has the largest concentration of higher-education institutions in the country (28 universities) and schools with world-wide recognition. The National University of San Marcos, founded on May 12, 1551 during Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas. Other public universities also play key roles in teaching and research, such as the Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, among others. The Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, established in 1917, is the oldest private university. Other private institutions that are located in the city are Universidad de Lima, Universidad Científica del Sur, Universidad San Martín de Porres, Universidad del Pacifico, Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas and Universidad Ricardo Palma. National University of San Marcos or University of Saint Mark [1] (Spanish: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (UNMSM), or simply San Marcos) is a public university in Lima, Peru. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1551 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) contained most of Spanish-ruled South America until the creation of the separate viceroyalties of New Granada (now Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela, the last-named previously in the Viceroyalty of New Spain) in 1717 and Río... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM) is a state-owned university in Lima, Peru. ... Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería (UNI) is a prestigious engineering University in Lima, Peru. ... Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP) is a private university in Lima, Peru. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Universidad Científica del Sur, or UCSUR, is an educational and research institution that belongs to the Higher Education System of Perú. UCSUR is an emerging institution: it was founded on 1998. ... Universidad San Martin is a Peruvian football club, playing in the city of Lima. ... Universidad del Pacifico is a university in Chile. ... It has been suggested that Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University be merged into this article or section. ...


Transportation

Lima is serviced by air through Jorge Chávez International Airport, Peru's main hub for both national and international air traffic.[6] Normal transit on the Javier Prado av. ... LIM redirects here. ...


Private buses, commonly known as micros or combis, are ubiquitous and very inexpensive but their routes are confusing especially to foreigners. Combis are often crowded and poorly maintained. Numerous inter-urban bus companies offer transportation to other cities in Peru. Quality varies depending on the price, from luxury express buses to uncomfortable and crowded micros. A micro at Avenida José Pardo in Miraflores Micros, are the most common means of public transportation in Lima and many other cities in Peru. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ...


To improve the quality of taxis running in Lima, a new law[citation needed] has been promulgated forbidding the import of used cars; the city of Lima hopes that this law will promote the use of newer cars in the city, reducing vehicle emissions and smog. For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ...

Lima mass transit service (Lima Metro or Tren Urbano) currently in operation at Villa El Salvador lines.
Lima mass transit service (Lima Metro or Tren Urbano) currently in operation at Villa El Salvador lines.

Nowadays Lima's mayor is working on a new bus system called Metropolitano where all buses will have exclusive lines; it has been told that new buses must be acquired by the companies working in the metropolitan area, these buses will be bought from a Chinese company, the same company that sells buses to Italy. The mayor's hope is to see a new massive transport system in the next few years. Download high resolution version (874x574, 54 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (874x574, 54 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In the United States of America, transit describes local area common carrier passenger transportation configured to provide scheduled service on fixed routes on a non-reservation basis. ... The Urban Train of Lima The Urban Train of Lima is the electric mass transit system of Greater Lima, Peru. ... Villa El Salvador (VES) is an urban, largely residential district on the outskirts of Lima, Peru. ...


Lima has a rapid transit rail system in development called the Lima Metro; however, the project has been paralyzed since the 1980s, due to the economic crisis that Peru suffered more than 20 years ago. Nonetheless, in an agreement signed by Mayor Luis Castañeda and the former President Alejandro Toledo on February 17, 2005, it was concluded that the State would provide funding for finishing the Lima Metro. At the moment, a convocatoria (expression of interest) has been launched by government to give in concession what is left to be built of Line 1. The enterprise that would own the rights to build Line 1 will be announced on February, 2008. This line should be ready and working by 2009. The current project includes an above-ground mass-transit system which will link the downtown area with the financial district, San Isidro, and the southern suburbs. [7] The Urban Train of Lima The Urban Train of Lima is the electric mass transit system of Greater Lima, Peru. ... List of presidents of Peru : The Independence War 1821-1822: José de San Martín 1822-1823: José de La Mar 1823: Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano 1823: José de la Riva Agüero 1823-1824: José Bernardo de Tagle 1824-1826: Simón Bolívar 1826-1827: Andrés... Alejandro Toledo (Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique) (born 28 March 1946) is a Peruvian politician. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Urban Train of Lima The Urban Train of Lima is the electric mass transit system of Greater Lima, Peru. ... In the United States of America, transit describes local area common carrier passenger transportation configured to provide scheduled service on fixed routes on a non-reservation basis. ...

Culture

Cathedral of Lima at night.

The Historic centre of Lima was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988 due to its large number of historical buildings dating from the Spanish colonial era. In particular, the Plaza Mayor, with the 16th century Cathedral and the Presidential Palace, and the catacombs of the Convento de San Francisco are popular tourist attractions. Like many other world capitals, Lima is home to the most prestigious Peruvian museums: including the National Museum of Anthropology, Archeology, and History and the Rafael Larco Herrera Archaeological Museum, both in the Pueblo Libre district; and the Museum of the Nation. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 400 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lima ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 400 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lima ... Lima Cathedral during the night The Lima Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral located in the Main Plaza of downtown Lima, Peru. ... Under Cunstruction!!!! PLEASE DO NOT EDIT!!! The Historic Center of Lima is one of the most important touristical destinations in Peru, and is located principally in the downtown or Cercado de Lima and Rimac areas. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Lima Cathedral during the night The Lima Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral located in the Main Plaza of downtown Lima, Peru. ... Peruvian Government Palace, Lima, Peru The Government Palace or House of Pizarro (Palacio de Gobierno or Casa de Pizarro in Spanish) is a building in Peru. ... The San Franciso Monastery in Lima, Peru, boasts 17th century Spanish architecture. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Pueblo Libre is a district of the Lima Province in Peru and one of the districts that comprise the city of Lima. ...

Plaza Mayor de Lima.

Many small beaches, which are heavily visited during the summer months, are located along the southern Pan-American Highway. The most well-known ones are located in the districts of Santa María del Mar, Punta Hermosa, Punta Negra, San Bartolo and Pucusana. And Lima's wealthy families usually go during summer to the highly exclusive beaches of Asia 97 kilometers south of Lima. Also, the district of Ancón, located north of the city, has a very popular beach resort. Numerous restaurants, clubs and hotels have been opened in these places to serve the many beachgoers. The beaches in Lima itself are not suitable for swimming because the city's sewage is dumped raw into the ocean. The Pan American Highway from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to Ushuaia, Argentina. ... Santa María del Mar is a district in southern Lima Province in Peru. ... -1... The Peruvian district of Punta Negra is one of the 43 districts of the Province of Lima. ... San Bartolo is a municipality in the Totonicapán department of Guatemala. ... Pucusana is a district in southern Lima Province in Peru. ... The Asia District is one of 16 that comforms Cañete Province, in Peru. ... Ancón is a district located 40 km north of downtown Lima in Peru. ...


The suburban district of Cieneguilla and the town of Chosica (in the Lurigancho District) provide attractive green landscapes at a short distance from the city. Because of their elevation (over 500 meters), the sun shines in these areas even during winter and hence they are visited by residents of Lima to escape from the winter fog. Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... The Peruvian district of Cienguilla is one of the 43 districts that make up the Lima Province. ... Lurigancho is one of the 43 districts in Lima. ...


Lima has a varied culinary tradition, which fuses Andean and Spanish culinary traditions, as well as some African, Asian (mainly Chinese and Japanese), French, Italian and Muslim cuisine. The city is rapidly becoming world-famous for its seafood and unique vegetables, Creole, Peruvian–Chinese (called chifa) and fusion cuisine.


Sister cities

Lima Skyline
Lima Skyline
Lima in the evening
Lima in the evening

List of sister cities, designated by Sister Cities International:[8] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Trabajo Propio. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Trabajo Propio. ... This article is about partnerships between towns distant from each other; see Twin cities for the different concept of physically neighbouring cities. ... Sister Cities International is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting and fostering town twinning, especially between cities in the United States and cities in other countries. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... For the cactus genus, see Oreocereus. ... - Peru (Spanish: República del Perú) is a country in western South America, bordering Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the east, south-east and south, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... This article is the city in Peru. ... - Peru (Spanish: República del Perú) is a country in western South America, bordering Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the east, south-east and south, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Piura: Plaza de Armas Piura is a city in northwestern Peru. ... - Peru (Spanish: República del Perú) is a country in western South America, bordering Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the east, south-east and south, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of sister cities in the United States. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Peking redirects here. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... This article is about the city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Honduras. ... Tegucigalpa IPA: (Tegus for short), population 1,200,000 (2006) (metro area), is the capital of Honduras (together with Comayagüela), and the countrys largest city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Akhisar (pronounced: ah-kee-sahr; or Tepe Mezarligi) is a district and a town center of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Coordinates: , Country State Foundation 1542 Government  - Mayor Alfonso Petersen Farah ( PAN) Area  - City 187. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... For other uses, see Bogotá (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... This article is about the country. ...

See also

Lima and Callao from space The Lima Metropolitan Area (Spanish: Área Metropolitana de Lima, also known as Gran Lima (Greater Lima) or Lima Metropolitana), is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian cities of Lima (the nations capital) and Callao. ... The following notable people were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with the city of Lima. ... Lima Province is divided into forty three districts (distritos) that are administered by the Metropolitan Lima Municipal Council. ... The following is a list of important sites of interest in and around the city of Lima, Peru. ...

References

  1. ^ Citypopulation.de Lima related information
  2. ^ www.emporis.com population charts
  3. ^ Margarita Suárez, Desafíos transatlánticos, pp. 252–253.
  4. ^ INEI - Por AÑOS ESTIMACIONES Y PROYECCIONES (2005)
  5. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica
  6. ^ Lima Airport Partners, Annual Report. Retrieved on July 8, 2007
  7. ^ Autoridad Autónoma del Proyecto Especial Sistema Eléctrico de Transporte Masivo de Lima y Callao, Tren Urbano de Lima. Retrieved on July 9, 2007.
  8. ^ Sister Cities International, Online Directory: Peru, Americas. Retrieved July 14, 2007

is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Coordinates: 12°02.6′S, 77°1.7′W Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Whats New in LIMA 6.0 (118 words)
Supplied with Access XP runtime (LIMA 4.0 was Access 97, Lima 2000 was Access 2.0)
This will require your existing LIMA data to be returned for upgrading.
All existing data is 100% compatible with LIMA v4.0 and will be migrated to the new version free of charge.
Lima (Peru) - MSN Encarta (1528 words)
Lima (Peru), city in west central Peru, capital and largest city of the country, located on the Pacific Ocean and adjacent to the Rímac River in Peru’s arid coastal region.
Lima’s metropolitan area has a population of 6.4 million, accounting for close to one-third of the nation’s total and a similar proportion of the country’s workforce.
Lima’s residents are spread among 33 separate municipal districts and the adjoining port of Callao.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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